Focus group participants were concerned about the reliability of their health information, especially the issue of reconciling conflicting results from multiple published medical studies. No participants specified that they considered information from the Internet as being intrinsically less reliable than print sources. Those who were reluctant to read health information on the Internet merely stated a preference for reading from a hard copy rather than from a screen (“That’s an age thing,” one commented). Participants wanted to know the credentials of the factsheet creators as well as source of the information presented on the factsheets (“where did this information come from…was this a study done over a period of years with a couple thousand people or was it done in a couple of months with 10 people?”). They also expressed suspicion about potential biasing factors (especially pharmaceutical industry interests) that could affect the quality of the health information presented to them from all sources, including their healthcare providers. “…Those horrible commercials they have on television now…just those pharmaceutical companies pushing [me to talk to my doctor about a drug]…I rebel against that a lot.”
A large number of journals were available at Shiraz University during 2008–2010.The richness of the collections cannot be judged due to the lack of statistics about other national or abroad academic milieus. A large portion of the journals are repeatedly acquired via different access models. Due to the heavy costs spent for database subscription, it seems crucial to evaluate databases overlaps before subscription. However, as Vaughan (2003) stipulates, given the gigantic coverage of journal databases, it is not possible to absolutely eradicate the overlap in databases a university is subscribed to. There may be some remedies to the problem for the print model, e.g. through centralized collection building, development of union catalogs to inform users about the collections gathered in other colleges, and implementation of inter-college document delivery services.
Today, librarians are regarded as the knowledge brokers who are able to adjust and complete the stages of research question and knowledge transfer in knowledge translation by creating a bridge between researchers and information users (Wilkinson, Pollard, & Farquhar, 2010). At the beginning of research, these knowledge brokers conduct a needs analysis on the population of knowledge consumers, including policy-makers, decision-makers, doctors, patients, people, and the like and, accordingly, they will be able to identify research priorities and provide adequate resources for the population of researchers. On the other hand, they can deal with the management and dissemination of the results at the end of research by means of the techniques and tools at their disposal. Therefore, the use of a tool will be necessary to identify barriers to the knowledge translation from the stage of research question to promotion of using evidence. Below, a number of national and international research projects in this domain will be mentioned.
The participants were experienced researchers. There was a broad range of skill levels, particularly in the area of information retrieval, and there were areas of misunderstanding and confusion, as seen in the researchers’ assessment of the current publishing landscape and open access. Data management emerged as an area for education opportunity. Few participants were fully aware of the depth and breadth of librarian knowledge and skill sets, although many did express a desire for further skill development in information science. Librarians can engage more public health researchers by utilizing targeted and individualized marketing regarding services such as grey literature searching and support for researcher promotion. We can promote open science by educating researchers on
Every curriculum student is assigned an academic advisor(s). Your academic advisor is available to you during his/her regularly scheduled office hours as well as by appointment. You have the responsibility for planning your program of study with the help of your academic advisor. This involves (1) keeping up to date with College and division/department curriculum requirements, (2) keeping informed of academic deadlines and changes in academic policies, and (3) consulting with your academic advisor at each pre- registration period and at other times as needed. A list of program advisors can be found on the SPCC website under Future or Current Students/Academic Advising.
In this paper, we have developed and estimated a model aiming to explain the factors that influence the quality of published research, measured by the number of citations, when we exclude self-citations. Special emphasis is placed on discussing the influences from the authors’ experience and the quality of the research environment in which the authors operate. This enables us to examine to what extent a solid academic environment at the unit to which the researchers are affiliated can compensate for a lack of research experience and vice versa as far as producing quality research is concerned. The above issue has always been important for politicians and bureaucrats addressing research planning. The data used in the study are 1121 articles published in the five most recognised transportation journals during the seven-year period from 2000 to 2006. Their number of citations is then checked by the start of August 2016.
