Cybercrime in the Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) environment is a growing concern. SME’s dependency on Information Technologies and Internet has opened the door to vulnerabilities to cybercrime. These vulnerabilities are making information security a critical issue for all SMEs. Unfortunately, cybercrime prevention is often neglected within the SME environment. This study aims to be a pilot research for conducting an empirical study by surveying SMEs in Europe on their security practices and position toward current technological trends like Cloud Computing and Bring Your Own Device (BYOD). To achieve the aim of the study a questionnaire has been produced. Sixteen SMEs from different business operations, registered in Europe, were interviewed on their recent IT security trends, cybercrime victimization, and cybercrime prevention practices. The main findings indicate that the level of IT security of the respondent SMEs is not to a decent point. The implementation of written security policy is present in the SME
“Nothing is secure it will only if either the system is not working or not in use” As internet has become a huge part of our daily life, the need of cybersecurity has also increased exponentially from the last decade. The most important thing that we want to secure the system is only awareness. As more and more users connect to the internet it attracts a lot of criminals. Today, everything is connected to internet from simple shopping to defense secrets as a result there is huge need of cybersecurity. Billions of dollars of transactions happens every hour over the internet, this need to be protected at all costs. Even a small unnoticed vulnerability in a network can have disastrous affect, if company‟s records are leaked it can put the users data such as their banking details and credit card information at risk, numerous software‟s such as intrusion detection have been which prevents these attacks, but most of the time it‟s because of a human error that these attacks occur. Most of the attacks can be easily prevented, by following many simply methods as outlined in this paper. As new and more sophisticated attacks occur, researchers across the world find new methods to prevent them. Numerous advancements are being made in the field of network security both in the field of hardware and software, it‟s a continuous cat and mouse game between network security analyst and crackers and as the demand of internet shows no signs of decreasing it‟s only going to get a lot harder.
Cybercrime is crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Issues surrounding these types of crimes include hacking, copyright infringement, unwarranted mass-surveillance, child pornography, and child grooming. Cybersecurity is the area that deals with protecting from cybercrime. It requires coordinated efforts throughout an information system. This paper discusses the correlation of Cyber Crime and Demonetization and also the impact of demonetization on Cyber Crime. Cybersecurity is the protection of computer systems from the theft or damage to the hardware, software or the information on them, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide. Demonetization is the act of stripping a currency unit of its status as legal tender. It occurs whenever there is a change of national currency. The current form or forms of money is pulled from circulation and retired, often to be replaced with new notes.
SMEs today continue to use networks and the Internet as vital business tools. SMEs are utilizing the opportunities offered by advances in ICTs to adopt innovative business operations, to offer user- friendly and competitive products and services, and to develop customer-centric strategies. While connectivity is indispensable for achieving business success, being connected also implies being exposed to a myriad of cyber-security challenges, such as vulnerabilities which when exploited can violate confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) security properties. As vulnerabilities are exploited by the numerous threats, SMEs are adversely impacted which in some cases may lead to business closure. The extent of cyber-attacks have increased in recent times and experts believe that if nothing is done about it, the severity of future attacks could be greater than what has been observed to date. The pace with which these vulnerabilities are introduced and dealt with is uncertain. This situation has necessitated the need for SMEs to have frequent vulnerability assessment. SMEs were surveyed and strategically interviewed on various cyber-security and business metrics.
Today are utilizing the opportunities offered by recent advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs) as vital business tools than ever before. SMEs are adopting innovative business operations, user-friendly products and services, and customer centric strategies. Unfortunately, a myriad of challenges threaten the SMEs, especially the issues of confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) vulnerabilities, as those weaknesses are exploited by threat agents. Whenever they are attacked, SMEs are adversely affected by way of loss of revenues, loss of customer confidence, loss of investor confidence, loss of resources, loss of credibility, cost related to dealing with the security breaches, cost of mitigation as well as possible business closure, etc. SMEs were surveyed and strategically interviewed on various cyber-security and business metrics. The elicited experts’ opinions were used to model the risk function, using neuro-fuzzy techniques, that combines the human inference style and linguistic expressions of fuzzy systems with the learning and parallel processing capabilities of neural networks to analyze the cyber-security vulnerability assessment (CSVA) model. Keywords: Security, Information, Infrastructure, Cyber-Crime, SMEs, ICTs, challenges, resources, techniques, etc.
