Following the analysis of the public institution, i.e. Calarasi City Hall, we noticed that it does not have a tendency towards the satisfaction of the citizens’ needs. The staff of this public institution should not forget that their main objective is represented by the satisfaction of citizens’ needs, respecting, of course, the legal issues. On the other hand, the centralized data reveal that the company ACTIVE TRADING SRL is an organization oriented towards the compliance with the ethical principles and values, promoting a customer-oriented attitude. It can be stated that SC ACTIVE TRADING SRL falls in the category of positive organizationalculture, characterized by the homogeneity of values and by the perspectives that provide positive motivation. In addition, it can be concluded that this private company belongs to the rational - market oriented culture type, where the main performance criterion is represented by efficiency. The organizationalculture consists in all the values, beliefs, aspirations, expectations and behaviors, shaped over time, in each organization, and which predominate and directly and indirectly condition its functionality and performance (Goleman, 2000). Given these issues, in order to facilitate the public manager’s mission, the organizationalculture has a number of components with major implications for human resource performance in publicinstitutions, such as: values, implicit assumptions, stories, symbols, heroes, language, rituals, ceremonies, rules and status. All these help explain why the public manager's role is particularly important in shaping the organizationalculture of a public institution. It also explains why he/she should be not only the "designer" of the core value system, but also the main active militant in the constant adaptation of the organizationalculture to new values, and in the integration into the wider context of European cultural values (Bennis & Nanus, 2000, pp. 85-86).
The interviews conducted with the above-mentioned officials contained the topic, respectively, the same questions for each of the officials interviewed and the same have been conducted through making the questions, somewhere in the listed form somewhere depending on the outflow of the conversation of each interview. It is important to note that each officer interviewed was allowed sufficient space to express, explain, discuss the issue of the impact of organizationalculture in the process of development, functionality, consolidation and maintenance of Quality Management System within their institution according to perception, feeling, and experience completely personal from his or her point of view! All this with the sole purpose of gathering qualitative data for the impact of organizationalculture in the functioning of the Quality Management Systems, respectively Total Quality Management within their publicinstitutions.
According to Williams, et al (2010) maintaining a well-trained pool of workers in public child welfare agencies continues to be an ongoing problem. Research suggests that it is critical that we continue to explore the factors associated with worker efficacy. Existing research has found that outcomes for families and children are affected by numerous individual and organizational characteristics one of which is workers’ perceived efficacy. A report from the Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research based on a study conducted in collaboration with the University of Maryland School of Social Work, Center for Families & Institute for Human Services Policy (2005), found that positive personal factors associated with retention include professional commitment to children and families, previous work experience, education, job satisfaction, efficacy, and personal characteristics such as age. Personal factors that negatively impact retention include burnout, defined as emotional exhaustion which is a component of burnout most linked to turnover, role overload, conflict and stress. Organizational factors that impact retention/turnover include better salary, supervisory support, reasonable workload, coworker support, opportunities for advancement, organizational commitment, and valuing employees. Recent studies have focused more specifically on organizationalculture and supervision as factors influencing worker efficacy and retention. The Child Welfare Information Gateway (2015) conducted research that addressed the importance of the supervision in child welfare services by directly linking effective supervision with good practice. They statethat supervisors offer valuable educational, social, and administrative support, which can in turn contribute to worker effectiveness that translates into quality service delivery, improved worker capacity, increased service provision, stronger client engagement, and improved goal attainment on the part of workers.
In Saudi Arabia, public organizations have been associated with poor management and performance. Little is understood about the reasons behind such poor performance. Therefore, this study examined the effect of organizationalculture and leadership styles on the performance of Saudi Arabia’s public organizations, through the mediating factors of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. In this quantitative research, cross-sectional data of 400 employees working in 16 ministries of the Saudi Arabia government were obtained. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was applied to test the hypotheses. The validity and reliability of the measurement and the structural models were confirmed. Findings showed a full mediation effect of organizational commitment on the relationship between organizationalculture and organizational performance, but organizational commitment was found to partially mediate the relationship between leadership styles and organizational performance. No mediation of job satisfaction was found on the relationship between leadership styles and organizational performance and on the relationship between organizationalculture and organizational performance. The findings add to the existing literature by integrating the factors that could enhance organizational performance. Based on the findings, the study recommends that public organizations in Saudi Arabia improve their organizationalculture and appoint managers who have transactional and transformational qualities. By doing so, employee commitment is enhanced, which leads to a positive and significant impact on organizational performance. The implications for practice and for future research are also discussed.
