Top PDF The Foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine

The Foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine

The Foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Maintaining the balance of the Yin-Yang equilibrium is also the concept of Tai Chi and can be illustrated in prac- tice by the Tao practitioners in the Tai Chi movements. Today, Tai Chi becomes a form of relaxation or de- stressing exercise which is sometimes known as the “Moving Meditation”. This is developed by a Taoist monk during the thirteenth century in ancient China. The principle of Tai Chi movement is based on the philoso- phy of Lao Tzu (Tao Teh Ching) and the Chinese medi- cine (TCM). In practicing Tai Chi, one performs certain prescribed movements and one must constantly maintain an upright and naturally balance posture (central equilib- rium) during the process. Hence, movements which are too extreme resulting in the out of balance body posture are avoided in this exercise. By doing so, it is said that Tai Chi would help to de-stress one’s body. Practicing Tai Chi regularly is said to be beneficial because the re- laxation exercise also promotes steady breathing, regu- lates blood circulation, and relieves tension by doing gentle movement of the body. Meditation in motion is also believed to help in refreshing and replenishing one’s energy to its normal level.
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Western constitutional medicine: a primer

Western constitutional medicine: a primer

The World has seen during the centuries the rise of many types of alternative medicines, which are now called traditional complementary and alternative medicines (TCAM). In the East, the most notorious are traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Unani, traditional Japanese medicine (TJM), Ayurveda, etc. On the other hand, Western Constitutional Medicine (WCM) is the one tradition that stands out for its use across the millennia. Also called Greek-Roman medicine, this was the foundation of Western medicine and has concepts that are still today the basis of all non-Western (Eastern) medicines: biotypology. But these distinct traditions are actually very similar among themselves, each with its own history and tradition. While much has been divulged about Eastern medicines, very little is acknowledged regarding WCM as, in the last 80 years, it has been almost completely forgotten. Herewith is an attempt to show the manifest similarities between these two major traditions of ancient medicine. Their resemblances (the concept of constitution and its use) highlight specific diagnostic and treatment modalities which are in common, although with peculiarities. The healing interventions heralded by these systems are based on nutritional (i.e., what they should tendentially eat and drink) and physical therapies depending on their constitution with the use of natural and herbal products.
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The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union ’ s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action on TCM research. This 3.5-year project that involved inputs from over 200 scientists resulted in the production of 20 editorials and in-depth reviews on different aspects of TCM that were published in a special issue of Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2012; volume 140, issue 3). In this narrative review, we aim to summarise the findings of the FP7 GP-TCM project and highlight the relevance of TCM to modern medicine within a historical and international context. Advances in TCM research since the 1950s can be characterised into three phases: Phase I (1950s-1970s) was fundamental for developing TCM higher education, research and hospital networks in China; Phase II (1980s-2000s) was critical for developing legal, economic and scientific foundations and international networks for TCM; and Phase III (2011 onwards) is concentrating on consolidating the scientific basis and clinical practice of TCM through interdisciplinary, interregional and intersectoral collaborations. Taking into account the quality and safety requirements newly imposed by a globalised market, we especially highlight the scientific evidence behind TCM, update the most important milestones and pitfalls, and propose integrity, integration and innovation as key principles for further modernisation of TCM. These principles will serve as foundations for further research and development of TCM, and for its future integration into tomorrow ’ s medicine.
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Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy on Acute Pancreatitis Treated with Combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine: A Meta Analysis

Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy on Acute Pancreatitis Treated with Combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine: A Meta Analysis

Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory reaction that activates pancreatic en- zymes in the pancreas and digests the pancreatic tissue. These pathological changes were composed to tissue edema, bleeding and even necrosis. Clinical features of the disease were included to acute epigastric pain, nausea, vomit, fev- er, and elevated serum trypsin. The pancreas produces chemical inflammation due to its own digestion, involving inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which in turn leads to pancreatic microcirculation and intestinal failure, intes- tinal mucosal barrier change, intestinal microflora translocation, and so on. Then, the disease was further aggravated, and traditional Chinese medicine preparations such as Qingyi decoction had the effects of soothing the liver and regulating qi, clearing heat and relieving defecation, restoring the function of the depleted intestine, promoting the elimination of toxins and inflammatory fac- tors, improving the intestinal microcirculation, and restoring the mucosal bar- rier function of the intestine. Chengtang Wu [1] found that Qingyi decoction could significantly reduce the pathological damage of pancreas and intestinal tissue of dogs. It also significantly inhibited the proliferation of Escherichia coli
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The Use of Chinese Herbal Products for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

