An important milestone in the history of knowledge ahout the gypsumkarst of Italy was the International Symposium on Evaporite Karst held in Bologna and Palermo during 1985 (P. Forti &
P. Grimandi [Eds], 1986; P. Forti, V. Agnesi, T. Macaluso, M. Panzica La Manna [Eds], 1987). This symposium enhanced gypsumkarst research in Italy and encouraged exploratolY work hy the spe- leological c1uhs. Two main inter-disciplinary research projects on gypsumkarst morpho-units have suhsequently heen undertaken (P. Forti, V. Agnesi, T. Macaluso [Eds]' 1989; G. Ferrini [Ed], 1997). The chapters that descrihe gypsumkarst surface landforms in this puhlication contain many references to examples of gypsumkarst in Italy, and these supplement the descriptions provided helow.
Abstract UDC: 5222.54:551.44(450.78) Mario Parise & Antonio Trocino: Gypsumkarst in the Crotone province (Calabria, Southern Italy) The Calabria region of southern Italy presents remarkable examples of gypsumkarst, involving evaporite rocks ranging in age from Trias to Miocene. Triassic evaporites are limited to a sequence of about one hundred meters of thickness in the Coastal Chain, on the western Calabrian coast. Messinian evaporites, on the other hand, extensively crop out to the east, in the Crotone Basin. The present contribution intends to describe the main features of gypsumkarst in the latter area, from the surface karst morphology to the development of caves. The Crotone Basin is among the most interesting areas as regards evaporite karst in Italy: a variety of surface karst landforms is there present, including dolines, blind valleys, closed depressions, and deep and narrow canyons intensely affected by slope movements. Many caves are located at the bottom of the dolines, as Grave Grubbo which, with a length over 2,500 meters, is one of the longest Italian caves in evaporites. The study area has experienced several transformations, mostly due to agricultural activity and to scarce attention paid by local administrators toward this unique naturalistic landscape. The high value of Calabrian gypsumkarst is thus not fully exploited, and several cases of degradation of the caves have been registered, even with consequences for the quality of water ﬂowing in the karst systems.
Although largely underexploited, karst aquifer systems often deliver large amounts of high-quality drinkable water and already serve about a quarter of the world’s population (Ford & Williams, 2007). These aquifers are hosted in limestones and dolostones, and because of their increasing strategical role in local, regional and national development plans, they have often been intensively studied, especially the Mediterranean area, where domestic water supply can be ensured by these aquifers (Bakalowicz, 2015). Gypsumkarst aquifers have been studied far less than carbonate ones, because their waters are normally undrinkable. However, in some regions, these aquifers represent the only available water resource, and therefore they have been studied from a hydrogeological and geochemical point of view. More often, gypsumkarst springs have been studied in detail because they interfere with fresh water bodies, such as rivers, deteriorating the water quality of these surface resources. This is the case of Sivas (Turkey)
This paper has been made possible thanks to the continuous interest of cavers in gypsumkarst and caves, and their discoveries have enabled researchers to investigate their world in increasing detail. The caving clubs of the Federazione Speleologica Regionale dell’Emilia-Romagna, and in particular the Gruppo Speleologico Bolognese/Unione Speleologica Bolognese (GSB/USB), the Gruppo Ambientale Mezzanese (GAM), and Gruppo Speleologico Faentino are thanked for logistical and financial support. The authors thank the Sicilian cavers of the ANS Le Taddarite (Palermo), Speleo Club Ibleo (Ragusa), GS Kamicos (S. Angelo Muxaro) for the support during cave activity. The staff of the “Grotta di Santa Ninfa”, “Grotta di Entella” and “Grotta di S. Angelo Muxaro” nature reserves are acknowledged for the collaboration and permissions in the protected areas. Danilo Demaria prepared the Acquafredda-Spipola Cave system drawing in Fig. 8. The map of gypsum outcrops in Italy (Fig. 1) is based on data from Fabrizio Galluzzo and Marco Pantaloni of the Geological Survey of Italy – ISPRA (Rome) and modified by Maria Luisa Garberi of the Statistical and Geographic Information Service of Emilia-Romagna Region. Historical data have been obtained from the library Centro di Documentazione Speleologica “F. Anelli” at University of Bologna. The detailed comments of three reviewers have helped improving the paper substantially.