As the business environment is evolving so also the educational requirements of society, because higher education determines the technological developments contributing to the evolutionary process. Societal needs are always changing due to trends in consumption due to economic and social factors, and the effect of evolving technology on the needs of society. Most of the scientific developments have contributed to make life more comfortable in the planet for humans starting from industrial revolution. Humans have always found means to improve their living by such changes and adapted to new methods and ways. The development of digital devices has contributed to make communications faster and in many ways improved the quality of our lives. Consider for example our grocery stores, fruits and vegetable vendor and any other house hold service, which is just a phone call away, as they say. But such a proliferation of devices of convenience has also made humans a bit lazy and led to disconnection between reality and imagination. As the higher education becomes dearer and the relevance of such costly education is lost, particularly in the present environment where much of the information gathered through education is only a click away. That is why many of our youngsters are getting a bit anxious about the high cost and spending involved in obtaining higher degrees in Universities. The present research is aimed at finding the causes of turbulence among the students of higher education and the changing needs and aspirations of society, of which the younger generation seeking higher education is an integral part. With these thoughts in mind following Objectives have been identified for the current research paper:
Writing of IT fluency Herbert Lin (2002) draws a distinction between the navigational options available to residents of a city and to occasional visitors. While the visitor will tend to follow a predetermined path from airport to destination (usually the first one they learnt) a resident will adopt a much more flexible strategy, varying the route according to traffic conditions. Needless to say the resident also has access to a much wider range of destinations within the city, but Lin’s main point is that the resident, by understanding both the overall structure of the city and a good deal of ground-level detail, is able to call upon a much wider range of alternatives and understands that the simplest route is not always the fastest or most convenient. Looking at electronically-based research it becomes immediately clear that decisions between alternatives will always have to be made and that a linear map from entry point to destination will never suffice for any but the most basic of explorations. In short, it is necessary for researchers to become residents of the electronic information environment. It is tempting in fact to add to Lin’s metaphor a third category – “immigrants”, those who inhabit the city with only a limited grasp of its language and culture, living in survival mode and looking nostalgically to a past in which they felt at home and knew their way to wherever they wanted to go.
By and large these developments have been received very positively, but a growing concern by many academic staff that they have “lost touch with the library” is also evident. The making of fewer visits to the library as a result of electronic journal provision is an obvious and universal example and there is consequently less opportunity for casual contact with library staff that in the past, went along with information or serials desk enquiries. Massey, like many libraries, introduced a liaison scheme giving librarians specific responsibility for groups of academic staff and postgraduate students in order to counter this trend and to follow the information out of the library. As well as formal training they have provided individual research consultancies which have been taken up more enthusiastically by postgraduate students than by staff. Many staff will recommend that their PhD students take a research consultation with a member of the library staff much more readily than they will request one for themselves. Academic staff, following the “principle of least effort”, seek no more than a minimal toolkit of techniques. The task of information skills trainers is to help these staff to develop the most effective toolkit consistent with the principle.
Within the soft-applied category I will look at two research departments that com- bine knowledge from the field of educational sciences and psychology. Edu- cational sciences focus at “the design and evaluation of teaching and learning programmes in schools and organizations.” (University of Twente, 2014c). Psy- chology has its focus at the overall behaviour of human beings and how this can be influenced (University of Twente, 2015a). The combination of these two fields gives research areas that focus on how people can learn best, seen their behav- ioral background and how learning programmes can be utilized and adopted. The first research department within this field is the department of Instructional Technology (IST). Researchers within this group investigate the development of knowledge. They design instructions to support the best way to gain knowledge, for which they also research which psychological processes are used to gain knowledge (University of Twente, 2014g). Their main field of study is “technology- enhanced learning environments for inquiry learning”(University of Twente, 2015d). They study, for example, how serious gaming works and how its functioning can be improved. The size of this group is comparable with the size of TE: 19 persons (University of Twente, 2014h). Five persons are PhD students, the other persons are part of the scientific staff.
In relation to the time dedicated to research, more than one third of the sample, 37%, spend 21 to 30 hours a week to doing research, 21% spend less than 20 hours, 17% between 31 and 40 hours and 16% over 41 hours. These numbers indicate that the vast majority of researchers, nearly four-fifths, dedicate more than half of their weekly working hours to research, while 16% all of their time. However, it is important to mention that the number of hours spent on research activities are determined by the IHE to which the researcher is affiliated, as they decide how many hours assign to full-time academic research, teaching, tutoring and academic management.