The Use of Chinese Herbal Products for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

12. J. S. Yang; Wu, C. C.; Lee, H. Z.; Hsieh, W. T.; Tang, F. Y.; Bau, D. T.; Lai, K. C.; Lien, J. C.; Chung, J. G. Suppression of the TNF-alpha level is mediated by Gan-Lu-Yin (traditional Chinese medicine) in human oral cancer cells through the NF-kappa B, AKT, and ERK-dependent pathways. Environ Toxicol 2016, 31, 1196-1205,

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The therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine Fusu agent in LPS-induced acute lung injury model rats

The therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine Fusu agent in LPS-induced acute lung injury model rats

For treating ALI, TCM follows the therapeutic concepts of integrated and balanced treatment. Fusu agent is a newly developed oral medicine used in clinical practice in China to treat sepsis-associated ALI. Fusu agent, which is made from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx, Carapax Testudinis, Fructus Amomi, Rhizome Zingiberis, Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata and Herba Ephedrae, has been clinically used in China for curing ALI. In our previous study, it was revealed that pretreatment with Fusu agent inhibits the inflamma- tory factors, attenuates lung capillary leak and improves the clinical effect in LPS-induced ALI model rats. 21,22 The
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Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?

Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?

Traditional medicine (TM) is a comprehensive term used to refer both to systems such as traditional Chinese medi- cine, Indian ayurveda and Arabic unani medicine, and to various forms of indigenous medicine. In countries where the dominant health care system is based on allopathic medicine, or where TM has not been incorporated into the national health care system, TM is often termed "comple- mentary", "alternative" or "non-conventional" medicine [1]. The links between TM and biodiversity are exempli- fied by a long tradition of healing powers associated with the earth's natural systems, whether this entails medicinal plants and animal species, the ambient salubrious air, spring water or the natural scenery. The pharmacopoeia of folk seties as well as professional medical systems like Chinese, Ayurvedic, Unani and biomedicine contain thousands of medicines made from leaves, herbs, roots, bark, animal, mineral substances and other materials found in nature [2,3].
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Traditional Chinese medicine physicians’ insights into inter professional tensions between traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine: a critical perspective

Traditional Chinese medicine physicians’ insights into inter professional tensions between traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine: a critical perspective

The integration of biomedicine and traditional medicines has become a health system goal in many countries (World Health Organization, 2008). In Singapore, biomedicine is institutionalized as the orthodox medical practice in healthcare and medical education systems (Lee, 2006; Quah, 2003). Concurrently, the use of traditional modalities such as Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and Malay medicine is common among ordinary people, given the country’s cultural and racial diversity (Lim, Sadarangani, Chan, & Heng, 2005). Among the various traditional healing modalities, TCM appeals to the majority Chinese population and is perceived as important in Chinese heritage in Singapore (Ministry of Health Singapore, 2010). Empirical data indicate that the majority of Chinese Singaporeans have sought TCM treatments for themselves or their family members (Koh, Ng, & Teo, 2004; Lim et al., 2005). The cultural context of Singapore provides a venue for medical pluralism but also identifies a need to examine whether the pursuit of integrative medicine offers fair recognition of different healing knowledges.
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Effect of Radix Stemonae concentrated decoction on the lung tissue pathology and inflammatory mediators in COPD rats

Effect of Radix Stemonae concentrated decoction on the lung tissue pathology and inflammatory mediators in COPD rats

Microplate reader (Labsystems microplate reader, MK3), pipette (Pipetman, Gilson P), paraffin slicer (Leica, RM2235), water bath (Leica, HI1210), drying apparatus (Leica, HI1220 horizontal drying type), embedding machine (Changzhou Zhongwei Electronic Instrument Factory, BMJ-111), image analysis system (OLYMPUS, BX51), animal lung function detector (provided by the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shuguang Hospital Attached to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, BioSystem XA SFT3410), electronic scales (Shanghai Precision and Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd., HANGPING FA1004N), optical microscope (OLYMPUS, BX41TF), tray electronic analytical balance (Shimadzu Corporation, AY220), electrically heated thermostatic water bath (Sumsung Laboratory Instrument Co., Ltd., DK-SD).
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The History, Present Situation and Prospect of Chinese Medicine Cosmetology

The History, Present Situation and Prospect of Chinese Medicine Cosmetology

Chinese medicine beauty should establish real skin needs Chinese cosmetic brand based on the development of ancient Chinese medicine traditional beauty health culture, and establish a co[r]

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Review in traditional chinese medicine for stroke therapy