D. Install gypsum panels with face side out. Butt panels together for a light contact at edges and ends with not more than 1/16 inch of open space between panels. Do not force into place.
E. Locate edge and end joints over supports, except in ceiling applications where intermediate supports or gypsum board back-blocking is provided behind end joints. Do not place tapered edges against cut edges or ends. Stagger vertical joints on opposite sides of partitions. Do not make joints other than control joints at corners of framed openings.
Fractals are widespread in nature including karst geomorphology and karst hydrogeology. Although the fractal concept does not appear in standard textbooks of karst geomorphology and hydrogeology (Ford & Williams, 2007) and speleogenesis (Klimchouk et al., 2000), recent publications, discussed in this review, have shown that fractals in karst, far from being a mere scientific curiosity, have important practical applications that can contribute to advancing karst and cave science. There are many practical uses of the fractal analysis of karst features. For example, fractal extrapolation can be used to determine the number of small features that cannot be measured because of the fixed range of variation of the available data; fractal simulation can be used to generate realistic synthetic karst features that can be included in mathematical models (Pardo-Igúzquiza et al., 2012; Hendrick & Renard, 2016b); fractal indices can be used as geomorphometric parameters that can be linked to physical generation processes or used to compare different karst massifs. The best of fractal analysis in karst is still to come, as modern techniques (such as LIDAR) for mapping the karst landscape and laser mapping of cave interiors will provide the required high-resolution data. Fractal analysis will then provide a means of exploring and understanding high-detail features. We conclude with the open question of why nature in general, and karst systems in particular, tend to have fractal geometry and why natural variables tend to follow a fractal distribution. Physicists have started to address this question (Sornette, 2006) although many unknowns remain.
The team has developed the forecast on the basis of econometric and judgemental analysis in addition to statistical techniques such as averaging and geometric mean. During primary research interview, questions regarding historical sales trend of gypsum plaster in India were put forward. Respondents were asked about the current and future growth rates, market share of gypsum plaster in India. In order to forecast the India gypsum plaster market, following forecast techniques were used:
Abstract UDC: 551.44(091):929 Gruber G. Stanislav Južnič: Gruberʼs Karst Research
On the bicentennial of Gabriel Gruberʼs death his speleological and karstological research in Carniola are described. Gruber carefully studied his predecessorsʼ researches of Carniolan karst and Cerknica Lake in particular. He provided several new ideas in the joint work of Tobias Gruber and his older half brother Gabriel. For the first time in historiography Gruberʼs karstological references were discussed. The special concern was put on the Gruberʼs model of the stalactite formation where he proved his extraordinary abilities in Newtonʼs modern mathematics. Very sad stories about Gruber-Hacquet quarrels were connected with their different opinions about karst.
The regional hydrogeological setting (Fig. 1) is essen- tially characterised by carbonate karst aquifers, with a high degree of permeability due to fracturing and karst. These aquifers, formed by limestone, dolomitic limestone and a dolomitic series of carbonate platform facies (Trias – Pale- ogene), are confined by aquitards or aquicludes composed of flysch and basinal series (Celico, 1978, 1983; Celico et al., 2000; Allocca et al., 2007, 2009). Morphologically, the first aquifers correspond to the higher mountains (carbonate mas- sifs), while the second ones correspond to the low-altitude hills. Both types of hydrostratigraphic units originate from tectonic units thrust in the Apennines chain. They are typ- ically characterised by a basal groundwater flow, outflow- ing in huge basal springs, with an average discharge fre- quently greater than 1.0 m 3 s −1 . The patterns of groundwa- ter flow are greatly conditioned both by the altimetry of the boundary with the juxtaposing lower-permeability flysch de- posits, as well as by the position and permeability of cat- aclastic bands associated with main faults and thrusts. The latter, behaving as aquitards, determine the fractioning of the groundwater flow into several groundwater basins. Where the carbonate aquifers are juxtaposed with medium permeable Plio-Quaternary epiclastic and alluvial deposits, a ground- water exchange can exist. A subordinate perched groundwa- ter flow also occurs in the surficial part of karst aquifers, where the different deepening of the epikarst (Celico et al., 2010), as well as stratigraphic and tectonic factors, can generate seasonal and ephemeral springs. The groundwater yield of the Campania’s karst aquifers varies from 0.015 to 0.038 m 3 s −1 km −2 (Allocca et al., 2007, 2009). Given the high quality of their groundwater and their availabil- ity for exploitation, basal springs are, for the most part, tapped; thus, carbonate aquifers represent strategic resources for the socio-economic development of the Campania region and southern Italy.