depending on the needs of the instructor and the curriculum being covered. In most cases, MOOCs are made up of video instruction, sometimes including PowerPoint slides that take the place of in-class instruction. These videos can be short or long and the, “videos [could] pause perhaps twice for a quiz to make sure you understand the material or, in computer programming, to let you write code” (Pappano, 2012, para 11). If advertised, the enrollments for MOOCs usually number in the thousands. One of the most appealing aspects of a MOOC is that it allows for a course and instructor to reach across thousands of miles; thus, allowing for interested individuals to participate from across the globe. The students of MOOCs could be undergraduates, high school students, stay-at-home mothers, businessmen, etc. Anyone can join and participate in a MOOC and complete it to receive a certificate of completion. In a report by McAuley, Stewart, Siemens, and Corimier on the potential of MOOCs, they remark that:
Web 2.0 led to the tremendous expansion of knowledge through real-time collaboration and knowledge sharing between people from all works of life, at any place, and at any time (Gunawardena et al., 2009). Academic Social Networking Site (ASNS), is a product of Web 2.0 technologies. Academicresearchers use these tools for their research, such as sharing their work; collaborating and developing and maintaining their social networks; or getting research trends in their field (Rebiun, 2010). As suggested by He et al. (2009), technologies that facilitate the collaboration and sharing of knowledge and expertise among academicresearchers can play a major role in research enhancement and productivity. The universities’ academic rank has shown to be positively related to the university research productivity (Da Silva and Davis, 2011; Liu and Cheng, 2005). Consequently, ASNSs can play a major role in research enhancement and productivity by providing the platform that allows other researchers to see the results and exchange views with the authors of the research and to collaborate with other researchers for a project. Understanding its importance, universities seem like to pay attention on collaboration technology such as ASNSs in relation to increase research outreach, their effectiveness in fulfilling their vision and goals and their impact on society. Conrad et al. (2012) stated that the identification of successful factors toward usage of technologies at the individual level is critical to any
The assignment of a faculty advisor is normally made by the department chair. All freshman students with less than 45 quarter units are required to meet with an advisor prior to registering for courses each quarter. All students are required to meet with an advisor at least once per year. Faculty members are trained to provide accurate information and helpful advice regarding university-wide requirements, major and minor requirements, and career opportunities within the discipline. Students who have not yet declared a major should meet regularly with a trained staff member from the Academic Advising & Resource Center (AARC). Students who are required to enroll in developmental courses for English and/ or mathematics will be “tracked” and advised by the Coordinator for the Roadrunner Academic Achievement Program (RAAP). The RAAP Coordinator is a staff member of the Academic Advising & Resource Center (AARC). Students who have been placed on “academic probation” status will be required to meet with the AARC Director until the student achieves “good academic standing”. In addition, any student granted “re-instatement” following “academic dismissal” will be required to meet with the AARC Director. The staff at the AARC is available for academic advising to all students, not just students who have not yet declared a major. Regardless of class level or major, all students are encouraged to meet with their advisors every quarter. Advising is particularly important prior to registration, not only for selecting courses for the coming quarter but also to verify whether the student is on track regarding his/her program of study toward the baccalaureate degree. Regular meetings with
In addition to the PGCert, there are other training opportunities available to the migrant academic such as the continuing professional development (CPD) workshops like those organised by Higher Education Academy’s (HEAs) ‘New to Teaching Workshops’, and the learning and teaching days organised by universities which offer a space for pursuing learning and teaching conversations. However, as with the PGCert, they are often generic and may not be tailored to the migrant academics needs. Further, institutional CPD frameworks accredited by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) can allow mid-career migrant academics to follow a route rooted in their experiences from which they can achieve both FHEA and Senior Fellow status without attending PGCert programmes. However, the CPD routes are used to demonstrate capability, that is, accreditation, rather than catering to the academic migrants’ developmental needs. Hence, these mid-career migrant academics may feel more isolated in their teaching environments as they struggle to find a community or help point to aid them in their academic development needs.
Our findings indicate that mitigating isolation requires the support of senior academics and field level institutions in cultivating polycentric academic fields. Robust polycentric fields can reduce isolation by creating more opportunities for participants to engage with the field, and by providing more room for maneuvering within such fields. One example of this support is the creation of access points to field level resources, which include field level institutions such as the EGOS network, which promotes training for ECRs that focuses on methods as well as career and intellectual resources for integrating into the field (e.g. a better understanding of the genealogy of existing theories within a field; the knowing how, who, and why of a field). Another example involves sharing field-relevant information via computer-mediated technologies, such as social media. The Strategy Practice Interest Group, organized by members of the Strategic Management Society, created a video series on YouTube that features leading scholars in the field. These videos serve as an example of how established actors can provide access to knowledge, career, and social resources for scholars that may be geographically, culturally, technically, and
As can be seen in Table 1, hedges can be simply defined as the writer’s full commitment to the statements. Hedges are the interpretations or a way of softening the claims of the writer. Hyland (1998) states that the need to present claims with precision and caution means that hedges are a significant resource for academics in anticipating the reader’s possible rejection of their propositions. The words "might, perhaps, possible, about" are among the hedges. Emphatics enable the reader to realize the degree of writer’s claims and force of writer’s certainty in message such as "in fact, definitely, it is obvious". Attitude markers express the writer’s perspective or evaluation of the propositional content. "Unfortunately, I to agree, surprisingly" are among these markers. Relational markers such as "let us first consider"explicitly refer to the relationship with the reader. It directly addresses to the reader and includes the reader into the text, thus making the text interactional. Finally, person markers contribute to signal the author’s presence in a text. Academic text writers generally do not use the pronoun ‘I’, and ‘we’ is used more frequently than ‘I’ or the writers may choose not to include any pronouns.