On the one hand, it is argued that some tacitknowledge can never actually be articulated (Leonard and Sensiper, 1998), or indeed all tacitknowledge (Burstein, 2001). On the other hand, economists arguing in reductionist terms consider that: “only cost considerations prevent residual forms of tacitknowledge [from being] codified” (Ancori, Bureth and Cohendet, 2000, p.281). Indeed, it is often accepted “that tacitknowledge (as distinct from intangible investment more generally) is non-codified, disembodied know how that is acquired in the informal take-up of learned behaviour and procedures” (Howells, 1995, p.2). Tacitknowledge also has its traces in Gärdenfors' Conceptual Spaces (Gärdenfors, 2000). Research by Aisbett and Gibbon (2001) identifies the “subconceptual layer” of Gärdenfors as being representable, for example, by neural nets. This suggests that if we equate the brain's subconscious with tacitknowledge, then we have an explanation of tacitknowledge processing as subconscious pattern matching in the human mind. Such pattern matching is not explicitly codified of course, until a conscious effort is made to articulate such tacitknowledge, to make it conscious, and to codify it.
Abstract: The lived experience of individuals in the workplace results in an accumulation of dispositions to act. Such dispositions have been termed knowledge [Boisot 1998]. Further, this knowledge is considered to be tacit or explicit [Baumard 1999]. Therefore tacitknowledge is one of the precursors of new knowledge. There have been a number of hypotheses as to how such knowledge is transformed into explicit knowledge [Nonaka et al 2000], and then subsequently diffused [Boisot 1998]. Moreover it is impossible to know the magnitude of tacitknowledge that is not articulated, however insightful, original or crucial it may be. The transformation to the explicit rendition can and will act as a filter in an attempt to eliminate meaningless utterances. Therefore some tacitknowledge will be lost in this process. This is an Obligatory Passage Point (OPP) a concept normally associated with Actor Network Theory [Latour 2005]. This is where the decision is made as to ‘what counts’ as legitimate knowledge and it is irreversible. This obligatory passage point is for all tacitknowledge in a community, an organization or even a nation.
The objective of convergence processes is to achieve agreement on the meaning of the information and the context, as well as the interpretation of such information in context between communication partners. Compared to conveyance processes, there is less information processing involved in convergence processes. They require the rapid exchange of short messages in both directions to reach mutual agreement. Contrary to MRT, in MST the level of uncertainty and equivocality of a task is not important. Most tasks require both conveyance and convergence processes, although the proportion of these processes may vary. Without the conveyance of information, individuals will lack understanding of the context of the task, and without convergence, individuals will lack a shared understanding. Therefore they will not be able to make decisions or produce solutions for the task. Therefore, to investigate the influence of media characteristics on communication performance, it is important to explore how the use of media facilitates or constrains the two
triangulated methods were applied to interpret a set of meaningful experience, expressed as narrations and interactions. Our approach also stressed researcher’s employed the “human instruments” to secure both direct and indirect tacitknowledge of the phenomenon. This called for a secondary research into an existing body of literature, and a qualitative fieldwork based on interviews and observation techniques.Breakdown of the routine activities provides an occasion for the study the tacitknowledge as people articulate what has normally been taken for granted. This research applied the critical incident interviews to identify the critical phase–events and behaviours–that were described or observed to a significantly diverged outcome from the general aim of a particular activity. We then adopted the qualitative interview and observation techniques to collect the articulated account of the experience . The interview encouraged respondents to tell stories of their experience. The researcher learned about context by personal contact and discussion. Taking field notes from the observation allowed the researcher to identify recurring observed patterns. The narration were then broken down into statements, sequences and action units, to be classified into skill categories.
One of the key concept of knowledge management is learning. Learning is a complex dynamic process of interacting with many sources of information in meaningful ways to construct new knowing and understanding. Knowledge management enables a learning community to learn more effectively. Knowledge management is very important to an organization. Mission, conception, change and performance are four dimensions of knowledge management, which define the value of an organization. The most important area of knowledge management is the concept of tacitknowledge. Unlike most other management tools, knowledge management encloses every individual in the organization cutting across departments, functions and business units. The paper has tried to cover different aspects of Knowledge Management. It has been observed that KM for corporate is mainly for getting competitive advantages over the rival companies. In developed countries this culture is running for quite some time where as in developing countries especially in India it is slowly picking up. A KM initiative in different sectors of the economy in India is mentioned. Corporate in India such as TCS, ONGC, Infosys etc have established their in-house knowledge management systems. Different types of KM initiatives such as external structure initiatives, internal structure initiatives and competence initiatives with examples find mention in the paper. The paper has touched upon the challenges of Knowledge management.
