The increasing doctrinal rigour of the orthodox from the 1690s, however, was resisted by an Episcopalian- Jacobite preference for a simple, spiritual Christianity which drew on the mysticism of marginalised Catholic communities in France, notably the followers of Antoinette Bourignon and the Quietist circle around Mme de Guyon. This emphasis on repentance and moral conduct rather than predestination and grace won admirers across the confessional divide, as indicated by the popularity among a younger generation of moderate Presbyterians of works such as James Garden’s Comparative Theology (1707) – although Ahnert confuses James with his brother, George, a keen Bourignonist (pp. 24–5). By this means Ahnert seeks to downplay the importance of a reverence for ancient moral philosophy, most notably Stoicism, in the development of Scottish ‘moral sense’ philosophy from Francis Hutcheson onwards. Here as elsewhere, Ahnert qualifies the claims of recent scholars (such as Sher and James Moore) that Hutcheson and his admirers endeavoured to ‘merge pagan philosophy with Christian thought’ (p. 102). Their interest in the affections rather than reason, emphasis on the naturalness of virtue, sociability and benevolence, and the culture of sensibility to which it gave rise need not reflect a secularising or rationalising impulse.
On occasion, however, such sources can provide an exceptionally eloquent insight into an individual’s reading experiences. The diary of George Ridpath mentions by name well over one hundred and fifty separate titles, many in multiple volumes, and we can presume that this represents an under-estimation of his reading life even for the six year period it covered (1755-1761). 15 Amongst these books, some borrowed from the Kelso Subscription Library, others borrowed from friends and neighbours and a few owned by Ridpath himself, are many modern editions of the classics, Horace, Plato and Epictetus foremost; the older historians of Scotland, George Buchanan, John Knox and writers from both sides of Scotland’s religious past; political and natural histories of other countries, especially travellers’ accounts of the newly-discovered territories and peoples of America; books on a wide range of subjects in natural philosophy, with a particular interest in medicine from the twelfth-century Regimen Sanitatis Salernitano through to Scottish authors at the cutting edge of modern research, including Home and Whytt; some fiction, including Gulliver’s Travels and Tristam Shandy, though not the best- selling works of Fielding and Smollett; and reviews of the latest releases in the foremost literary journals and magazines of the day. Most pertinently for our purposes, this remarkable record of Ridpath’s reading demonstrates that he had access to the most recent works of Scottish authors like Robertson and Hume at a time when the ScottishEnlightenment was entering its formative phase.
terms and establishing the links which connect the past to the present—shifts decisively and almost inevitably in the study of the Enlightenment, towards the latter end of the spectrum. We feel a pressing need in this instance to know how the Enlightenment relates to modernity and its values. ‘The Enlightenment Project’—a coinage which enjoys wide currency among present-day commentators, as well as among philo- sophers and historians of ideas—certainly does not help. The gravitational attraction which brings Enlightenment studies within the orbit of a contemporary agenda raises false—or certainly ahistorical—expectations about the Enlightenment, and provokes disappointment when 18th-century values fail to match 21st-century standards. In today’s Culture Wars, the Right tends, on the whole, to be sweepingly dismissive of an overdetermined Age of Reason as the font of all liberalism. The Left, on the other hand, simultaneously identifies with the idea of Enlightenment, all the while scarcely hiding its irritation with—sometimes its contempt for—the blindspots, omissions, reticence and conservative limitations of dead-white-male-philosophy-as-it-was- actually-practised: an exasperation with the 18th century for being old-fashioned, indeed for exhibiting 18th-century attitudes. 1
Though the study of the ScottishEnlightenment as great men and their ideas marches on regardless, in recent years a group of impressive young female scholars has begun to tackle the singular lacunae in Scottish historical writing that is the absence of women and gendered concerns when compared with equivalent periods and issues in English, American or European history. Katherine Glover, Katie Barclay, Alison Duncan and Rosalind Carr have produced an impressive corpus of published work on 18th-century genteel women and their lives.(4) Their inspiration has come from two main springs. The work of Amanda Vickery on the ‘gentleman’s daughter’ and subsequent studies in the broad area of ‘politeness’ from scholars such as Laurence Klein, Roey Sweet and Elaine Chalus has been one inspiration. And then there is the work of Jane Rendall who single-handedly and for decades, it seems, has sought to identify the gendered and especially the female dimensions, both in experience and ideas, of the ScottishEnlightenment.