Review in traditional chinese medicine for stroke therapy

Stroke carries a long-range prognosis for disability and death. There are few valid treatments that reduce disability and death after stroke, and it is the second leading cause of mortality after cancer in the world, with a life risk of about 10%. 1 Stroke is called as “apoplexy” and an “attack on the viscera and bowels” in TCM. And it was first recorded in《Treatise on Febrile Diseases》which was written by Zhang Zhong Jing in the Han Dynasty. Stroke survivors always go through various degrees of physical disabilities, including dysarthria, urinary incontinence, limb deficit(weakness or paralysis in any limb), swallowing deficit and consciousness disorder. In general, stroke associated with hypertensive, hyperlipemia, ischemic heart disease became the largest burden of disease. 2 Nowadays, in many countries, TCM has become more and more popular, and it plays an important treatment and prevention role in health care. TCM diagnoses and treats the diseases based on the concepts of Yin-Yang, the five-elements theories and long-range practical experience, TCM is characterized by its unique theoretical system and entails complex ingredients that are effective by their synergistic effects. TMCs have been recorded in ancient medicine systems as therapies for stroke-related ailments. Pharmacological studies have proved that some TCMs have anti-oxidant, ant-inflammatory, vasodilatory, anti-plate, anti- glutamate, and protective effects against ischemia and reperfusion injury. 3 TCMs have been successfully used for a long time to cure all kinds of ailments, which have attracted increasing attention of industry and academia in China.
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Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review

Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review

medical systems in the world, and includes Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, and massage. Herbal medicine has been used for the treatment of depression in People’s Repub- lic of China for centuries, and is becoming more frequently used in Western countries. “Yuzheng”, meaning “depression syndrome”, first appeared in the Ming Dynasty Tuan Yu’s Yi Xue Zheng Zhuan, although discussions about depression can be traced back to Huangdi Neijing (The Inner Canon of Huangdi). 19 Then, in the Eastern Han Dynasty, Jingui Yaolue

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Antitumor effects of traditional Chinese medicine targeting the cellular apoptotic pathway

Antitumor effects of traditional Chinese medicine targeting the cellular apoptotic pathway

disorders in folk medicine in the People’s Republic of China for several decades. A novel diterpenoid known as jaridonin has been isolated from I. rubescens (Hemsl.) H. Hara. Extract of I. rubescens (Hemsl.) H. Hara can inhibit the growth of human esophageal cancer cells (EC109, EC9706, and EC1) in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Its antitumor effects were associated with apoptosis via the ROS-mediated pathway, accompanied by increased expression of p53, p21waf1/Cip1, and Bax. 47 Physalin A (Figure 2) is a bioactive

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Use frequency of traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan

Use frequency of traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan

such as the balance of Qi-blood, the regulation of body constitution and the mixture of herbs and food, have been part of Chinese culture and life style. Other ancient cul- tures in the world have similar experiences with their tra- ditional medicine [40-42]. In addition, Chinese people believe that Western medicine may react faster to the tar- get but also causes more adverse side effects, while TCM reacts slowly but is subtle and safe [16,43,44]. Further- more, the insurance coverage for TCM visits might also play a significant role [31]. Lee et al. reported that TCM outpatient use rate increased 1.75-fold from 1983 to 1988 because of the opening of labour insurance coverage in Taiwan [14]. These factors might all account for the high utilization of TCM.
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Internationalization of Traditional/Complementary Medicine products: market entry as medicine

Internationalization of Traditional/Complementary Medicine products: market entry as medicine

The Health Science Authority (HSA) is responsible for the drug regulatory work, including the issuance of the licenses of the importers, wholesalers, manufactures and re-packers of Chinese proprietary medicines (Cpm) [18]. It is a statutory board of Singapore Ministry of Health that aims to protect and advance national health and safety. The Chinese Proprietary Medicines Unit is one of the divisions of HSA specifically responsible for the administration of regulatory control and approval of Cpm. Cpm that is intended to be imported and sold must be registered for product listing approval. In accordance with Medicines (Traditional Medicines, Homoeopathic Medicines and other Substances) (Exemption) Order in Medicine Act 1985 (CAP 176), Cpm refers to any medicinal product (a) which has been manufactured into a specific dosage form and contains one or more active substances derived wholly from any plant, animal and/ or mineral using active substances that are listed in the current edition of “A Dictionary of Chinese Pharmacy” or “The Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica”. Inject- able products or medicinal products containing chemi- cally-defined isolated constituent of any plant, animal or mineral, or any combination thereof are not considered Cpm. The number of the approved Cpm increased con- siderably from 2076 in 2011 to over 10,000 in 2013.
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Within Day Energy Balance and the Relationship to Injury Rates in Pre Professional Ballet Dancers