Stewart (2003) explains that the term tacit, which was originated in Latin, means “to be silent or secret”. Complimentary to explicit knowledge, tacitknowledge is the knowledge possessed by an individual that is not expressed and displayed. The word explicit also comes from Latin, meaning “to unfold”, which includes ma- nifestation, summarization, and explication. It almost implies “informatization”. In Latin literature, medieval scholars tend to write the word “explicit” at the end, expressing that this paper is intended to be shared by the public. There is a wonderful German word “fingerspitzengefuhl” that means “a feeling in the fingertips,” which works almost like the synonym of tacitknowledge”. Most high-valued knowledge workers have sound tacitknowledge partly because much tacitknowledge is replaced by automation.
The process of learning in higher education are quite challenging and demanding. Students need to meet a high performance standard of achievement in order to maintain their result. Students’ achievements are based on their performance towards assignment, quizzes, test, project and examination. Apparently, at the end of every semester, the students are being evaluated and their grades are given based on their achievement. In order to maintain the grade, they need to have a better understanding on every subject carried throughout the semester. The significant role in transferring the knowledge to the student is the educator or the lecturer. The lecturer acts as an experience person with intelligence that contributes or transfer the knowledge or ideas to the student . Whereas the students or the learners access or transform the knowledge by gaining competence in seeking meaning and understanding . Unfortunately, most of the knowledge is in tacit form and difficult to externalized . Which means that with the available support of teaching material being used in the lecture such as lecture notes, slide presentations and explanations from the lecturer seems insufficient to increase students’
In order to prevent the knowledge transfer behavior or results deviate from the expected goal, enterprises need to take the appropriate method to intervene the key links in the knowledge transfer management system, making the system run in the right direction. In tacitknowledge management mechanism system, three key nodes need to be evaluated. Firstly, enterprise need to evaluate whether the tacitknowledge transfer needs are satisfied, namely whether the tacitknowledge increment and innovation make up the tacitknowledge gap. If the target is not reached, then enterprise needs to check job rotation process, and adjust target position or rotators. If the knowledge gap is made up, the next step is to assess whether the key business process performance is optimized or not, that is, whether the rotator has leant the tacitknowledge and apply it into the practical work. If this didn’t happen, the reason may be the key position has been positioned in error, and enterprise needs to redefine key positions and analysis of the tacitknowledge gaps. If to this goal is reached, the third assessment phase is to analysis whether the enterprise strategic direction is supported. If the performance changes of the core business process doesn’t align with the strategic direction, the reason may be due to mistakes are made in the core busi- ness process definition, and need to decompose the strategic target again; If the strategic development goals are supported, the tacitknowledge transfer process get successful.
There are very few articles pertaining to tacitknowledge in the field of business finance at all. There has been work done to quantify intangible assets, but there has been no attempt at trying to quantify or measure tacitknowledge; which is a subset of intangible assets and goodwill. Richard Hall identified tacitknowledge as “know-how” and listed it as one of nine types of intangible resources. This “know-how” or competency was consistently ranked as the third most important type of intangible asset by managers across all fields of business interest (Hall, 1993). Most papers written to date seem to acknowledge the great importance of tacitknowledge (Wagner & Sternberg, 1985, 1987; Wagner, 1987; Sternberg, 1997, 2002; Hsieh et al., 2007), but no one has attempted to measure tacitknowledge. The purpose of this research is to present a quantifiable model of tacitknowledge. With a quantifiable model, managers will be able to utilize more properly all of their resources, and academic researchers will be able to make more accurate models of utility theory. If tacitknowledge can be quantified, than further research can show how it might be optimized. Optimizing the utilization of assets is a key tenet of economic research, whether they are tangible assets like plant, property and equipment, or a subset of intangible assets such as tacitknowledge.