Cyber Attacks could have a potentially devastating impact on the nation’s computer systems and networks, disrupting the operations of government & businesses on one hand and the lives of private individuals on the other. Increasingly sophisticated Cyber Threats have underscored the need to manage and bolster the CyberSecurity of key government systems as well as the nation’s Critical Information Infrastructure (CII). With greater dependence on networked systems and reliance on the integrated networking today, our defence systems are faced with ever increasing threat and thereby securing them is a great challenge. The recent breaches in the various Information Infrastructure worldwide from operations like Stuxnet, Red October, APT1, Flame and very recently Sony hack have forced the Industry as well as Defence to have a relook at CyberSecurity aspects associated with protection of their Information Infrastructure. The day is not far when our Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and Industrial Control (IC) systems which are presently working in silos & insulated environment will migrate to Internet and expose themselves to cyber-attacks. The problem will only become much grave with adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Cities.
According to the report given by Atlanta Journal- Constitution newspaper – www.ajc.com, $ 2.7 million spent by the City of Atlanta to repair damage from ransomware attack. A report given by 2018 IT Professionals Security Report Survey says that 76% of organizations experienced a phishing attack in the past year and 49% of organizations experienced a DDoS attack in the past year. The ‘AdultSwine’ malware was installed up to 7 million times across 60 Children’s Games Apps. Over 20% of organizations are impacted by Cryptojacking Malware every week and 40% of organizations were impacted by Cryptominers in 2018. (Check Point Research Blog). Over 300 apps in the google play store contained malware and were downloaded by over 106 million users. 9 614 GB of data related to weapons, sensor
This paper builds on and develops some of the points covered during the UK delegation’s visit on 15 th October, 2013 to the Korea Police Cyber Terror Response Centre (CTRC); the National Information Society Agency (NIA); and the Korea Internet & Security Agency (KISA). During these visits, attention was focused on a number of topics including collaboration with law enforcement agencies; the evolving nature of advanced persistent threats (APT): the analysis of cyber crime and the benefits associated with digital forensics; engagement with the public; changing behaviour in society and known and emerging cybersecurity problems; the emerging concept of cyber terror; the possibility that members of the general public could report crimes on-line; the scale and impact of cyber attacks and their ability to disrupt services and do greater damage; the need for intelligence and a wider appreciation of how organizations in the public and privates sectors could cooperate more effectively; the need for society to embrace more fully the role of e-government; the concept of smart government and how the public understand and accept the concept; literacy levels in society; the need for policy makers and their advisors to fully understand the trade offs that have to be made as regards investment in cybersecurity; involving the local population so that a resilient community was established; the role of data centres; the perception associated with social networks; emergency, recovery and support; the national cybersecurity framework; homeland/internal security and the need to monitor domestic websites; and information sharing and the need to foster close working relationships with companies in the private sector.
The lack of disaster and recovery planning is consistent in all the I4.0 initiatives reviewed. Adding to this, the new risks emerging from IoT connected devices and services, and the lack of economic impact assessments from IoT cyber risks, makes it imperative to emphasise the lack of recovery planning in the leading I4.0 initiatives. The volume of data generated by the IoT devices creates diverse challenges in variety of verticals (e.g. machine learning, ethics, business models). Simultaneously, to design and build cybersecurity architecture for complex coupled IoT systems, while understanding the economic impact, demands bold new solutions for optimisation and decision making . Much of the research is application-oriented and by default interdisciplinary, requiring hybrid research in different academic areas. This enabled the design of cybersecurity architectures that integrate economic impact assessment in IoT verticals, that meet public acceptability, security standards, and legal scrutiny.
Abstract: A cyber-physical system (CPS) is a combination of physical system components with cyber capabilities that have a very tight interconnectivity. CPS is a widely used technology in many applications, including electric power systems, communications, and transportation, and healthcare systems. These are critical national infrastructures. Cybersecurity attack is one of the major threats for a CPS because of many reasons, including complexity and interdependencies among various system components, integration of communication, computing, and control technology. Cybersecurity attacks may lead to various risks affecting the critical infrastructure business continuity, including degradation of production and performance, unavailability of critical services, and violation of the regulation. Managing cybersecurity risks is very important to protect CPS. However, risk management is challenging due to the inherent complex and evolving nature of the CPS system and recent attack trends. This paper presents an integrated cybersecurity risk management framework to assess and manage the risks in a proactive manner. Our work follows the existing risk management practice and standard and considers risks from the stakeholder model, cyber, and physical system components along with their dependencies. The approach enables identification of critical CPS assets and assesses the impact of vulnerabilities that affect the assets. It also presents a cybersecurity attack scenario that incorporates a cascading effect of threats and vulnerabilities to the assets. The attack model helps to determine the appropriate risk levels and their corresponding mitigation process. We present a power grid system to illustrate the applicability of our work. The result suggests that risk in a CPS of a critical infrastructure depends mainly on cyber-physical attack scenarios and the context of the organization. The involved risks in the studied context are both from the technical and nontechnical aspects of the CPS.
