Top PDF The Parents' Role in Childhood Obesity

The Parents' Role in Childhood Obesity

The Parents' Role in Childhood Obesity

One study conducted by Tibbs et al. (2001) examined the effects of parental modeling on children’s food intake by having parents answer multiple surveys and questionnaires to assess the frequency with which parents model dietary behaviors for their children. The results of the study indicate that parents reported greater frequency in sitting with their children at meals or eating foods they want their child to eat. However, they infrequently reported modeling the intake of low-fat snacks to their child or a willingness to set rules about how many fruits and vegetables their child should eat (Tibbs et al. 2001). It seems reasonable to conclude from this research that parents are frequently inconsistent in their methods of modeling health behaviors to their children. Although eating at the family dinner table may help children eat healthily that particular evening, not learning to reach for low-fat snacks or fruits and vegetables may cause children to exhibit unhealthy eating behaviors when dining elsewhere than home (a friend’s house, at school, etc.). Tibbs et al. (2001) also believes it is worth noting that despite parental reports of modeling, a majority of parents did not follow recommended guidelines on fat or fruit and vegetable consumption. Perhaps part of the reason children are eating unhealthily is because they are not learning and internalizing correct nutritional guidelines from their parents. Since obesity most commonly begins in childhood between the ages of five and six, and during
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MANAGEMENT OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY .......

MANAGEMENT OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY .......

In Ayurveda, obesity has been defined under the headings of Sthaulya in Ashtoninditiya Purush (Un- desirable physics) in which mainly Meda (Fat) and Mamsa (Muscle) Dhatu is pretentious. Sthoulya is an abnormal and excess accumulation of Medo Dhatu. Frequent and excess intake of foods which increase Kapha and MedoDhatu. Childhood obesity is a known pioneer to obesity and other non- communicable diseases in later life. Environmental and genetic factors, lifestyle preferences and cul- ture play a major role in the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. In medical science Sthoulya can be compared with obesity. As obesity not only reduces the life span of an individual but also leads to life threatening complications like stroke, and ischemic heart disease. Prevention of obesity can be done initially in early stage of life by adopting regimens, Shaman Aushadhis and Pathyapa- thya mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Present study emphasises prevention and management of childhood obesity.
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ROLE OF DIETARY AND LIFE STYLE MODIFICATION IN STHAULYA W.S.R. TO CHILDHOOD OBESITY .......

ROLE OF DIETARY AND LIFE STYLE MODIFICATION IN STHAULYA W.S.R. TO CHILDHOOD OBESITY .......

Sthaulya which is a Rasa Nimittaja Vyadhi as well as Sleshmaja Nanatamaja Vyadhi and has been also considered under the Santarpanotha disorders i.e. disease due to improper and over nourishment. Pre- sent study has been planned to break the pathogene- sis of the Sthaulya by administration with strict die- tary instruction with low caloric diet, although plenty of causative factors are attributed for devel- opment of Sthaulya or obesity. Counselling of the child in the present study played significant role in withdraw all possible causative factors, and list of food beverages to be taken with interval and daily activities to be done has been provided.
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Childhood Cumulative Risk and Obesity: The Mediating Role of Self-Regulatory Ability

Childhood Cumulative Risk and Obesity: The Mediating Role of Self-Regulatory Ability

OBJECTIVES: We tested whether early childhood risk exposures are related to weight gain in adolescence and evaluate an underlying mechanism, self-regulatory behavior, for the risk-obesity link. METHODS: Cumulative risk exposure to 9 sociodemographic (eg, pov- erty), physical (eg, substandard housing), and psychosocial (eg, family turmoil) stressors was assessed in 244 nine-year-old children. BMI was calculated at age 9 and then 4 years later. At age 9, children ’ s ability to delay grati fi cation as an index of self-regulatory behavior was assessed. Path analyses were then estimated to evaluate our mediational model (Cumulative risk → Self-regulation → BMI) over a 4-year period in a prospective, longitudinal design.
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A Commentary on "Parents’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Childhood Fever Management in Jordan": The Role of Healthcare Professionals in Caregiver Fever Phobia

A Commentary on "Parents’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Childhood Fever Management in Jordan": The Role of Healthcare Professionals in Caregiver Fever Phobia

It isn’t difficult to understand how fever might have come to strike such fear in the hearts of parents all over the world. Prior to immunizations, antibiotics, and other advances of modern medicine, the development of fever often represented a life-threatening condition. Despite the fact that today the vast majority of fevers in children are caused by self-limited viral infections, the cultural inertia behind fever phobia may be difficult to overcome without extensive educational campaigns targeted at caregivers.
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Childcare Providers' Perceptions of Their Influence on Obesity in Early Childhood