Secondly, the closeness of the teaching contents. The opening up policy gives the access to market economy. Globalization brings about not only pluralistic economy, but more importantly, pluralistic politics and culture, thoughts and minds. Market economy advocates for the pursuit for individuals’ interests in a reasonable way and for the cultivation of personality. However, the current moral education is still confined in the past traditional thoughts, overemphasiz- ing collective interests and generality, depriving people of their chance for per- sonal development, which is not consistent with the requirements of the changed mode of economic development. In Durkheim’s words, it is “the con- flict between people’s pursuit for their personal values in market economy and the moral criteria or principles which too much emphasize collective interests and general nature”. Market economy brings about new ideas and thoughts in- consistent with the traditionally mainstream thoughts, which exerts a great im- pact on the traditional views on moral education in Chinese schools, as well as challenge for Chinese traditional culture and concepts.
Abstract Adorno’s philosophy inherited and developed Marx’s critical philosophy of history from the perspective of philosophy of history. Marx advanced the two principles in his philosophy of history: one is the criticism of capital or reason, the other the criticism of morality or culture. Adorn took the two principles to research into the cultural industry in late capitalism and rethink Auschwitz, while he criticized Enlightenment reason and developed Marx’s concept of the critical philosophy of history at the microcosmic level of human nature. In the critique of the cultural industry, Adorno first pointed out the essence of the capitalization of the cultural industry. He emphasized that the so-called cultural industry is to turn culture into industrial production and become a sector in the economy, subjecting it to the need for capital accumulation. Therefore, economic benefit, that is, maximizing the acquisition of currency, becomes the inherent power and direct purpose of cultural development, which will inevitably lead to a complete alienation of culture from content to form. Furthermore, he reflected the spirit of enlightenment, emphasizing that the essence of the enlightening spirit was deceit and lies, and it was through deception and lies that the cultural industry stepped out of its place of production and had an impact on people's leisure, entertainment, consumption, and the entire way of life. In the reflection on Auschwitz, Adorno presents a profound philosophical question: ‘Can on live after Auschwitz?’ This issue is a search for the value of human life, and is also a condemnation of the barbaric practices of imperialism, even more a reflection on the history of human civilization. Adorno uses the principles of moral criticism of Marx's critical historical philosophy, criticizes the enlightenment spirit with a mode of civilized and barbaric dialectics, and pointed out that the deceptive elements of the spirit of enlightenment was the cultural roots of imperialist barbarism, in which he developed Marx's critical historical philosophy on the micro level in studying this issue. On this basis, he constructed the metaphysics of culture taking the concept of negation as core and presented the character of criticism of culture in Marx’s critical philosophy of history.
In the second section, Yeo analyses how the genre of the scientific dictionary was shaped in eighteenth-century Britain. He does this initially by relating the eighteenth- century scientific dictionary to the Renaissance tradition of the commonplace book, in order to recover how Ephraim Chambers conceived of his Cyclopaedia. Yeo is both subtle and concretely historical in drawing the two genres together, and the analysis is convincing. Succeeding chapters further explore Chambers’ response to the thorny issue of how structurally to combine the accessibility of alphabetical arrangement with the possibility of systematic reading, and also his debt to Locke’s strictures on the use of language, particularly in regard to scientific terminology. Yeo then contrasts the alphabetical scientific dictionaries of the early eighteenth century with the later treatise-based Encyclopaedia Britannica (1771), which he skilfully paints as a product of the distinctive analysis of intellectual progress of the ScottishEnlightenment.