Only 2 vulnerabilities were immitigable by Cyber Essentials’ security controls. These were the cases in which vulnerabilities were due to inherent flaws in a hardware device, or software that cannot be fixed. For these devices that are fundamentally flawed from a cyber-security stand- point, it can be that no level of security tools on top of the network can aid in mitigation - rather the hardware should be replaced to ensure security. It may be possible for a public list of all such devices to be developed to serve as a device-blacklist for SMEs. There indeed exist some collec- tive approaches to improving cyber-security that could be especially useful for SMEs that do not have the resources to keep themselves up to date with the latest security issues, an example of this in the UK is The Cybersecurity Information Sharing Partnership (CiSP) . The partner- ship aims to benefit all members by providing real-time updates on issues of cyber-security and discovered vulnerabilities, as well as best-practice guides and other cyber-threat information. It would be beneficial for more organisations to belong to cyber-security collectives like this, creat- ing networks of informed individuals working together to tackle cyber-crime. This would be particularly useful to quickly identify potential vulnerabilities and possible patches, which as mentioned above, is critical for the patch management security control to fully mitigate related vulnerabilities. However, vulnerability information shared through these collaborative security systems is provided in highly technical terms and descriptions - which can make them particular- ly impenetrable to the less technically adept reader. This is further compounded when exploits are described without actually saying the problem, requiring that the reader actually have propri- etary knowledge available to them to understand the problem. Ultimately a more accessible, actionable form of vulnerability issues needs to be created to allow smaller businesses the chance to implement defences against them before they are attacked.
dependent on networks for information gathering, coordination and Physical system control, and consequently is increasingly vulnerable to network failures. cyber attack could cause such network failures intentionally, so as to impede the work of first responders and maximize the impact of a Physical emergency believe that they can be used to facilitate collaboration between EM practitioners and researchers of different disciplines, from information security and control systems to a “Physical” denial-of service attack (PDoS) in which IoT devices overflow the “Physical bandwidth” of a CPS. In this paper, we quantify the population based risk to a group of IoT devices targeted by malware for a PDoS attack. There are two main process based on the security concern. 1) Defenders can bound botnet activity and 2) legislating a minimum level of security has only a limited effect, while incentivizing active defense can decrease botnet activity arbitrarily. Anomaly detection for the minimum user of the network DoS attack model to refer by intrusion identified possible steps to mitigate the identified DoS attacks, and evaluate the applicability of these solutions for teleoperated risk control. The broader goal of our paper is to raise awareness, and increase understanding of emerging cyber-security threats against teleoperated security Risk systems.
Airports typically rely on SCADA-type industrial control systems for HVAC, utilities, baggage systems, and business processes such as facility management. Due to their limited or lack of internet access, SCADA-type systems may appear to be more secure, but they too are vulnerable to cyber threats. While cyber vulnerability assessments have become a standardized process in IT, they have only recently gained importance in SCADA environments. Demand from the IT side has driven the development of evaluation tools, test methodologies, impact scoring and reporting procedures to assist with the reliability and efficiency of the assessment process. The similarities between traditional IT and SCADA systems should ensure a portion of IT assessment methods have some applicability to SCADA environments. The airport SCADA-type industrial control systems function very similar to SCADA systems used in the power infrastructure systems or any other industry. The evaluation of cyber vulnerabilities in industry control systems and critical infrastructure systems have been a popular area of recent research.
In 2000’s Rapidly the cyber –attacks became more targeted, most of us are targeted on the credit cards numbers nearly in between 2005 to 2007, Albert Gonzalez masterminded and stole information from cards of US retailer. This was the massive impact of security it losses the company from some million dollars, is the thing became more serious.