The direct exposure of karst terrains facilitates the ini- tiation of karst drainage, and its later evolution through sinkholes at the main points of water infiltration (Ford and Williams, 1989). Scale issues are particularly important for understanding and modelling karst water circulation. Condi- tions in a karstified medium are strongly dependent on space and time scales, especially in a deep and morphologically complex vadose zone. This zone with a karst aquifer form a two-component system in which the major part of stor- age is in the form of true groundwater in narrow fissures, where diffuse or laminar flow prevails. On the other hand, the majority of water is transmitted through the karst under- ground by quick or turbulent flows in solutionally enlarged conduits. Conduit and matrix flow occur both in vadose and phreatic zones. Kiraly (1994) explains the concept of “karst duality” as a direct consequence of karst’s extremely het- erogenic structure. Duality exists in: infiltration processes, the groundwater flow field, and discharge conditions. The minimum diameter of karst conduits in which turbulent flow could exist should be greater than 5 to 15 mm (Ford and Ew- ers, 1978). Interaction between the two above mentioned types of flow is significant and permanently present.
2 Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), Environmental Research and Innovation Department (ERIN), 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg
Abstract – Karst springs are considered among the most vulnerable groundwater-dependent ecosystems.
Despite their ecological value and importance as strategic water sources, Mediterranean karst springs are still poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse the epilithic diatom assemblages and to test their usefulness as indicators of environmental quality on the Su Gologone spring (central-eastern Sardinia, Italy), a biotope of great natural value and a precious source of drinking water. A total of 89 diatom taxa were found with 25 new records for Sardinian running waters. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indices showed good biotic integrity. The dominant taxa were alkaliphilous, halophobous-oligohalobous exigent, xe- no-oligosaprobic and characteristic of oligotrophic waters. The eutrophication/pollution index − diatom based (EPI-D) and the Navicula Nitzschia Surirella indices indicated respectively an excellent/good biological wa- ter quality and a low physical disturbance. However, the biological and chemical oxygen demand, and the microbiological variables (E. coli, fecal and total coliforms) revealed an organic contamination of the water, although moderate. The judgment provided by the EPI-D should be verifi ed after updating of the index. In fact, 10 taxa found in this study are not currently considered by the EPI-D method.
The study area covers approximately 1600 km 2 and encom- passes the Gargano Promontory that extends for a few tens of kilometres into the Adriatic Sea, in the NE part of the Puglia region, southern Italy (Fig. 1). The Lesina and Varano coastal lakes separate the northern side of the promontory from the sea. Elevation in the area ranges from sea level to 1056 m a.s.l. with a mean value of about 400 m, and mor- phology is controlled by E–W- and NW–SE-trending faults (Funiciello et al., 1988; Brankman and Aydin, 2004). Due to the presence of a well-developed karst environment, surface hydrography is limited to a few short ephemeral drainages along the slopes that bound the elevated central plateau, and to the Candelaro River and minor drainages in the al- luvial and coastal plains surrounding the promontory. In the area, sedimentary rocks crop out, chiefly carbonate platform limestone, limited marl and residual “terra rossa” deposits (Bosellini et al., 1999). Soils, where present, are chromic Cambisols and Luvisols. Yearly cumulated rainfall ranges between 400 and 1200 mm, and mean annual air tempera- ture varies from 10 to 17 ◦ C. The climate is Mediterranean to Mediterranean suboceanic. July and August are dry, and most of the precipitation falls as rainfall from September to November (Polemio and Lonigro, 2011). The promontory hosts the Gargano National Park and a number of towns and
Organized by C.O.E.T, Akola. Available Online at www.ijpret.com 438 A model has been developed which give the overall reaction rate under different conditions of water vapor pressure and temperature. It was found that particle size was not a significant factor for the gypsum particles studied. Therefore the local reaction rate in a gypsum calciner can be predicted given the operating conditions. To summarise, it is recommended that the following further work is carried out:
An aquifer is a body of water-bearing rock located underground. Two impor- tant features of aquifers are how water is stored in the rock and how water moves through the rock. Rocks and sediment contain empty space known as pore space which can be filled with water (Figure 3). Different types of rocks and soil have different amounts of pore space, hence are able to hold varying amounts or volumes of water. In karst regions, the rock (also known as bedrock) is predomi- nantly limestone or dolostone (dolomite). Within limestone and dolostone, the pore spaces are not large or interconnect- ed, meaning these voids hold little water. Instead, karst aquifers store water mainly in the fractures in the rocks. Because the pore spaces are not well connected, water flow in karst aquifers occurs via fractures and conduits or large underground flow paths.