Government is facing the wave of change in ensuring the best possible service can be provided to the public. The unification of a number of employees have bring together various of people and perceptions, and therefore a specialty of organizational cultures are combined. The organizationalculture of an organization has an effect on the change management. A fit between the organizationalculture and the employees will increase the effectiveness of change management towards improved the delivery of service. The objectives of this study is to examine the relationship between organizationalculture and change management in public sector organization. This study also will identify the impact between organizationalculture and change management in public sector organization. A total of 400 sets of questionnaires have been distributed by hand to employees who work at Ministry Of Home Affairs, Prime Minister’s Department and Ministry Of Education in Malaysia as a representatives of employees in public sector organization and 390 questionnaires were returned for analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Research findings revealed there was a change management existed among the respondents. Significant values for each element in independent variable which the items of communication, training and development, shared values and teamwork were reliable which the reliability value for independent variables are Communication; 0.785, Training and Development; 0.843, Shared Values; 0.890 and Teamwork; 0.820. It can be concluded that organizationalculture has a significant effect on the change management of public sector organization in Malaysia. For the future research, it is better for researcher to explore more on shared values and training and development to get the best result. Besides, other elements such as corporate vision, entrepreneurial, bureaucratic and leadership can be included.
Closely succeeding clan was hierarchy, another internally-focused culture which also showed strong manifestations. In this sense, it was inferred that the schools were characterized by a formalized and structured place of work. These findings of this study were similar to Cameron and Quinn’s (2011) as they explained that large organizations and government agencies, the public secondary schools for instance, are generally dominated by this type of organizationalculture. It is also worth noting that hierarchy culture was rated highest in the dimen- sion organizational glue, and was evaluated second strongest culture in four other dimensions. Hence, it was deduced that the schools are bonded together by rules and structure and highlight efficiency. In addition, the organizational environment of the schools is stable and simple; if changes are to be made they should be kept to a bare minimum (OCAI Report, 2017).
This thesis aims at analyzing the impact of the culture of an organization on its employees’ motivation. Precisely, it is assessed how different Organizational Cultures (OC) in faculties of universities as public organizations influence the motivation of its academic staff. Motivation in this case refers to the Public Service Motivation (PSM) of academics at universities and universities of applied sciences in Germany and the Netherlands in 2016. Since the literature suggests that context, i.e. culture, has an impact on motivation but does not indicate which type of culture has what kind of impact on motivation in the public sector the general research question is: In how far does OrganizationalCulture influence Public Service Motivation and how can this relationship be explained? Further, the research seeks to analyze whether the concept of Public Service Motivation applies to public universities as specific type of public organizations that find themselves increasingly as subject to New Public Management reforms which conflicts with the traditional values of academics. Data has been collected through-semi structured interviews with eight heads of faculties of both natural and social sciences at universities and universities of applied sciences in Germany and the Netherlands. According to the results of the study it is difficult to say whether there is a causal relationship between OC and PSM. Moreover, academic staff at universities appears as typically motivated by factors other than included in the classical concept of PSM. This thesis is interesting for anyone interested in the concepts of OrganizationalCulture and Public Service Motivation within the world of secondary higher education.
Globalisation and changing world order has led to growing importance of management education in all countries including India. Today, Masters in Business Administration (MBA) has become one of the most sought after courses. It is considered to offer immense opportunities to individuals and a ‘ticket’ to raise fast in the corporate ladder. Thus over a period of time, there has been huge expansion in both demand and supply of management education in India. With increasing demand of this course, there has been expansion in private initiatives in the field. With high fees, meritorious students with poor family backgrounds are also argued to be excluded from the fast growth story of management education just because of their inability to afford management education. In light of this discussion, this study examines the beneficiaries of public (subsidized) and private (self-financing) management education, their socio-economic background and delve into issues of accessibility of management education. Sample size is 200 students of four management institutions (50 students from each institution). Institutions were selected on the basis of their location and ownership. All the four institutions are from Delhi Region. The four Institutions selected are: A Management Department of a Central University, A Management Department of a self-financing State University, Private Autonomous Institution, Private Autonomous Institution. Data was collected through primary survey. It was found that majority of the students in both sample public and privateinstitutions were from middle income background, belong to metropolitan city and are of general category. Majority of the students had a steady source of income. The study concludes by giving recommendations on improving access of management education by charging differential fee and making policies to ensure equalised opportunities for students from disadvantaged background.
Organizationalculture is usually created by the dominant coalition, especially by the founder or manager of an organization, and public relations managers do not get influence if their values and ideology differ substantially from that of the organization. Organizationalculture is also affected by the society culture and by the environment. It affects public relations in the long term by moulding the world view of the public relations function and thus influences the choice of a model of public relations inside the organization. 
45 Decree 2.207 of 15 April 1997, known as LDB – Nova Lei de Diretrizes e Bases (Law of Directives and Basis for National Education - LDBNE) brought changes to reorganize the Brazilian higher education system. One example was that privateinstitutions of higher education could now be constituted as profit-making entities, in addition to changing their framework classification into categories such as universities, university centers, integrated colleges, institutes or higher education school. Together with these changes, the demands regarding teacher education have increased, such as Master's and Doctorate’s degrees, aiming at increasing quality in higher education (Canopf et al., 2005; Lombardi, Traverso, Leite, Carvalho, & Caro, 2011;Tomaz et al., 2016).