Within Day Energy Balance and the Relationship to Injury Rates in Pre Professional Ballet Dancers

Ayurveda is a practice that originated thousands of years ago in India. This is the life (ayur in Sanskrit) science (veda in Sanskrit) that accompanies the practice of yoga. This practice utilizes food, herbs, massage, physical activity and more to balance the individual body based on its specific constitution. There are three types of constitutional life forces or doshas that combine in different ratios to make up each person’s constitution: vata (air, ether), pitta (fire and water), and kapha (water and earth). Ayurveda emphasizes lifestyle choices that enhance health (6, 7). Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) originated in China thousands of years ago and has developed into the system used today. Practitioners treat a variety of conditions with herbs, acupuncture and other treatments. This system is designed to balance the yin and yang
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Phenomenological Mechanism of Inspection in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Phenomenological Mechanism of Inspection in Traditional Chinese Medicine

DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2019.82004 43 Chinese Studies tion given in the inspection from the perspective of phenomenology philosophy and the aspect of the structure of consciousness rather than study the behavior of consciousness from the material level of the natural science. Phenomenology, a popular philosophical trend of thought in the West in the 20th century, which was founded by Husserl, the German philosopher, is a strict philosophical me- thod based on direct intuition and essential understanding (Ni, 2000). Phenom- enology founded by Husserl, as a philosophical method based on intuition and essential knowledge, adheres to the motto of “returning to things themselves”, which guides us back to the objective object of intention. This article aims to discuss a CMP’s course of thinking and consciousness during the inspection us- ing some methods and conclusions of “phenomenology of occurrence” in the late stage of his academic career.
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Bibliometrics Research on Immune of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Bibliometrics Research on Immune of Traditional Chinese Medicine

The analysis of keywords can infer hotspots, and provide directions for future research. We cluster analysis on 90 keywords that appear at least 50 times in VOS viewer. 90 keywords were divided into four clusters: “Immune in vitro”, “Immune in vivo”, “TCM-Immune resistance” and “The mechanism of immune”. In “Immune in vitro” cluster, frequency keywords were: in-vitro (370 times), cells (364 times) and rats (167 times); In “Immune in vivo” cluster, frequency keywords were: mice (405 times), herbal medicine (149 times) and in-vivo (127 times). In “TCM-Immune resistance” cluster, frequency keywords were traditional Chinese medicine (281 times), immunity (273 times) and innate immunity (173 times). In “The mechanism of immune” cluster, frequency keywords were an expression (358 times), inflammation (279 times) and activation (277 times). The
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Classification of interventions in traditional Chinese medicine

Classification of interventions in traditional Chinese medicine

TCMeSH thesaurus is China's first specialized controlled vocabulary of TCM. Since 1987, the TCMeSH thesaurus has been published and revised continually by the Institute of Information on TCM, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences . This vocabulary was developed specifically to enable indexing, cataloguing, and searching for TCM interventions. The third version of the TCMeSH thesaurus contains a total of 13 905 items, including 8307 headings and 5598 entry terms. 7 Each heading has a definition, code, English translation, annotation (labelling, history, searching), and entry terms. The latest online fourth version has been available since December 2015. 8
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Translational Chinese Medicine: A Way for Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Translational Chinese Medicine: A Way for Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine

TCM, which is the quintessence of the Chinese cultural heritage, has made an everlasting contribution to the sur- vival, propagation and prosperity of all ethnic groups in China, thereby enhancing the fertility and prosperity of the nation. In 2008, the Ministry of Science and Techno- logy jointed together by other fifteen Ministries, include- ing Ministry of Health, State Administration of Traditio- nal Chinese Medicine, and State Food and Drug Admini- stration, etc, collectively issued the “Outline of Tradi- tional Chinese Medicine Innovation and Development Plan (2006-2020)”. The outline explicitly pointed out that inheritance, innovation, modernization, and internation- alization of TCM would be the four basic tasks for a con- siderable period of time. Thereby, combination and inte- gration of classic heritage of TCM with innovations of life science would be the necessary avenue to develop TCM. The essence of the avenue is to translate the ancient kn- owledge of Chinese medicine into clinical effectiveness. Therefore, we propose a new research model translatio- nal Chinese medicine, to utilize global scientific and tech- nological resources, to provide evidence and to facilitate Chinese medicine globalization.
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