4.6.3. Results and Discussion. Two potential sinkhole locations are illustrated to
demonstrate the activities facilitating karst processes. Historical images of one of the potential sinkhole locations are shown in Figure 4.32. The feature under consideration is observed to have enlarged over the years. A depression in 1997 appears to have accumulated water. Surface terrain model (Figure 4.33) demonstrates natural flow pathways for surface water. The surface flow direction of north–south has been blocked by a roadway without a drainage system, causing water to pond. A still photograph of the ponded water location taken in 2016 is shown in Figure 4.34. Using the double yellow markings at the center of roadway as reference, Side A and Side B are expected to be about the same elevation when the roadway was constructed. However, on October 25, 2016, Side A was observed at lower elevation of several inches than Side B. This change in elevation is usually gradual and takes a longer time to be observed. The settlement in the northern section of the roadway could be attributed to increased effective stress due to piping of fine-grained sediments beneath the roadway and at the ponded water location. This process of settlement would ultimately cause the northern section of the road to fail if the underlying cause is not mitigated.
Results show that the proposed method could provide reliable results on karst spring discharge estimation using a rainfall-input model, especially referred to minimum values, which are the most important to be well forecasted, in provisional modelling, for an adequate water management. In particular, they show that it is possible to express the spring discharge as a linear combination of monthly rainfall values, properly multiplied by specific coefficients. Coefficients were obtained by cross correlation analyses and numerically define the incidence of previous monthly rainfall data on the spring flow value of the specific month considered
This research is investigating the possibility of using plaster instead of cement in some internal structural parts and non-exposed to moisture by casting (Twelve) samples dividing in four group, first group plaster of pairs concrete, second plaster of Paris with a ratio of aggregate concrete group, third normal gypsum group and finally normal gypsum with a ratio of aggregate concrete group. All of them have the same dimension (1000×150×200) mm and same reinforcement ratio. All Groups are curing in an isolated place far away of the moisture. All sample design to be the Failure as flexural failure, the process of testing divided in two ways, one for properties of material that used as explain above (Compressive Strength (f 'c) & (fcu), Splitting Tensile Strength (fct) and Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture) (fr)), second for samples were tested under (two-point load) for several curing period time (7, 28 and 90) days. Each period consists of three samples one from each group above. The result showed that the second group (plaster of Paris with a ratio of aggregate concrete) approximately closer or exceeded the design values. While the first group (plaster of pairs concrete) not worse when compared with the second group because of the missing aggregate.
form. Remainder of phosphor and fluoride can be completely separated by washing and chemical ways. However, the gypsum in the phosphogypsum converts to anhydrite and remainder of phosphor and fluoride become inert when it is heated by high temperatures. Result of conducted researches displayed that on the base of phosphogypsum, cement with anhydrite has lower energy supply than conventional construction materials [4-6].
All claims under this warranty must be submitted in writing to NGC within thirty (30) days from the time you discover a problem with eXP Interior Extreme. Include a brief description of the problem with photographs and copies of sales receipts, invoices or other documents which may show the dates of purchase and installation. Mail this information to: National Gypsum Company 5901 Carnegie Boulevard Charlotte, NC 28209 Attn: Director, Quality Services R&D If NGC determines that the product in question does not comply with this Limited Warranty, NGC will replace the product or, at its option and for product which has been installed, will provide reimbursement to cover costs of repair and replacement up to a maximum of two times the price paid for the product at the time of purchase for installation. Such price must be properly documented by the claimant. THIS REMEDY SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR ANY CLAIM HEREUNDER AND IS THE TOTAL LIABILITY OF NGC FOR ANY CLAIM OF PROBLEMS OR DEFECTS WITH e XP INTERIOR EXTREME, WHETHER BASED ON THIS LIMITED WARRANTY OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO BREACH OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE, OR STRICT LIABILITY.