and IAMSAR, she has no option but to use English. Moreover, it has been reported that more than 80%（IMO, 2005）maritime accidents arise from the failure of effective communication in English. The importance of English has never failed to be treated with sufficient attention in internationalmaritime conferences, such as IMECs and IMLAs. Topics such as communication competency and cross-culture awareness have always been given top priority. It is true the MarTEL, (Maritime Test of English Language), a EU-funded mega ME Project, the standardised test of Maritime English for safer seas and MarEng (maritime English), a web-based Maritime English learning tool, both heavily financed by the EU programme as well as a commercial-operated Marlins, the leading provider of English Language Testing and Training solutions to the maritime industry play a great role in testing and upgrading seafarers’ maritime English proficiency. But all these efforts seem to be not enough. There is one way we should draw on, that is, contest. What is the role language contests play in language competency? Is there any necessity and possibility of holding such a contest among Maritime Universities on an international scale? Will this be echoed if the IMEC proposes holding such a contest at the next IMEC 25 in Turkey? Will there be a good percentage of participants? Will some shipping institutions sponsor such an event? The answer, in all likelihood, is a YES. Let us look at the Olympics Games. What is the purpose or spirit of the Olympics? Almost everyone knows it is to strive for better, higher and stronger goals. Let’s regard this from another perspective. Were there no Olympics Games, what would happen? Perhaps nobody could finish the 100 meter sprint under 10 seconds, because without contests there will be no good performance
5. Programme Fee
Please refer to Annex 4 to find out the programme fee for the upcoming academic year. The programme fee covers tuition, accommodation on the Institute's premises including servicing, water, 600 units of electricity free of charge, cleaning services and laundry facilities, a word processing allowance, a photocopying allowance, the cost of posting twenty kilos of books, two standard text books, unlimited use of IT facilities provided by the Institute (printing costs not included) and the cost of insurance (fire, theft, public liability and repatriation in cases of emergency). The programme fee also covers payment to the student by the Institute of a monthly stipend equal to €315 (three hundred fifteen Euro). THIS STIPEND IS MEANT TO PROVIDE FOR THE COSTS OF FOOD, LOCAL TRANSPORT AND OTHER NECESSITIES OF THE STUDENT. THE STIPEND IS NOT A SALARY, THEREFORE IT IS EXPECTED THAT STUDENTS CARRYING EMPLOYMENT IN THEIR HOME COUNTRIES CONTINUE TO RECEIVE THEIR SALARY AND THAT THE NOMINATING GOVERNMENT WILL CONTINUE TO PAY THE SALARY OF THEIR OFFICIALS WHO ARE ASSIGNED TO STUDY AT THE INSTITUTE AND TO PROVIDE, IN PARTICULAR, FOR THE CONTINUATION OF THE INCOME TO SUPPORT THE FAMILIES OF THE STUDENTS REMAINING IN THEIR HOME COUNTRY.
The University of London provide a guide of 150 hours of study per module. At MPW we go beyond this recommendation to ensure you are well prepared for the final exams. Six hours of class tuition per module (24 hours per week) is complemented by additional individual work and regular exam preparation tests. English language classes and study skills are provided for those that need support.
Faculty member(s) for this topic:
Various lecturers and tutors in English language from Oxford (UK)
7. Visit to London: It is essential not only to learn the theory of international law and economics but also to understand some of the important practical aspects. Therefore included to the programme is a trip to the city of London where students will have the chance to visit some of the following: British and international institutions, city law firms, Inns of Court, banks, corporations, or courts. Previously visited institutions are, among others:
A. THE PROGRAMME 1. Programme Objectives
The IMO InternationalMaritime Law Institute (IMLI) offers a specialized post-graduate programme leading to the Degree of Master of Laws (LL.M.) in InternationalMaritime Law. The purpose of the programme is to train lawyers, mainly from developing countries, to become specialists in maritime law. The programme is therefore most suitable for law graduates already working in the maritime field such as a relevant government department, a shipping company, port authority, or other organization concerned with shipping and maritime affairs. However, the programme is also open to law graduates of any country who intend to pursue their legal careers in the field of maritime law whether in the public or private sectors, whether in practice, administration or in academia. Fifty percent of the places available are reserved for women candidates provided that they meet the entrance requirements. 2. Academic Content
OVERSEAS TRAINER ATTACHMENT PROGRAMME (OTAP)
As a converse to the MAP, the OTAP allows maritime-related businesses in Singapore to bring in training expertise from their overseas offices or from the overseas offices of their related business associates. The expert will be responsible for knowledge transfer to local employees through a structured training programme. The training content could cover operational, commercial and technical aspects of the maritime business or
Zusammenfassung: This project intends to establish a set of standards by transfer of innovation from existing English language standards and maritime English model courses such as InternationalMaritime Organisation's (IMO) Standard Maritime Communication Phrases. This Project therefore is a maritimelanguage competency assessment project for English language. Shipping is perhaps the most important of the world’s industries and one of the most dangerous. Safety of life at sea should always be of paramount importance. According to IMO, over 80% of accident and incidents at sea are due to human error. One of the main causes of accidents is due to poor standards of maritime English spoken aboard merchant vessels. The purpose of MarTEL is to remedy the situation, through the creation of an
