Fifth, the mechanism identified here is connected to several other mechanisms that have been shown to influence self-control. Weber et al. (2007) proposed that some of the asymmetric treatment of immediate and delayed rewards is due to biases that make memories associated with immediate rewards easy to process (Peters & Buchel, 2010). Although our study is silent on this point, these memory biases could be responsible for some of the differences in processing speeds. Both the attentional DDM (Krajbich et al., 2010; Krajbich et al., 2012; Krajbich & Rangel, 2011) and Decision Field Theory (Busemeyer & Diederich, 2002; Busemeyer & Townsend, 1993; Roe et al., 2001) predict that increasing the relative amount of time devoted to processing delayed rewards would increase patience. This is connected to the mechanism studied here since increasing the amount of time that it takes to begin processing the delayed rewards affects the overall share of attention that they receive. The key difference with this previous work is that here, all of the variation in processing time comes at the beginning of the trial, whereas in those previous studies it results from fluctuations in attention at any point in the decision process, such as those resulting from changes in which attribute is fixated on at any given point. Cognitive effort and cognitive load have been shown to be powerful modulators of self-control (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004; Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). These effects might operate, at least in part, by changing the speed at which the delayed rewards are processed. Consistent with this, several recent studies have shown that the extent to which the stimulus value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which are widely thought to guide choices (Bartra, McGuire, & Kable, 2013; Clithero & Rangel, 2014), reflects self-control is modulated by activity on areas of dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex that are known to be involved in cognitive control (Figner et al., 2010; T. Hare et al., 2009; Hare et al., 2014; Harris et al., 2013).
Cognitive mechanisms play an important role in the ex- perience of emotion . It is thus valuable to explicate the cognitive mechanisms that predict negative affect in depression. One type of cognitive mechanism is cognitive attribution of control. Success/Failure attribution of con- trol along the internal/external continuum influences the amount of shame experienced by the individuals [17, 18] and is linked to depression. According to the cognitive theory of depression , individuals with depression are inclined toward assuming personal responsibility for un- desirable events, thus giving rise to feelings of shame. They may also view positive conditions as uncontrollable and consequent of external factors or pure luck . On the other hand, individuals without depression tend to engage in self-serving attributional bias, ascribing positive conditions to themselves and negative condi- tions to transient internal psychological states or ex- ternal agents or causes .
In view of the present findings, it becomes apparent that sales people should be selected through a careful psychological screenings. Psychological tests that measure locus of control can aid in the selection process. The study by McManus and Kelly (1999) demonstrates that personality measures can provide significant incremental prediction of contextual performance over bio data, and vice versa. Several studies have used the Big Five model to relate the sales performance with personality factors (Conte & Gintoft, 2005; Warr, Bartran & Martin, 2005: Furham & Fudge, 2008). Spector (1988) has developed a 16-item scale to measure the „Work Locus of Control‟. Corr and Gray (1996) examined the role of attributional style in the performance of salespeople in financial services. Salespeople who are sensitive to criticism or failure, and who respond with internal, stable and global attributions to unfavourable events (high negative attributional style), may be assumed to experience lowered self-esteem and a reduction in client-related motivation (a form of job- specific depression). Conversely, salespeople who attribute favourable events to internal, stable and global factors (high positive attributional styles) are most likely to respond to success with enhanced results-oriented achievement motivation. Their study concluded that high positive attributional style is more important than low negative attributional style in predicting successful sales performance. Also, individuals with internal Locus of control are more likely to succeed than the ones with external Locus of Control (Salleh & Kamaruddin, 2011). It would normally be expected that a greater effort and ability would lead to higher achievement. An individual blaming the level of difficulty or bad luck does not tend to put in the necessary effort or utilise his ability to reach the desired or expected goal.