Childcare Providers' Perceptions of Their Influence on Obesity in Early Childhood

Koblinsky, Guthrie, and Lynch (1992) studied the effects of a parent nutrition education program on the nutrition-related behavior of the parents and on the food consumption patterns of their children. Parents who received the treatment (weekly nutrition newsletters and four nutrition workshops) reported making more healthy changes in meal planning, food selection, food preparation, and cooking than did the control group who did not receive the newsletters and workshops. The researchers concluded that parental nutrition education can have positive impacts on family nutrition behaviors and can lead to a healthier diet for preschool children. One way to potentially increase family involvement, say Briley and Roberts-Gray (1999, p. 985) is to post menus where they are accessible to parents, and to ensure that “special efforts be made to get parents involved so they can make informed decisions about what foods and nutrition learning experiences to offer during the child’s hours away from the child care facility.”
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Queering Early Childhood Studies: Challenging the Discourse of Developmentally Appropriate Practice

Queering Early Childhood Studies: Challenging the Discourse of Developmentally Appropriate Practice

In addition to the more commonly understood identities, children with queer parents may be adopted or may have been conceived with a known or unknown donor. Children may be born through surrogacy or may be part of an earlier heterosexual relationship. These queer variations on conventional no- tions of family demand consideration by early childhood educators, faculty, and researchers, again challenging the discourse of normative human develop- ment. The silence of queering identities invokes a pathologization, as Butler (1993) has suggested. I argue that the term developmentally appropriate practice plays a significant role in relationships between early childhood educators and parents and by extension establishes a discourse that is dominated by heteronormativity in early learning and care programs. Viruru (2005) demon- strates that despite important scholarly work on the limitations and colonial assumptions underlying developmentally appropriate practice, dominant dis- course of childhood continues to dominate and pervade not only Euro-western practice, but also early childhood development in the majority world. Heteronormativity is reified and “embedded in things,” as Warner observed— in ordinary, everyday activities (Adams, 2004, p. 16) and played out in the daily interactions and activities in early childhood settings. Examples include lining children up by gender, ignoring boys engaged in aggressive behavior, suggest- ing instead “the boys are just being boys,” and selecting children’s books that depict only the heterosexual family make-up. The application of a poststruc- tural analysis in early childhood studies provides an opportunity to unpack a schooling discourse still tied to Anglo-American and normatively determined standards of developmentally appropriate practice.
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Attitudes of parents towards the ‘Fit Together’ childhood obesity prevention programme: a qualitative study

Attitudes of parents towards the ‘Fit Together’ childhood obesity prevention programme: a qualitative study

Methods: We searched following databases: CENTRAL, MED- LINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ASSIA. The key terms included: non-diet*, health at every size, HAES, *holis- tic, intuitive, mindful, abdominal fat, overweight, obesity, body fat and fat mass. We combined the outcomes from all the studies in a meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. We investigated heterogeneity with sub-analysis. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select studies. Selected stud- ies were assessed for risk of bias. Two authors selected and assessed studies; a third author was consulted where disagree- ments arose. Primary outcomes included blood lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyc- erides); blood pressure and body weight. Secondary outcomes included dietary intake; physical activity; alcohol intake and psychosocial wellbeing (self-esteem, body image avoidance, depression, binge eating, drive for thinness, bulimia and body dissatisfaction, hunger, disinhibition and restrained eating). Results: Improvements in blood pressure favoured the CWL programmes and improvements in blood cholesterol were gen- erally in favour of the HNWL programmes but differences were small. In the short term, changes in body weight were in favour of the CWL programmes, but in the long term, these differences favoured the HNWL programmes. In the HNWL programmes disordered eating patterns improved more (Table 1.).
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Ethnic identification during early childhood : the role of parents and teachers

Ethnic identification during early childhood : the role of parents and teachers

Deciding who should be included under each category of employment was problematical. Given the sample size of twenty-seven families however, there was little point in using a more sophisticated or refined occupational ranking scale such as the ANU 2 or the ABS occupational classification system. Since information about parental education was available, it was decided to link occupations with level of education attained. As a consequence, skilled tradesmen (such as a carpenter) and unskilled cleaners were placed on the same level because most of these parents had not gone beyond primary school. A total of seventeen parents fell into this category, and the majority of them were Finns. On the other hand, the professional category, which consisted of parents with a university degree, was dominated by the Indian fathers. This category consisted of twelve individuals, (two mothers and ten fathers) accounting for 22 per cent of all parents participating in this study. In contrast, the Scottish and Finnish parents were concentrated in clerical and trade categories. There were however no Indian fathers who could be identified within these two categories. This was significant given that twenty-six individuals, almost half of the parent participants, were represented within clerical and trade categories.
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Small Steps to Health: Building Sustainable Partnerships in Pediatric Obesity Care