Mentor in the facility to improve the operation of the prison through promoting best practices and updating operating procedures. The UNODC mentor, Mark Agbosu, has been responsible for updating Standard Operating Orders, Commander’s Operational Orders and the formulation of Contingency Plans. One of the direct consequences of this assistance was the increased level of tactical preparedness and the swift response of prison staff in dealing with the assault on 8 November. UNODC’s Maritime Crime Programme has also carried out major infrastructural upgrades at Bosasso, including the construction of new 40-bed and 200-bed cell blocks for female and male prisoners respectively. These new facilities provide improved living conditions in line with international standards, with the provision of improved ventilation, sanitation, a borehole water supply and generator powered lighting. As in all UNODC
If you have any questions about or problems with life at our University, the first place to call, email or pop into is the Student Hub. The team can help with a broad range of enquiries including: funding and money advice, being an international student, disability, counselling and wellbeing support, student cards, accommodation, fee payments, support from the Students’ Union, how to access on-line services, getting help with your CV, preparing for an interview, careers guidance and getting a part-time job. Details of these and other services are available at http://www.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/studenthub.
Why not take the opportunity to study a Swedish Programme in English. We welcome applications from Swedish oversea students and students from the Skåne region who would like to study in English in order to enhance their English language proficiencies while being challenged with a rigorous academic programme.
Barcelona is justifiably famous as a beautiful and lively city. For many people travelling in Eu- rope it is at the top of their “must visit” list! A social element is included in the programme in order to promote the learning objectives of the Summer School, and to take advantage of the stimulating, cultural and social opportunities of Barcelona's historical city centre and the out- standing beauty of places nearby. Join us at the Barcelona Skyline Drinks for networking at the highest bar in town in the breathtaking Barcelona beach with 360º views of Barcelona . TIMETABLE
The Language A Literature course is not only a pre-university literature course, but also an approach to how literature reflects the world as such. One of the main objectives of the course is to raise awareness of literature as art and of writers as craftsmen. Emphasis is placed on various ways of analysing, interpreting and discussing literature on various levels. In this light, the course enables you to think independently and draw your own conclusions, always based on the tools of literary analysis. Aware of the fact that literature opens up the mind to different cultures and different opinions, we pursue a global, international and fraternal perspective, which gives you an insight into the cultures, traditions and literary achievements of world literature.
Although English has already been recognized as an internationallanguage both on land and at sea, it is necessary to be followed by clear rules in order to reduce the possibility of ambiguity and vagueness while sending and receiving messages. In contrast to the everyday communication, i.e. the conversation in which one statement performs a lot of different functions depending on the context, seafarer’s English is precise and far more limited than everyday language. This linguistic limitation, respectively adjustedness is the key presumption for effective communication in the maritime profession. For successful transmission of messages and communication in the maritime until nowadays have appeared several variants of maritime English, in linguistics known as restricted languages. British linguist (J.R.Firth) (1890-1960) introduced this term as a label for strictly reduced linguistic system that is used for a particular activity. This language is so contextually closed, that only a little linguistic variation is allowed. Such "languages" may be oral and written, and they can be found not only in specialized but also in everyday contexts. They usually consist of routinely-used formulaic structures, with conventionalized prosody or typographical layout, as well as the restricted vocabulary. Such languages are called "special languages" by Škiljan under the explanation "And within the society which overally uses one linguistic system, different forms of social and economic determinants encourage the emergence of particular, for the other participants of society at least partly incomprehensible "subsystems" - which are commonly referred to as special languages. Although the causes of their occurrence are quite diverse, they can probably be divided into three main groups: special languages emerged out of the need to be communicated a specific sub-set of non-linguistic universe, which is interesting as an object of traffic only for a particular group of speakers, or they have grown out of desire and intent that other speakers do not understand what is communicated about, or finally they are the result of the tendency of a social group to be identified by the linguistic labels within itself and distinguished from other groups. "
obstacle for Bangladeshi seafarers though they are highly skilled enough to perform their duties. For the Bangladeshi learners English is their second language and all of them are comfortable in using Bangla in communication. During speaking and listening the tendency for translating the ideas into native language also works for the barrier in learning English. Those students who are from English version or English medium can improve rapidly than that of others. Because, others have to learn two languages – the general and the marine English. So, the materials needed for the learners should be a bland of both general and marine English. Also the resources need to be presented in an interesting way for these adult learners to make sure their active participation along with the skilled instructors with experience. Another thing is that no Bangladeshi researchers have ever felt the necessity of doing any research on this topic to put our mariners ahead by finding the problems in the suitability of Maritime English materials and providing effective suggestion or guideline to overcome it.
