In the early 1970s , the financial markets were highly instable , so many financial derivatives have been emerged as the means to manage the different types of risks and also for taking advantage of it. The first financial futures market was the International Monetary Market, established in 1972 by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange which was followed by the London International Financial Futures Exchange in 1982. The Forwards Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952 , regulates the forward/futures contracts in commodities all over India . As per this the Forward Markets Commission (FMC) continues to have jurisdiction over commodity forward/futures contracts. When derivatives trading in securities was introduced in 2001, the term ‘security’ in the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (SCRA), was amended to include derivative contracts in securities. Consequently, regulation of derivatives came under the preview of Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) . We thus have separate regulatory authorities for securities and commodity derivative markets.
Derivatives trading commenced in India in June 2000 after SEBI granted the approval to this effect in May 2000. SEBI permitted the derivative segment of two Stock exchanges, i.e. NSE and BSE, and their clearing house/ corporation to commerce trading and settlement in approved derivative contracts. To begin with, SEBI approved trading in index futures contracts based on Standard & Poor (S&P) CNX Nifty Index and BSE-30 (Sensex) Index. This was followed by approval for trading in options based on these two indices and Options on individual securities. The derivatives trading on the NSE commenced with S&P CNX Nifty Index futures on June 12, 2000, Index Options Commenced on July 4, 2001 and trading in Options on individual securities commenced on July 2, 2001. SEBI-RBI approved the trading on interest rate derivative instruments. The mini derivative future & Option contract on S&P CNX Nifty was introduced for trading on January 1, 2008 while the long term option Contracts on S&P CNX Nifty were introduced for trading on March-3-2008. Finally, a 30-year ban on forward trading was also lifted in 1999. The economic liberalization of the early nineties facilitated the introduction of derivatives based on interest rates and foreign exchange. A system of market-determined exchange rates was adopted by India in March 1993. In August 1994, the rupee was made fully convertible on current account. These reforms allowed increased integration between domestic and international markets, and created a need to manage currency risk. Given the fast change and growth in the scenario of the economic and financial sector have brought a much broader impact on derivatives instrument. As the name signifies, the value of this product is derived on the prices of currencies, interest rates (i.e. bonds), share and share indices, commodities, etc. not going into very back; financial derivatives just came into existence in the year 1980’s.
Additionally, increasing per capita disposable income of India is leading to rising expenditure on housing and infrastructure development. This is expected to provide huge growth opportunities for gypsum plaster manufactures. Furthermore, boost in tourism sector which tends to increase the demand for hotels and other commercial complexes is also anticipated to drive the growth of India gypsum plaster market in coming years. However, the market is also facing some challenges. High cost of gypsum plasters when compared to cement line plasters is hampering the market growth. Apart from this, gypsum plasters are soluble in water and which makes them not suitable for external finishing.
Moreover, for the 4th time in five years, India has been ranked as the most attractive nation for retail investment among 30 emerging markets by the US-based global management consulting firm, A T Kearney in its 8th annual Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) 2009. India remains among the leaders in the 2010 GRDI and presents major retail opportunities. India's retail market is expected to be worth about US$ 410 billion, with 5 per cent of sales through organized retail, meaning that the opportunity in India remains immense. Retail should continue to grow rapidly—up to US$ 535 billion in 2013, with 10 per cent coming from organized retail, reflecting a fast-growing middle class, demanding higher quality shopping environments and stronger brands, the report added. Bharti Retail strengthened its position in northern India by opening 59 stores, Bharti Wal-Mart is expected to open 10 to 15 wholesale locations in the next three years, and Marks & Spencer is considering plans to open additional outlets in the next few years.
He also mentioned that the Prime Minister of India is of view that the cost of doing business in India is very high. Keeping this in mind, CUTS has taken the initiative of facilitating adoption of IA framework in India. In this regard, the motive of this event is to sensitise the industry representatives, sector experts, market participants, and academia about the progress made so far in the project, including issues identified, key findings, and also seek comments / suggestions from stakeholders.