percent and, more importantly, imports increased by 598 percent, flooding the British market with new and novel products. 2 The accessibility and affordability of luxury goods and materials aided the creation of a new consumer culture, causing the British to buy and sell at unprecedented levels. 3 Social transformation accompanied this economic prosperity, allowing more people to enter the “middling ranks” of society than ever before. 4 For many, this was a golden period in which the previously rigid nature of British society gave way to a more flexible social fabric in which success and economic independence were more attainable. 5 The rapidity and magnitude of these changes, however, was also a cause for concern. Many believed that commerce and wealth brought a variety of social and moral ills. Wealth and luxury bred avarice, selfishness, and a single-minded focus on attaining material goods. As citizens became more concerned about the luxuries that wealth could bring, they increasingly neglected their country and fellow countrymen. Many philosophers and thinkers of the period addressed these problems, trying to find a way to eradicate the vice that accompanied excessive wealth without eliminating all of the luxuries and comforts that accompanied economic prosperity. Scottish thinkers were particularly aggressive in their quest to find a balance between wealth and virtue. This devotion is not surprising given how dramatic
Chronologically this book focuses on the period when the cultural impact of the Enlightenment became most manifest, namely, the 1750s through to the 1790s. In the 1750s, key Enlightenment institutions such as the Select Society were formed, and in the following decades they were joined by other intellectual societies, both elite and popular. Simultaneously, during these decades assemblies and the theatre became regular and morally acceptable features of the cultural landscape (at least in Edinburgh). Yet a narrow focus on these decades might provide a false notion of sudden change with a clear start and end point. The fi rst half of the eighteenth century, and the seventeenth century before it, laid the foundations for the growing epistemological power of Enlightenment, and in the decades after 1790 the Enlightenment remained relevant, changing form whilst embed- ding its intellectual dominance. By the early decades of the nineteenth century, women had begun to claim a place in the public printed culture of Enlightenment. This presence makes their prior absence particularly stark. Although initially understood by feminist historians as the foundation of White men’s power in the modern period, within the historiography of gender and the eighteenth century there is now a tendency to emphasise the means by which Enlightenment discourse challenged female subordi- nation, and to assert women’s cultural, intellectual, and political agency. 16
Introduction: Cultural studies have shown that there are cultural differences among people’s reasoning methods towards the universe. Considering intercultural studies, no study has been performed in order to assess personal and impersonal moral judgments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses and reaction times for personal and impersonal moral judgments and its comparison with Greene ’s study (2004 and 2008) in western culture.
similar to the values of the organization, being a member of the organization is very rewarding, and they are proud to be a part of this organization are critical to achieving top quartile results across key balanced scorecard metrics. One certainty about health care is its uncertainty – health care will increasingly be a complex and challenging environment. For health care leaders to be successful in the present and future, it is not a matter of “white knuckling” or “holding on tight” through change, they need to harness the power of the people who represent their culture. Culture can seem like an inconvenient truth because it can feel messy, abstract, or difficult to change; however, our findings suggest that leaders should pay close attention to the cultures they are fostering to achieve performance gains. For those who have sought care and been met with employees and providers who have palpable energy, demonstrate compassion, and go above and beyond, those individuals meant the difference between a good or bad experience. Our intent is that these findings will stir a conversation across leadership tables to be intentional about culture. Where hiring and retaining the right individuals, creating clarity of purpose, establishing systems of recognition and performance management, and providing training opportunities to develop the very best workforce are no longer “nice to dos” but performance achievement imperative.
The migrant workers mostly consist of young peasant workers in our country. According to the statistics, the young migrant workers, nearly 150 million people, have become the mainstream of more than two hundred million migrant workers group. The moral interpersonal relationship, being one of the important part of relations, it reflects the young migrant workers' harmonious degree of interpersonal relationship, also reflects their inner moral quality. There is no doubt that young peasant workers' moral relationships make a great significance in maintaining their mental health and the harmony of city. Ample evidence shows that the value and significance of moral health in mental health (Pan, 2010). In the current years, young peasant workers' physical and mental health and living quality become increasingly prominent, it has a practical significance to study moral relationship of young migrant workers and deliver them moral education.
economic condition of upland rice farmers in two locations, namely Waeperang and Miskoko villages of Buru Regency, Maluku, describing their work as well as the supporting of the local culture of the community towards the sustainability of their daily life. This study employed qualitative approach using the phenomenology design which is described descriptively based on Miles &Huberman’s model. The results show that the condition of rice farmers continued to survive due to the support of their traditions which led to having lower production costs compared with other plant species. The strategy used by farmers to meet their shortage of life needs is to do other jobs around the environment such as the fishermen and as the eucalyptus oil workers. Economic morals become safeguards and balances in every agricultural activity. Generally, the cultural characteristics of these two locations are the same but different in some conditions that are on the issue of the belief that dominates the actions of each community group. The implications of the study can be a reference policy for the local and central government in increasing the production of upland rice and food security efforts to improve the livelihood of the upland rice farmers.