Results: In patients with HF, internality was similar to values obtained by patients with diabetes, men after myocardial infarction, and women after mastectomy; and was lower than in healthy subjects. Powerful others externality was more pronounced in patients with HF as compared to other groups of patients and healthy people. Only women after mastectomy had higher scores of PHLC. In patients with HF, chance externality was similar to values reported in patients with renal failure, men after myocardial infarction, and women after mastectomy; and was less pronounced than in healthy subjects. The majority (77%) of patients with HF were characterized by a high sense of self-efficacy (.the 7th sten score), having the highest sense of self-efficacy among patients with other chronic diseases and healthy controls. Higher internality was accompanied by higher sense of self-efficacy (P , 0.05) in patients with HF. Subjects with high plasma N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (reflecting the disease severity) had the least pronounced internality (P , 0.05), whereas those with more advance depressive symptoms had the lower sense of self-efficacy (P = , 0.05).
This symposium will enable practitioners to gain insight in to the latest diagnostic and therapeutic advances for patients with advanced cardiac disease. This continuing medical education program is designed for physicians and allied health professionals, including nurse practitioners, transplant coordinators, physician assistants, RNs and case managers interested in the prevention and management of heart failure, heart transplant evaluation, post- transplant care and surgical options in heart failure.
The Success of Failure The concept of failure in dialogue logics and its relevance for NL semantics The S u c c e s s of F a i l u r e T h e c o n c e p t o f failure in d i a l o g u e l o g i c s a[.]
blocks of the military, and capable technocrats, Suharto signalled ‘credible commitments to investors through a combination of formal policies and informal patronage, even though many state institutions remained weak throughout his rule’. whereas ‘the failure to construct a more effective institutional architecture rendered the system vulnerable as the economy expanded and integrated more extensively into global markets’ and, with the onset of the Asian Financial Crisis, in part led to his downfall (2007: 6-7). In the late 1990s, as Suharto aged (signalling to military factions that the presidency would soon be available – Bertrand 2004), his control weakened among the once cohesive military and civilian elite and among the populace. The discontent amongst civilian groups with limited political freedoms culminated in the political unrest leading to his downfall, which had previously been kept at bay by military control and by the New Order’s delivery of growth and improvements in standards of living.
Nkwe (2012) suggested that the government of Botswana should play a leading role in developing the ICT infrastructure as this is a requirement for successful e- government implementation. This will insure that the nation’s internet backbone and the International Gateway are managed effectively. Further, the government supports the development of fibre-optic network for efficient broadband communication, and hence reduce the rates for internet access through ISPs (Alshehri & Drew, 2010). This way, the government is creating an enabling environment for the adoption of ICT in everyday lives of its citizens as this is the start-point of e-government. Apart from the already outlined project success factors, it is suggested that crucial project rationalization and optimization be done from the start. This should entail the realistic planning and anticipation, coordination, communication and leadership attributes of chief project leaders and the project management structures adopted by the organization to nature ICT project success (Maruapula, 2014).
In present times any kind of activity is considered as a project, which has a complex characteristic and which involves a new vision starting with the analysis of the project needs and finishing with the efficient re-usage of the project results. The pressures of the global economical and political competitive system of the contemporary world, the competition between producers, a higher respect for the value, and the wellbeing of those who compose the human resources of the project and implicitly for the cost generated by the work factor led to the development of new techniques of project management. The first one who offers what the client wants is the winner and has all the chances to survive in a competitive system. The solution is to realize success projects using an efficient project management. A performing business means an investment in a successful project, with predictable and planned activities. This study wants to identify which are the main causes which lead to the success or failure of a project. In any field some projects were serious and expansive failures and this is the reason why we need to know how we can improve the knowledge and the practice when we conceive and develop a project.
Further research should increase samples in order to improve accuracy and precision in similarity in PBAC and PBAC among bargainers. Researchers should ask the respondents about their bargaining experiences in last one month in order to allow them recalling their experiences more obviously, precisely, and accurately. Antecedent factors before deciding to bargain (e.g. self-esteem, confidence, etc.) should be study to see what influent factors strong enough to drag buyer from bargaining (bargaining refrain/bargaining retraction). Moreover, it is suggested that future research may study the phenomena after the PBAC in order to see how effectively PBAC can shape the subsequent phenomena.