“. . . the constant never ending stress ...then the stress of poor interpersonal relationships, poor scanty staffing ratios, long working hours, you have no personal life. I felt the environ- ment was so hostile, you make a mistake and you are repri- manded in public. . . , how much can one person take? You go home. . . I could hardly eat. . . .you are constantly thinking of work, I am like ‘oh, what didn’t I document’ and instead of sleeping I think, what didn’t I do. . . ” (RN-02)
The main goal of this research is the analysis of key factors for working in public sector organizations in the Republic of Macedonia, which are the determinants of organizationalculture. Above all they are: innovations, leadership, professional development, communication skills and attitudes and values of employees. The research is based on five, you can say, global factors of organizationalculture correlated with gender, education and age of employees, particularly in health and educational institutions in the southwestern region of the Republic of Macedonia. Basic assumptions are that these studies have great theoretical and practical significance, because of the "strength" of organizationalculture depends the quality of services in the public sector which are offered to us, the strategies for the development, management and coordination between employees, work motivation and marketing. The recent literature, talks more about organizationalculture and its impact on the success of the organization. The authors dealing with this problem, generally agree that it is difficult to define culture, but at the same time they say that in the middle of the term is a system of norms and values that promote or inhibit the successful operation of the organization. Having that in mind, we can say that the organizationalculture is not only a factor in a series of factors for the successful functioning of the organization, but it actually connects all of the aforementioned factors or determinants of efficient and effective operation.
She described the school culture as heavily relational and how that is important to teaching the whole child. “If we haven’t built relationships with students then they are not going to feel like they can share and then we are not reaching the whole child.” Above all, she wants others to know the school is relational and has caring teachers, but that it is also distinguished by being comparable to public schools and being able to offer seamless transitions to and from public schools. Parent involvement is a unique relational challenge related to the newness of the school and the parents who helped to start it. While Jessica considers technology is the avenue for becoming “cutting edge,” she also recognizes that the school also needs growth – more families and more space. Organizational changes at present are focused to that end, although there are day-to-day operational changes that occur frequently; for example, dual enrollment is offered in house, new laptops are available to students, the PSAT is now offered in house, student
Abstract: This study aims to examine the relationship between transformational leadership, organizationalculture, quality assurance, and organizational performance. It also examined the mediating effect of quality assurance in the relationship between transformational lead- ership and organizational performance, and between organizationalculture and organiza- tional performance. The instruments in the form of Google forms were distributed to em- ployees who work in quality assurance units in several public and private Islamic higher education institutions for 6 months, June-December 2019. 128 Data were processed and analyzed out of 135 data collected. The five-point Likert scale was used to assess the variables and to measure the items. Furthermore, Partial Least Square (PLS) was used to test the proposed hypotheses. This study found that the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational performance both directly and indirectly through quality assurance was not significant. Transformational leadership also did not affect quality as- surance. On the other hand, organizationalculture was proven to be able to influence high organizational performance and quality assurance. Besides, quality assurance could not mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational perfor- mance, but it can positively and significantly mediate in the relationship between organiza- tional culture and organizational performance. The results provided by this study provide the understanding and linking among transformational leadership, organizationalculture, quality assurance, and organizational performance among Islamic higher education institu- tions (IHEIs). While the extent of leadership research has conducted in manufactures orga- nizations, this study shifted the focus of attention to the religious-based institutions (IHEIs).
Changes imposed on public higher education institutions try to adopt some management practices in public organizations. In this study, we intend to understand how organizationalculture (support, innovation, goals, rules) and internal marketing can contribute to the organizational support of employees of higher education institutions. The study was developed with a sample of 635 employees. The results show that organizationalculture and internal marketing contribute to the explanation of perceived organizational support (POS). Then, through a structural equation model, it was possible to confirm the contribution of support culture and internal marketing to the explanation of POS. More studies are necessary taking students’ point of view into account. These results reveal the importance of the fact that organizations need to implement a culture of support and appropriate internal communication networks that allow employees to perceive social support.
Second, since most empirical evidence on the influence of organizationalculture to teachers’ organizational behavior had been conducted mostly in Western countries and in Africa, this study gave very important information since it also extends its inquiry in developing countries by taking Philippines as a case study. The results of the present study also coincide with previous literature revealing clan as the dominant culture type among institutions and organizations in United States (Lund, 2003; Berrio, 2003; Smart & St. John, 1996), United Kingdom (Ogbonna & Harris, 2000), Africa (Van der Post, de Coning, & Smit, 1997), and China (Tsui, Wang, & Xin, 2006). With these results, it is then suggested that more research be conducted focusing on other types of Higher Educational institutions in the Philippines such as government owned and private non-sectarian schools in order to confirm the claim of the present study and previous studies of the universality of clan as the dominant organizationalculture of Higher Education institutions across different nations.