successor’s ability or readiness to assume increased control. One founder connected the readiness for the successor to take a larger role in decision-making to the successor’s impact on the company’s performance: “We were doing so good, so well. And then after..., I said, ‘You’ve got half the company” (C-6-TANKIT, FS). This decision rested exclusively with the founder and was based on his perception of contribution, successor readiness, and fairness. In C-1-CAPMAN, the founder managed the succession process by leading a series of “retreats” that were designed by the founder to increase the knowledge base of the successors. In this case, the pace of the succession process, as described by the founder, the successors, and the key observer, was described as “incremental” or as a “process” or “series of steps” (C-1-CAPMAN F, S1, S2, KO). The pace of this process was determined by the founder’s perceptions of the successors’ degree of “trustworthiness” or readiness in terms of assuming increased responsibilities in the firm (C-1-CAPMAN F). When asked about the nature of this trust, the founder clearly had reflected on this phenomenon. He stated: “Not trust, but trustworthy. I’m going to send you a piece of paper on this because I have spent a lot of time on that. Trustworthy is way beyond, you have to be worthy of trust. Which means you need to be loyal, it also means you need to be frank, and of course you need to be honest. All of those pieces.” (C-1-CAPMAN, F)
Traditional theories have been too relying on resource-based view (RBV) framework and too endeavoring to emphasize the role of developing and accumulating tangible resources (financial, raw materials, labors), in explaining the mechanism of how firms can become entrepreneurial oriented and preemptive in market competition. The role of knowledge (both tacit and explicit), widely referred as intangible resources, in terms of brand construction, entrepreneurial development, competitive capabilities and advantages, has not be given sufficient attention in the existing literature. Even though, there has been a prevalent prejudice stipulating that, it is the Shanzhai-based imitation rather than innovation that has made China the ‘World Factory’, the ‘World 2 nd Economy’, and the ‘Winner’ of competition against those innovation oriented Western economies. China has been sarcastically mocked as a country of imitation, a country without its own proprietary technological innovation. It is argued that, such an inherited prejudice is resulted from the disrespect or ignorance of the fact that, the success of ‘Chintrepreneurship’ or the way of Chinese entrepreneurship is also resulted from an imitative-innovation process (Zhao, 2016; 2017; 2019); and that, such a prejudice, on the one hand, exposes a cognitive incompleteness of previous theory; on the other hand, provides an opportunity for this study to build theoretical argument to rationalize from the framework of knowledge-based view (KBV) that, the success of entrepreneurial stars emerged from those emerging economies (like China) has also been achieved through a process of knowledge- driven mechanism, in promoting the development of OEM and order-fulfillment. In response to such an existing prejudice and an imperative need to upgrade the existing framework, the author of this text argues that, it is the KBV rather than RBV, to guide and instruct firms to gain necessary resources, to develop and accumulate their dynamic capabilities necessary for market-leaders (innovators) to sustain their leadership, and necessary for market-followers (imitators) to catch-up and win the competition.
used to supplement other first generation techniques such as linear regression in studying the relationship between latent variables. The relatively more powerful analytical power of structural equation modeling techniques in handling latent constructs is well articulated by Hair, et al., (2010). Additionally, whilst finding robust measures of tacitknowledge will continue to be a challenge in strategic management research, and other related social sciences (Guyo, 2012; Insch, et al., 2008; Rashid, Hassan & Al-Okaily, 2015), the current study is a useful addition in filling this methodological gap.
The SECI model is widely accepted in academic literature for knowledge creation, application and extension (Baskerville & Dulipovici, 2006; Choo, 2006) and has been used in diverse management studies for assessing knowledge strategies (Joia, 2002; Rice & Rice, 2005; Sumita, Shimazaki, & Matsuyama, 2009). However critics of SECI argue that it is not supported by wide empirical evidence as SECI was initially derived from purposeful managerial surveys as opposed to surveys being conducted on a broader population across other levels of management and hence some of the knowledge conversion modes are not very coherent (Gourlay, 2003, 2006). Becerra- Fernandez and Sabherwal (2001) have identified that each of the four SECI modes depends on the presence of appropriate task characteristics for contextualisation of related information. This research study addresses these concerns by utilising purposeful sampling methods of knowledge based professionals in software development belonging to middle and higher management groupings. Moreover the task characteristics of software development activities are confined by the organisational preferences on software development methodologies, tools, metrics and associated structures. Thus, the adoption of SECI model for evaluating knowledge processes in OSD is not limited by the critics’ observations for this study, although it has not previously been applied in the OSD context.
strategic / operational transaction along the line of where an organization is competing with the corporate-rivals. Say for example, organizational memory may have a pertinent knowledge artifact concerning selecting an OEM manufacturer in Taiwan for kick-starting the sale of cost-effective Android-powered smart phones. This would also represent knowledge about the gamut of smart phone industry. In the discussed example, to freeze from whom to source the OEM for making a maiden-entry into the Android-powered smart phone merchandizing after a great deal of product-positioning. If a unique knowledge artifact fails to match stored patterns within the tolerance level (imposed by the so- called vigilance parameter), a new stored pattern will be formed. Tolerance level can have its enclaves based on the organization‟s corporate statistics such as the type market the organization has been into, (monopoly, oligopoly, perfect competition, etc) demographics, price- points, competitor‟s strategies, customer-base / customer loyalty, and the like.