Our focus here is on finding one decryption failure. After observing a de- cryption failure, the adversary should switch to a different strategy such as the recently proposed directional failure boosting of D’Anvers, Rossi, and Virdia . We will not discuss the process of estimating the secret from a collection of failures. For further background on failure boosting, and reaction attacks on lattice-based schemes more generally, see [8, 16, 5].
The phases of macroeconomic populism described by Dornbusch and Edwards (1991) is valid for the Baltic countries, too. The Soviet era and the first half of 1990s were the period of strongly repressed consumption, thus, the households desired more. The growth period of the region, and as global financial instruments made it possible (see below Feldstein-Horioka puzzle), that significant share of Baltic consumption and investment got financed from foreign sources. Of course, politicians did not want to obstruct the increase of welfare from external credit as it raised the placidity of people. Besides the toleration of low monetary transmission, the Baltic policies targeted low public duties. Csaba (2008) summaries the failure of macroeconomic populism in the Baltic (and East-Central European) region as follows: (1) cuts on public duties, (2) passivity in overheated economy, (3) focus only on fiscal balance, (4) delay of structural reforms, (5) no political consensus, (6) winner-takes-it-all behavior in politics, (7) elemental brake-through of private demand after decades of repressed consumption. This process caused an enormous current account deficit and high inflation (see below Reveres Balassa-Samuelson effect). Finally, bottlenecks appeared in the Baltics, too. Exchange rate policy aspects
As previously discussed, it is necessary to consider if the relative funding goal, intended as a signal, respects the three critical conditions of being manipulatable, costlier for low-quality projects and observable. Clearly, the relative funding goal is manipulatable and observable, as any funding goal can be set for a project and the backers are free to view the funding goal. This signal can also be considered costlier for low-quality projects as, usually, more backers will be needed to support a project with a higher funding goal. Thus, with an increased number of backers, there will be an increased amount of scrutiny placed upon the project, not only as a result of the direct knowledge of each backer but as a function of the combined knowledge of the backers in the form of crowd wisdom (Sadiku et al, 2017). Low- quality projects would be less likely to withstand this increased level of scrutiny, therefore incurring a higher cost for setting a higher relative funding goal. Hence, the relative funding goal can be seen as an effective signal and can be used as a proxy for the level of confidence of the creators. Thus, the author proposes that in general creators signalling through their relative funding goals, might be overconfident in the quality of their projects, unintentionally leading this signal to have a negative impact on the success of the crowdfunding project. This is captured by stating the following hypothesis:
It is always unlikely that governments arrive at an IGC with similar standpoints on all issues, or even with an agreement over which issues should be regarded as high priorities. Thus, by itself, the fact that disagreements occur is unimportant. What we need to do, therefore, is to qualify the role that such disagreements might play in determining the success or failure of the outcomes. A first distinction that needs to be drawn is the nature of the agreement itself. Does it touch a fundamental national interest, whatever that may be, or does it reflect the policy preference, for whatever reason, of the government in power? Then we have to examine a second distinction. Is the outcome the result of a straight bargaining process to secure the maximum national advantage for each state or does it reflect a more consensual process where all participants strive towards the ultimate goal of securing a ratifyable agreement?
control it (Bless et al. 1990, 1996a, 1996b; Bodenhasuen 1993; Clore, Schwarz, and Conway 1994). Specifically in terms of information processing, when affect serves as information, negative affects, which signal that some- thing is wrong or amiss, motivate individuals to process information more elaborately, whereas positive affects, which signal that everything is all right, decrease the motivation to elaborate on information processing tasks (Raghunathan and Trope 2002). Suppose vividly pre- sented negative information generates more negative af- fect than pallid or abstract information, it seems plausible that such information will also enhance message argu- ment scrutiny, and reduce the reliance on heuristic cues, such as message frames. Given that negative vivid versus pallid information is more likely to generate more nega- tive affect among consumers, we would expect such negative vivid information would serve as a signal for prompting higher levels of elaboration and systematic processing of the message claims, than negative pallid or abstract information, which is expected to prompt con- sumers to rely more on heuristic processing and enhance the use of heuristic cues such as message frames. There- fore, we speculate that when negative vivid information is presented in the message, consumers are more likely to develop more negative affect, and elaborate more on the message arguments, and thus be more sensitive to the strength of argument quality; when negative pallid or abstract information is presented, consumers would pro- cess more heuristically, and rely more on heuristic cues such as message frames rather than on in-depth scrutiny of the message arguments. We predict that vividness of negative information moderates the effects of message framing by influencing consumers’ cognitive elaboration. When vividness level is high, such presentation of nega- tive information can attenuate the effects of message framing, so that persuasion is more dependent on argu- ment strength; when vividness level of negative informa- tion is low, the effect of message framing will still hold, i.e., loss framed messages are generally more persuasive than gain framed messages.