Theoretically, the findings of this research contribute to the knowledge of the relationship between organizational structure and organizational commitment in public and private firms in Jordan. These results should assist in demonstrating the type and level of organizational structure that enhances employee' commitment in organizations. Future studies should examine the role of employee' culture in the relationship between the dimensions of organizational structure and employee attitudes and behavior in organization in Arab countries. Specifically, culture may change these relationships by making them positive or negative. Furthermore, future studies should also examine the impact of other dimensions of organizational structure, such as size and complexity, on job related attitudes and behavior. Future research should also focus upon whether the results of this study are similar across public and private sector organizations in other Arab countries.
Both the history of work and organizational psychology and that of human factors can be traced back to experimental psychology (for example the work of Wilhelm Wundt). Later on, a more applied psychology began to emerge, as there was a need for a more ―usable‖ psychology (Lane, 2007, p. 244). During World War I, airplanes and tanks became increasingly complex and operator errors started to increase. This led to the military’s interest in meeting the demands posed on operators through new systems and determining whether humans were capable of meeting these demands. This work resulted, for instance, in the development of new displays and controls. World War II was the starting point for the divergence of work and organizational psychology and human factors. While work and organizational psychologists were involved with the testing, screening, and classification of recruits, human factors experts were concerned with adapting knowledge of human abilities and limitations to the design of military equipment (Lane, 2007; Muchinsky, 1987). After the two World Wars, members of industry also began to hire human factors experts to design jobs and equipment which led to a further expanding of human factors (Lane, 2007).
To sum up from the respondents of the interview, Ghana publicinstitutions reforms and policies can be smoothly implemented and coordinated in any form to achieve the target goal if the staff in charge of execution has been well trained accordingly in taking the influence of the environment into account. The need for staff training in innovative reform implementation is very important because there is always difficulty in defining the roles between the implementing and supervising agency for the reason that there is no specific defined responsibility when there is individual reform programme in place. A silent or indirect institutional culture has many roles to play where people in the system (public service) have developed attitudes and perceptions that have been adopted from within and these attitudes have to change. Examples of such attitudes are nepotism and tribalism that have characterized appointments and promotions within the Ghanaian public service at the expense of competence (professional qualification). To have a sustainable and effective implementation of reform, the people within the service must understand the need for the reform and what kind of reform is being carried out or embarked upon and the benefits they are going to gain. In line with the ways of reform effective implementation in public institution, the World Bank has had a mixed record in public sector reform to date. Analysis by OED and QAG, as well as the experience gained during the past decade by the Bank’s operational staff, show the extensive breadth and depth of Bank involvement and effort, with both successes and failures as outcomes. They also point to several systemic shortcomings of past Bank work in this area: It has sometimes relied on models of “best practice” that have not been feasible in the particular country setting, given variations in human and institutional capacity. There has traditionally been a shortage of staff skills in certain specialized areas related to governance, institutional reform, and capacity building, in part reflecting the lower demand for these skills in the past given the limited emphasis placed on institution building goals.
The idea of CSR begins with Bowen’s work in 1953 and since then evolving. Its proponents believe that CSR can lead to significant transformations in how individual corporations conduct their business (Brown, 2009). According to Bhattacharya and Sen (2004), consumers are found to have a favourable attitude towards companies that engage in CSR. As for businesses, they can expect for improved financial performance and profitability; reduced operating costs; long-term sustainability for companies and their employees; increased staff commitment and involvement; enhanced capacity to innovate; good relations with government and communities; better risk and crisis management; enhanced reputation and brand value; and the development of closer links with customers and greater awareness of their needs (Bevan, Isles, Emery and Hoskins, 2004). Reputation assurance is one of the major drivers of CSR (Ward, Borregaard and Kapelus, 2002) in addition to social license to operate, sustaining key aspects of business, and improving business as a whole. Bronn and Vrioni (2001) argued that “having a pro-social agenda means having a powerful marketing tool that can build brand image and brand equity sector”. Scott and Lane (2000) outlined three mechanisms used by organizations to prompt stakeholders’ cognitive elaboration of an organizational identity: (a) presenting organizational images in communications, (b) making stakeholders’ affiliation with the organization more public, and (c) increasing interactions with the organization and/or among stakeholders. Therefore, marketing communications can trigger enhanced stakeholder identification by including CSR images in organizational communications (Maignan and Ferrell, 2004, p.14). As for universities, establishing identity and maintaining their reputation in competitive marketplace can be very important drivers for CSR.