The students whom the team met – all active students, involved in various committees or structures of CMU, or the student union – were all satisfied with their education, the academic staff, the conditions for learning at CMU, and the facilities. Some were even at a loss when asked what they would like to improve, although there was one suggestion to include geography in the course on multiculturalism. Others wish that more students were state-supported; in fact they believe that some students drop out because of their dire financial situations. Another reason they give for dropout is their belief that some students are just not cut out for this type of studies and profession. In addition, they wish that there were more positions on board and better access to simulators. Students are attracted to CMU by future opportunities to travel, or by the fact that they can acquire a dual qualification that will allow them to find employment on board or on land. They expect to work on the international scene, to earn most of their income from foreign companies, but they intend to bring it back to Romania, thus providing indirect economic benefit for the country.
The article thus proceeds as follows. Part II briefly addresses the ques- tion of terminology, and contemplates why yet another acronym must be considered in the discussion of autonomous craft at sea. Part III turns to the question of status, reflecting on the existing analyses undertaken on this point, highlighting how this discussion has implications for maritime secu- rity. Parts IV, V, and VI consider different dimensions of law enforcement: hot pursuit, the right of visit, and specific law enforcement regimes. Part VII turns to surveillance and intelligence gathering, which are relevant for law enforcement, as well as the peacetime operations of navies. Part VIII con- cludes, underlining how MAVs can largely be seen to sit within the existing legal framework, and perhaps more interestingly, whether the use of MAVs can improve the implementation of the existing rules rather than prompting a need for new ones.
Throughout the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, the British and Dutch faced mari- time predatory activities committed by local sea people in the region, including the Bugis, Achenese, the Illanuns/Iranuns and the Balanini. 176 From the end of the eight- eenth century until the middle of the nineteenth, Iranun maritime raiding was the greatest threat for English and Dutch global sea trading. 177 As mentioned, the Iranun came originally from the Sulu Sea, in the south-western area of the Philippines, and attacked ships carrying trade commodities throughout the Southeast Asian region, in- cluding the Malacca Straits. The Iranun attacked not only English and Dutch ships, but also Spanish and Chinese ships, seizing their cargoes of tin, opium, spices, muni- tions, and slaves. 178 The narrow straits and countless small islands in the Southeast Asian region are ideal for launching attacks against ships sailing through the region. These geographical characteristics offered not only opportunities to hide while wait- ing for target ships, but also places for escape once a successful attack was com- plete. 179 A similar method has been used by twentieth century pirates in the Riau Ar- chipelago in attacking ships sailing through the Malacca Straits.
A/HRC/15/21 (Sept. 27, 2010); Report of the Detailed Findings of the Commission of Inquiry on the 2014 Gaza Conflict, ¶¶ 26–31, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/29/CRP.4 (June 24, 2015); Report of the Detailed Findings of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Protests in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, ¶¶ 61–67, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/40/CRP.2 (March 18, 2019); Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Court, Situation on Registered Vessels of Comoros, Greece and Cambodia: Article 53(1) Report, ¶¶ 27–29 (Nov. 6, 2014), https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/OTP-COM-Arti- cle_53(1)-Report-06Nov2014Eng.pdf; see also Peter Maurer, Challenges to International Human- itarian Law: Israel’s Occupation Policy, 94 I NTERNATIONAL R EVIEW OF THE R ED C ROSS 1504, 1506 (2012). Today, most authors consider the Gaza Strip to be under occupation since Israel still exercises actual authority on the area thanks to its control over the borders, air- space, and sea. See M ARCO L ONGOBARDO , T HE U SE OF A RMED F ORCE IN O CCUPIED T ER- RITORY 36–38 (2018).
This paper focuses on the impact of maritime piracy on international trade. Piracy increases the cost of internationalmaritime transport through an increase in insecurity regarding goods deliveries. Bilateral trade flows between the main European and Asian countries over the 1999 to 2008 period are used to estimate an augmented gravity model that includes various measures of piracy acts. We found robust evidence indicating that maritime piracy reduces the volume of trade; the effect of ten additional vessels hijacked being associated to an 11% decrease in exports. Using these results, the international cost of piracy in terms of trade destruction is estimated to be 28 billion dollars. Finally, we compare the cost of low intensity conflict like Somalia, to the cost of a full scale conflict (Afghanistan) and to the cost of an autarkic state (North Korea) for the international community in the year 2008.The results indicate that the cost of war more than doubles the cost of low intensity conflict.