Retail enterprises that hire workers the bulk of them hire less than 3 workers. Hissar’s retail sector appears backwards not only by standards of industrialized cities but also in comparison to several other emerging markets in India. There are only 14 companies that run departmental stores and mere two with hypermarket operations. While the number of businesses operating supermarkets is higher (425 in 2004) most of these had only 1 outlet, the number of companies with supermarkets chain was less than 10.
The telemedicine market is segmented into tele hospital and tele home markets . The tele hospital market was worth $6.9 billion and tele home market was valued at nearly $2.9 billion, however the tele home segment is growing faster than the tele hospital segment at a projected CAGR of 22.5% vs. 16.8%
Copyright to IJIRSET www.ijirset.com 8427 The FMCG industry is expected to yield higher growth on the back of higher disposable income led by income tax cuts, while FMCG prices are expected to hike. Prices of daily use products such as soaps, talcum powder, shampoos, hair dyes, diapers and sanitary napkins are expected to increase by 2-5%, while diapers and sanitary napkins that were previously fully exempt from excise are now slapped with a 10% duty. However, prices of deodorants and perfumes are expected drop by 5% while duty charges on medicinal and toilet preparations will be reduced from 16% to 10%. Most FMCG companies including HUL, Colgate-Palmolive, Nestle, Reckitt Benckiser and Dabur India Ltd have large manufacturing plants in excise-free zones that are not affected by a hike or cut in excise duty, while higher cost of production will inevitably cause price hike. Also, the establishment of five additional food parks will no doubt boost the food processing industry.
The introduction of Goods and Services Tax would be a very noteworthy step in the field of indirect tax reforms in India. By amalgamating a large number of Central and State taxes into a single tax, it would alleviate cascading or double taxation in a major way and pave the way for a common national market. From the consumer point of view, the biggest advantage would be in terms of reduction in the overall tax burden on goods and services. Introduction of GST would also make Indian products competitive in the domestic and international markets. Last but not the least, this tax, because of its transparent character, would be easier to administer. However, once implemented, the system holds great promise in terms of sustaining growth for the Indian economy.
If a super-market you frequent is selling you grocery at a higher price stating that it is due to GST, you can file a complaint to the anti-profiteering authority. Similarly if you are aware that the cost of your toothpaste has moved lower, but your grocery-wala tries to pull a fast one on you by selling it to you at the old price, you know whom to complain to.
One Nation One Tax or uniform tax process was political agenda of BJP government. It is the urgent call of the time to make trade easy and welcome FDI in the country. It is the greatest tax reform in Independent India. It is a great exercise after demonetisation to bring force to new economic system in the age of globalization, liberalization and privatization. GST is multistage comprehensive Value Added Tax (VAT) encompassing both goods and services. GST provides major indirect tax reform in India where both Centre and State Governments will have rights to tax goods as well services at every stage of production and distribution. Introduction of Value Added Tax (VAT) at State level since April 2005 resulted in first round of cleaning up of hidden indirect taxes which facilitated expansion of tax base, better tax compliance and higher tax buoyancy for majority of Indian States. It is envisaged that the proposed GST system will further clean up the indirect tax system by reducing cascading of taxes and facilitating nation-wide market for goods and services. Among other factors, reduction of cascading of taxes and transaction costs associated with inter-State sales of goods could facilitate achieving higher economic growth by attracting investment.
Co-coordinators segment assumes a fundamental part in the advancement of our nation. Indian coordination industry has been demonstrating a consistent development. Products and Service Tax (GST) is India's most prominent expense change. In India, GST is executed to bring together the whole nation into a solitary market with just a single esteem included duty impose every one of the products and enterprises crosswise over states at the purpose of utilization, containing up to 16 diverse assessments. The particular goal of this article is to examine the effect of Goods and Service Tax (GST) on coordination and particularly on distribution centres arranged in India.