The evidence on the benefits of exporting and FDI is increasingly indicative of a positive effect. Girma et al. (2004) note that the majority of studies fail to find evidence of benefits arising from export activity. However, they use propensity score matching to address the fact that high-productivity firms self-select into exporting, and find that TFP growth in exporting firms is 1-2 percentage points higher in the first two years after export entry than it would have been had they remained non-exporters. Harris and Li (2007) also use matching, along with an instrumental variables approach and the Heckman two-stage selection model, and find that, under each approach, productivity rises in exporting firms after they enter export markets. These studies are in contrast with the US evidence provided by Bernard and Jensen (1999), for example, which showed little evidence that productivity growth increased among US firms after entry into an export market. However, Greenaway (2004: 338) posits that the benefit of exporting may be larger for UK firms because they are further from the technology frontier and thus have more to gain from entering world markets. It is also notable that, in common with Girma et al., Bernard and Jansen’s most recent study did find that employment rose in exporting firms after they began to export (Bernard and Jansen, 2004), suggesting that, irrespective of whether exporting actually raises productivity, exporting is associated with a process of reallocation in favour of the most productive firms.
listeners who have no intention of embracing DAB – up from 64 per cent in 2013 to 67 per cent (2014a: 241). Talk of digital switchover thus appears at odds with such evidence of listener habits. This sense that digital radio is being ‘imposed’ on an unwilling public, one that can certainly be found in some sections of media commentary, featured in two reports published during 2010. The UK House of Lords Select Committee on Communications conducted an inquiry into digital television and radio, reporting in March. It concluded that it did not follow from the success of television switchover that digital radio would prove equally attractive to listeners: ‘There is no such evidence for radio. The gradual rate of take- up of digital radio services does not suggest that consumers are enticed by the reception quality, extra functionality or the digital-only content so far available’. While expressing such doubts about the attraction of DAB, it follows with an acceptance that ‘the path to digital has already been taken’ and that ‘to go back on this policy now would risk turning
We include dummy variables for patient age (7 groups) and gender. We measure patient health characteristics on admis- sion (observable risk of a negative heath outcome) by using the Charlson co-morbidity index and a set of dummy variables con- trolling for speciﬁc conditions separately (Bottle and Aylin, 2006): dementia or Alzheimer’s (ICD-10 codes F00–F03, G30), diabetes (E10–E14), chronic ischaemic heart disease (I20, I23–I25), chronic lower respiratory disease (J40–J47), heart failure (I50), renal fail- ure (N17–N19), and malignant melanoma (any C code). Also, we include a variable counting the total number of secondary diagno- sis in the ﬁrst episode of care after the patient’s admission (Wray et al., 1997). We include dummies for the main type of operations performed, i.e. ﬁxation procedure including primary open or closed reduction and internal or external ﬁxation (OPCS-4 codes W19–25), prostatic replacement of head of femur (W46–48), other proce- dures including non-orthopaedic ones, and no procedure carried out (the baseline). We follow the classiﬁcation used in similar stud- ies (Bottle and Aylin, 2006). The controls for the type of operation acts as a proxy for patient health conditions rather than as hospital decision variables, since the scope for varying the choice of proce- dure is limited for these type of patients. All the variables described above are measured at the individual level and are included in both the patient survival and readmission equations.