As the Head of School, Jason Dropik works with families, teachers, students, staff, and community members to provide the best possible learning experiences for everyone. He takes great pride in their commitment toward continuous improvement as they go about bringing their mission to life each day at their School. His goals are to foster meaningful relationships within the School and in the community, while building strong partnerships with other Native organizations. He has an undergraduate degree in early and intermediate education from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and a master’s degree in Administrative Leadership from Concordia University. He received his Wisconsin Certification in School Safety and Security in 2017. He is a member of the Bad River Band of Lake Superior Ojibwe. Because language is important to who they are as people, he is committed to expanding his own understanding and use of their language. As a leader of an intertribal school, he continually seeks out opportunities to learn about all of the Nations. When he’s not working, he enjoys spending time with his family, learning about their culture, camping, hiking, canoeing and playing sports. His wife Jamie and he have three children: Caden (15), Brennan (9), and Rilynn (7).
Abstract—Today’s development of urban area including fishermen’s settlement requires specific and sustainable approach. Future quality improvement of fisher’s dwelling have to consider its inhabitant’s unique culture as the important part of the development. In this regard, maritime culture is highly related to fishermen’s livelihood, sustainable, and potential to be developed in many sectors. Therefore, this paper aims to generate a maritime culture exploration guideline on a particular fishermen’s settlement which is dismantled into five layers of culture, ranging from the most to the least visible. The results consist of aspects, factors, and respective indicators of maritime culture that can be assessed on fishermen settlement in any contexts and places. Further, the upcoming result of maritime culture exploration can be set as the underlying consideration for the fisher’s housing renewal in a sustainable way.
Cultural organization which used in the financial organization such as in general bank, citizen credit bank, generally contain values which came from internal or external values which are used to optimalized the performance of the organization. In Bali, the organization of village credit which is simplify into LPD (Lembaga Perkreditan Desa) is a traditional financial organization which belongs to desa pakraman, it has its own uniqueness which comes from Hindu based cultural organization. Its uniqueness becomes kind of interest to the growth of LPD in Bali, the proof is 1,433 LPDs has been operated in 2016. Globalization has narrowed the distance and spaces between countries to the others, including the unlimited international business. Globalization accompanied by capitalism can go through the villagers‟ attitude of desa pakraman in Bali recently through modern banking services, if it is allowed to be go that way, it will vanish the local genius value of Hindu, tradition, and the culture of Balinese. It will be an irony if all economic activities are done for secular matters; because of it LPD which belongs to desa pekraman answer the challenge through polarized the leadership in villagers‟ selves and in the management of LPD as cultural organization.
have the support of the public, particularly since gaining each individual’s consent to use administrative data (particularly historical data) is close to impossible. Data must be processed efficiently, and IT provision must be powerful and responsive to researchers’ requirements. In these respects, Scotland benefited from the Scottish Health Informatics Programme (funded by the Wellcome Trust) and subsequently the Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (funded by the Medical Research Council and nine other funders). These facilitated public engagement programs about the acceptability of using nonconsented public data and the development of ways to link data for research while also protecting individuals’ privacy. Resources were also given to purchase a secure high-performance computing environment.
A more relevant question is the effect that differences in cultures might have in other usability evaluation techniques. We have shown one case where difference in culture affects the results of the evaluation. In our particular instance, the usability method, structured interview, depends heavily on human-human interaction. This gives the opportunity for social and cultural norms and practices to come to the front. However, would the same be true in other usability evaluation methods? For example, what impact might culture have in a remote usability (Hartson, Castillo, Kelso, Kamler & Neale, 1996) evaluation method? In that method, the interaction between the evaluator and the users is minimized or completely removed. It is possible that such a method might not be influenced as strongly by social and cultural factors. Further research is needed.