Goods and Service Tax (GST) combines both the current Central and State Taxes in the country into a solitary tax, thereby eliminating the dual taxation system and enabling a joint nationwide market (GST T Council T 2019). T The T Indirect T
Last but certainly not least, the closest paper to ours is Bai et al. (2011). The authors independently developed a model with a process of matching between consumers and firms in the goodsmarket in a DSGE framework. They use the same convincing argument that buying goods is an active process involving costs, which should, therefore, be part of a macroeconomic model. Their focus is on the impact of demand shocks in goods markets, and in particular their implications for the identification of technology shocks within the RBC paradigm. In contrast, ours is on the propagation of productivity shocks to the cyclical dynamics of the labor market. In their model, a competitive search environment with price posting, differentiated markets are indexed by the price and market tightness. As a result, across markets, prices are higher when goods are easier to find. Our model introduces search effort and price bargaining: search effort increases when future expected surplus is higher, which has implications in terms of the fit with the data. These ingredients turn out to be necessary to replicate the observed persistence in U.S. time series. Another independent work by Gourio and Rudanko (2014) focuses on frictions in the goodsmarket with a focus on “ customer acquisition ” as a search friction in the goodsmarket. Their paper investigates the level and volatility of firm level variables such as investment and sales and calculates a Tobin's q. An earlier paper in this literature is Lehmann and Van der Linden (2010) which introduced search frictions in both product and labor markets. Finally, den Haan (2013) provides a detailed theory of inventory in line with search frictions in the goodsmarket, a dimension that we ignored here but that deserves more development.
the wines and spirits group, Pernod-Ricard that produces distilled beverages. Finally, Rémy Martin primarily produces cognac. As of 2011, it was owned by Rémy Cointreau, a French alcoholic beverage company. 7) Cosmetics market. Cosmetics is dominated by a few MNCs: L'Oréal, P&G, UN, Shiseido and EL. L’Oréal is larger than P&G and UN. Shiseido is the largest cosmetics firm in Japan, and the fourth in the world (Wall Street Journal, 2010). EL is a US firm and the direct competition in this market contains all its revenues. 8) Bottled water market. This comprises of the Non-sparkling Segment and the Sparkling segments. It has been studied before by Friberg and Ganslandt (2007). Nestlé, Danone, Coca-Cola and PepsiCo, lead the global market. (Research and Markets, 2015) The direct competition for Nestlé, Danone, Coca-Cola and PepsiCo in this market are the accounts Water, Bottled Waters, Non-Alcoholic Beverages and Beverages respectively. 9) Toy market. It is dominated by Mattel Inc., Hasbro Inc., Bandai Co., Ltd., MGA Ent., and LEGO (Economist, 2013; Time, 2008). 3 Mattel, is the largest toymaker in the world (Fortune, 2013). Hasbro comes second (Fortune,
a phenomenon dubbed ‘the tragedy of the digital commons:’ because contributing files is costlier than freeriding, selfish utility maximizers ‘should’ freeride and this should lead to the collapse of the network. The problem has been related to the provision of public goods, as discussed by Krishnan et al.  and . Our work contributes to this debate by separating the two different goods that are provided by peers who share: content and bandwidth. We focus on the provision of scarce bandwidth in open p2p networks, a rival and nonexcludable good. Separating both goods is helpful because they are different in nature as content is a pure public good (nonrival and nonexcludable). In order to analyze the extent of freeriding and design schemes to reduce it, the literature has, for the most part, assumed that individuals are concerned with each others’ wellbeing. Altruistic agents, for example, realize a direct benefit from contributing content. Golle et al.  and Antoniadis et al.  consider agents that derive utility from contributing content to the network. Feldman et al.  explicitly consider agent types which differ in their willingness to contribute. Ranganathan et al.  and Feldman et al.  model the problem as a repeated prisoners’ dilemma game, where the network collapses in the absence of generosity. Cunningham et al.  assume reciprocity by a positive fraction of users, where increased sharing by some ensures a further increase in the overall provision. And Jian and MacKie-Mason  present a model of generalized reciprocity where peers share expecting others in the network to indirectly reciprocate. Our model is one of selfish, utility-maximizing agents. While social preferences underlie many aspects of human behavior, their role in large p2p networks where thousands of individuals interact anonymously is debatable. In the absence of peers caring about each others’ utility, the question of why peer-to-peer networks such as Gnutella exhibit sharing is still open to argument.
Negative Impact of GST in India: GST is confusing the common man even large scale businesses; they need to rely on advocates and chartered accountants to make them understand What is GST and how it works. Not only that but using computerized process, online registration and return filing is a hassle for those who are barely in touch with technology. The government has estimated that Indian economy will require at least 2 years becoming stable.