With the increasing sophistication and integration of city systems and the need to protect their growing populations, there is a need for city planners to con- sider risk, resilience and cybersecurity in a holistic manner. The two examples below illustrate how critical CPS and poor planning may disable generators and transport systems. The example from Hurricane Sandy of cross-sector depen- dencies was the impact of the storm on energy supplies. A post storm study  exposed risks that were not understood by dependent critical sectors and gov- ernment officials, due in part to their limited understanding of sector operations and distribution. The study highlights that:
In the Wedge project our staff, in collaboration with PhD students, designed and built new operating system primitives, new development tools and new least-privilege application architectures which prevent sensitive data from falling into the hands of an attacker, even if the attacker successfully exploits a vulnerability in a network-attached server’s (or client’s) software. The tools reduced the number of lines of trusted code in the Apache/OpenSSL web server by 94%, while requiring changes to only 1700 of Apache/OpenSSL’s 250K+ total lines of code. The Trust Economics project brought together a multi-disciplinary (technical security, human factors, economics) academia-industry team to model organisational security to support security decision-making. The UCL team led by Angela Sasse contributed by quantifying and modelling impact of security mechanisms on the individual and ultimately organisational productivity level and the risk mitigation achieved. The project team produced the first organisational model of the cost and benefits of a specific security measure, the first model of security compliance decisions made by individuals, and showed how unworkable security policies lead to inefficient business processes and ineffective security.
significance of Cloud certification for SME managers more than anything else: stock brokers and equity dealers are as such FCA regulated, these companies want to cover themselves in case of a data loss or any other breach of security, and they want to relay this responsibility onto a Cloud provider. Regulated firms are likely to adopt Cloud products covered by the same type of security standard, in order to simplify their auditing process, some are happy to outsource their entire infrastructure to a Cloud provider, as long as that provider is ISO compliant, they by default become ISO compliant. On the contrary, micro enterprises and start-ups often disregard the attestation element in their decision making process, since their decisions are driven predominantly by cost efficiency and time to market. All interviewees universally agreed that managers have little or no understanding of certification standards. Even when they do consider it important, it is mainly because they were advised so, or under the influence of marketing. There is a lot of buzz about certification, and for certain categories of people it might sound quite appealing even though they have no understanding of what it actually means. In summary, respondents acknowledged that promoting certifications is far less efficient than building strong trusted relationships with the client. The interview data demonstrates that the characteristics of SMEs play a pivotal role in shaping attitudes towards the importance of Cloud certification. Among the essential features, respondents pointed out 1) industry type, 2) SME competence, as well as 3) turnover and 4) size of the enterprise. This mirrors the findings in the literature outlined above. Most get certified either because they are required to, or because all their competitors have it. For those companies that are not regulated, and do not have the requirement, certification will not make any positive difference. Two of the respondents criticised public sector organisations for requiring certifications from their partners, whereas they themselves preferred to remain uncertified.
In the 1960s, the first studies related to cyber-crime have been seen in newspaper articles and in this period this crime involved computer abuse, computer sabotage, computer espionage and illegal use of computer system. The first scientific study on this type of crime has started around the year 1970. In the mid-50s, a large number of businesses and state agencies created the processes of computer data (PCD), automated departments, which deal with administrative data entry. The main risk in that period was introduced electro-mechanical breakdown and poor computer programming (OECD, 2011, pg. 15).
Most of the cyber crime prevention models concentrate on the technical aspects of cybercrime, such as the technical implementations that can be used to deter cybercrime, the manner in which cyber crime should be investigated. While the main stream traditional crime prevention models focus on the human element in crime, cyber crime prevention models focus on the technology. It appears that the current thinking in cyber crime prevention appears to put the technology first, and forget that the main difference between cyber crime and 'traditional' crime is that the means of the crimes have changed, but not the motivation or the human element. Both traditional and cyber crimes are in the end committed by human beings, and victimize other human beings. The field of criminology is also yet to catch up with the explosion of the Internet and coincident explosion of cyber crimes. Until such a time when technology is sufficiently developed to be able to eradicate cyber crime, it must be considered that cyber crime will continue to increase unless effective measures to stem it are put in place. It is very important to have a solid theoretical basis in the form of crime prevention models, for efforts to tackle cyber crime to be effective. There needs to be more understanding about computer users, the demographics, and specific characteristics of computer users that have an impact on their vulnerability to crime. The current research therefore concentrates on the development of a crime reduction and/or prevention model with a specific focus on identifying different classes of users and tailoring the responses according to the type of computer user. According to the facts listed beyond, the researcher proposes a new cyber crime reduction and / or prevention model, which can be used within the most of cyber crime types existing.
Full capabilities and potential of cloud services are held by State government, their CyberSecurity models will be rigorously transformed. Establishment of Focused Governance Structure: Full capabilities and potential of cloud services are held by State government, their CyberSecurity models will be rigorously transformed. each agency should follow three steps namely develop, document, and implementation of its own information security plan should be carried out, which must be approved by the state CISO. Public comment should be made available for the information security plan.