from past projects (Prusak, 1997). This shows that little efforts to transfer knowledge have been made in organisations thus the knowledge gained in the past is not utilised. This shows that little efforts have been made in organisations thus the knowledge gained in the past is not utilised. Key findings of a paper by Owen, Burstein and Mitchell (2004) have indicated that there exists a link between knowledge practices and existing work processes but the lack of knowledge reuse may contribute to failure. Sun and Scott (2005) also like Jasimuddin (2007) have reported that most information in organisations has been viewed as disorganised information and knowledge management practices aim to provide a systematic approach. Collectively, they identified the need to conduct further research for identifying individual characteristics that will help in the study of knowledge transfer barriers. There is a lack of empirical studies in knowledge management (Leech & Sutton, 2002) as the majority of studies reported in the literature do not adopt a mixed method approach. Also, various researchers (Baumard 1999; Blair 2002; Laupase 2003) have identified barriers to tacitknowledge transfer but with no focus on university academics. Rigorous identification of tacitknowledge transfer in universities is warranted, especially if it leads to improvements in organisational performance.
(5) Mentoring: Is traditional way to share tacitknowledge. In it one to one guiding approach is used and is very effective way to share tacitknowledge. M. Leonard, D., Barton, G., & Barton  suggest that mentoring consists on observation, partnering, practice and collectively problem solving. Sharing of TacitKnowledge may cause risks to an individual as he/she may lose their competitive advantage over colleagues . These risks/challenges could be at individual, organizational and technological level. At the individual level personality traits, attitude towards sharing, temperament, pride of ownership of knowledge, lack of time, low awareness of benefits of the knowledge, lack of social network and interpersonal skills etc. May hinder the sharing of tacitknowledge . At the organization level bureaucratic leadership style, trust, fairness in the organization, downsizing, limited resources, inflexible structure, culture/norms, organizational support may restrict the sharing of knowledge , , . At the technology level, sharing of tacitknowledge Information Technology has been identified as a major knowledge sharing enabler ￼ , ￼ but a mismatch of technology with the intended user, limited training, maintenance of I.T systems ￼￼ , .
Commercial Banks plays a crucial role in economic development of a nation (CBK, 2014) and are commonly recognised for their contribution to the economic activity, employment, innovation and wealth creation of a country (Ongore and Kusa, 2013). In addition, Shih, Chang and Lin (2010) observed that banking is a typical knowledge-intensive industry that involves activities of knowledge exchange (service) rather than exchange of goods. Therefore, managing knowledge has become as important to Commercial Banks as it is for other knowledge based organizations. As noted by Rono (2011), KM is indispensable in the banking industry because competition and most of the work in the industry are knowledge-based. Moreover, the last open frontier for banks to create competitive advantage may reside in their ability to leverage knowledge, since banking is not just a business of handling money but also a business that is driven and sustained by information.
Cook and Brown (1999) distinguish between knowledge and knowing and suggest that knowledge creation is a product of the interplay between them. The shift in condition between the possession of knowledge and the act of knowing something that comes about through practice, action and interaction is the driving force in the creation of knowledge, knowledge sharing and knowledge creation thus go hand in hand.
ABSTRACT: Within the construction industry, it is increasingly being acknowledged that knowledge management can bring about the much needed innovation and improved performance the industry requires. Nevertheless, sufficient attention is still to be received for the concept of the knowledge worker and their tacitknowledge within construction industry. Yet, proper understanding and management of this resource is of immense importance for the achievement of better organisational performance. Hence, this paper aims to devise a theoretical framework for managing construction knowledge worker and their tacitknowledge based on review and synthesis of literature. Paper stresses the importance of construction knowledge worker and tacitknowledge through review of literature and highlights prevailing gap due to lack of attention and recognition given to the tacitknowledge in the construction industry. Based on identified gap research aim, objectives and hypotheses are devised. As the specific research methodology, the social constructionism stance in terms of epistemological undertakings and idealistic approach under the ontological assumptions with value laden purposes are suggested. Further, it recommends the deployment of multiple exploratory case studies approach with triangulation techniques.
The latter category represents knowledge models of the design process which includes descriptive, prescriptive, and/or computational . Descriptive models can be further divided into protocol studies, which consider how designers design and perform in the design process, and cognitive models, which address the description, simulation or emulation of the mental processes used by a designer during the process of creating a design . Typical work following this category can be found in Darlington et al. , Maher and Tang , and Reymen et al. . Prescriptive models show how the design process should be organised and executed. They integrate many different aspects involved in the design process so that the whole design process becomes logical and comprehensible . They also offer systematic procedures of the design process that make it more transparent and effective . Examples in this category can be found in Hubka , Pahl and Beitz , Reymen et al. , and Ullman . The last category, computational models express methods, which are formalisations of, for example, the tasks, information, and procedures involved in the design process. Based on computational models, along with available computer techniques, computer systems can be developed to accomplish design tasks automatically or interactively. In this respect, Gero , Braha and Reich , Smithers , and Tomiyama , for example, have focused on specific aspects of the design process and developed various computational design process models.