Small Steps to Health: Building Sustainable Partnerships in Pediatric Obesity Care

levels (federal, national, statewide, and local) take action to address the complex interactions across social, environ- mental, and policy contexts that influence childhood obesity. Notably, community-engagement and grass-roots efforts were highlighted to build effective coalitions and programs for community-wide interventions, particularly in high-risk populations. In the health care sector, the Institute of Medicine recommended that health care professionals routinely track BMI in children and youth and offer appropriate counseling and guidance to children and their families and, at the same time, asked parents and families to engage in and promote more healthful dietary intakes and active lifestyles. Moreover, prevention efforts must be attentive to culture, language, and inequities in social, economic, and physical environments and should be targeted to reach high-risk populations.
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2020.pdf

2020.pdf

Moreover, “the power and privilege of being a physician requires great responsibility to give back, especially among the marginalized”. 19 The BOV Focus Group Report, conducted by the California Medical Association (also a partner of the NICHQ BOV Project), highlights findings from focus group responses among physicians with prior experience with childhood obesity advocacy in their communities. 20 It reveals that providers believe that supporting positive change in their communities is an extension of their professional role and commitment, and the kids themselves bring motivation to the physicians to advocate. 20 Another study suggested that the more directly linked the advocacy issue is with the patient‟s health behaviors (e.g., tobacco control, nutrition, seat belt use), the more compelled they felt to get involved. 21 The more broad-based the advocacy issue (e.g., air quality, illiteracy, or housing quality), the less compelled physicians were to get involved. 21
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Recent Advances in the Understanding of Adiponectin and Its Role in the Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Childhood Obesity

Recent Advances in the Understanding of Adiponectin and Its Role in the Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Childhood Obesity

promotes memory problems as well as Alzheimer-like pathologies [41]. In addition, studies in mice with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) showed that exogenous adiponectin treatment restored ovulation and as a consequence pregnancy achievement [42]. Several epidemiological studies concluded that hypoadiponectinemia is as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In 2001, a study in apes, where obesity was induced by a specific fattening diet, found that adiponectin levels in plasma gradually declined with the progression of obesity and simultaneously they developed insulin resistance and precursor symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2 [38]. A recent study highlighted the protective role of adiponectin against hyperglycemia as it promotes insulin secretion and reduces the accumulation of glycosylated products [43]. The main targets of adiponectin are the skeletal muscles and the liver. The first observed action of adiponectin on metabolism was the reduction of fatty acid blood levels, probably due to an increase in fatty acid oxidation in muscles [44].
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Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Midadult Life: The Role of Childhood Adversity

Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Midadult Life: The Role of Childhood Adversity

takes outings with father” was significantly associated with BMI and central obesity; the weak increased risk of HbA1c ⱖ 6 associated with this adversity was nonsignif- icant (Table 2), but a significant increase in continuous HbA1c existed (odds ratio [OR]: 0.050% [95% confi- dence interval (CI): 0.001 to 0.090]). Adjustment for childhood factors reduced the associations for each out- come by ⬎ 50%, usually with loss of statistical signifi- cance, but some associations remained significant, for example, those whose mothers had little interest in their education had higher BMI and increased likelihood of HbA1c ⱖ 6, and women also had an increased likelihood of central obesity (Table 2). Additional adjustment for adult mediators reduced the associations with adiposity or HbA1c ⱖ 6 by up to an additional 20% and fully attenuated the associations in most cases, and only BMI (Table 2) and continuous WC (coefficient: 1.01 cm [95% CI: 0.12 to 1.99]) remained significantly higher for women whose mothers had little interest in their edu- cation.
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Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents

Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents

A professional focus group facilitator (non-physician), who was bilingual in Spanish and English, conducted all four focus groups. The group facilitator used a semi-struc- tured interview guide for the focus groups that began with an ice-breaker activity and a brief warm-up exercise. The main discussion focused on common obesity prevention recommendations selected by the authors: reducing TV watching time, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing time spent playing physically active games, par- ticipating in community or school-based athletics, walk- ing to and from school, walking more in general, and eating fewer fast food meals. Parents were asked to assess how difficult or easy each type of advice was for them to follow and to discuss what factors would make each type of advice more difficult (barriers) or easier (facilitators) to implement. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings) barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted.
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Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents

Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents

A professional focus group facilitator (non-physician), who was bilingual in Spanish and English, conducted all four focus groups. The group facilitator used a semi-struc- tured interview guide for the focus groups that began with an ice-breaker activity and a brief warm-up exercise. The main discussion focused on common obesity prevention recommendations selected by the authors: reducing TV watching time, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing time spent playing physically active games, par- ticipating in community or school-based athletics, walk- ing to and from school, walking more in general, and eating fewer fast food meals. Parents were asked to assess how difficult or easy each type of advice was for them to follow and to discuss what factors would make each type of advice more difficult (barriers) or easier (facilitators) to implement. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings) barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted.
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The role of PPARγ in childhood obesity-induced fractures

The role of PPARγ in childhood obesity-induced fractures

Compelling evidence was the large-scale chart review cross-sectional study that evaluated 913,178 patients be- tween the ages of 2 to 19 years [19]. In this study, BMI was stratified into five weight classes (underweight, nor- mal weight, overweight, moderate obesity, and extreme obesity), and records were screened for lower extremity fractures. The overweight, moderate, and severely obese all had increased odds of fracture in the foot, ankle, knee, and tibia/fibula when compared to normal weight controls after adjustment for sex, race, age, neighbor- hood education, and medical care benefit use. Notably, the increased fracture risk was higher in those patients who had a higher BMI. A more recent cross-sectional study of 2213 children found that only overweight chil- dren had a higher risk lower limb fractures, and there was no association between obese patients and normal controls [20]. Further assessment of upper limb frac- tures demonstrated that children with forearm frac- tures were more likely to be higher BMIs when compared to the age and region reference population [21]. Interestingly, obesity only appears to affect inci- dences of fractures in children and does not appear to affect the severity of fractures [17].
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Community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for parents improves health behaviors and food parenting practices among Hispanic, low-income parents

Community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for parents improves health behaviors and food parenting practices among Hispanic, low-income parents

Parents attended 90-min, weekly sessions of HCHF, which were conducted on Wednesday evenings, usually beginning at 5:30 pm. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Parents completed written informed consent forms to participate in the study and informed assent/writ- ten permission forms for their child if they were under the age of 7 years. Modified forms were used to allow children over the age of seven to better understand the study and provide written informed assent to participate. After consent was obtained from all participants, parents and children completed anthropometric measurements and parents then completed a written survey. Researchers were present dur- ing completion of consent forms and surveys to answer questions, assist parents who could not read or write, and provide clarification as needed. All study materials were available in both English and Spanish. The intervention was designed for the parents, given their role in shaping their child’s environment and behaviors. During the sessions how- ever, childcare and nutrition lessons were provided to chil- dren if parents chose to bring them. Parents then returned to CEHC weekly, for a total of eight sessions to complete the intervention. At the last session, the same procedures were repeated to collect post-intervention data (with the ex- ception of consent forms). Parents were compensated with a $10 gift card after the first session, and a $40 gift card following the last session. Each session also included a weekly prize (such as pedometers, mixing bowls, and spatulas) for parents and their children in addition to raffle prizes (such as food prep equipment, small kitchen tools).
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Recruitment strategies for predominantly low income, multi racial/ethnic children and parents to 3 year community based intervention trials: Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium

Recruitment strategies for predominantly low income, multi racial/ethnic children and parents to 3 year community based intervention trials: Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium

Incentives are an important, yet less discussed, elem- ent of successful participant recruitment and may be particularly relevant when recruiting lower-income study participants [7]. Incentives that are offered for data col- lection in child obesity prevention and treatment studies include a variety of forms such as gifts, food, recipe books, exercise equipment, grocery gift cards, and cash [7]. Among these, a monetary incentive is one of the most commonly used. Monetary incentives can enhance data collection response rates, but must be balanced with the cost per participant enrolled [25] and the po- tential for coercion. Of the 43 studies from our system- atic review [7], we were able to identify only one child obesity intervention study conducted in an underserved population that reported the use of monetary incentives. In a trial to prevent weight gain in Hispanic children
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Chiang_unc_0153D_16886.pdf

Chiang_unc_0153D_16886.pdf

As mentioned previously, early life risk factors appear to play an important role in the development of childhood obesity. Interventions that effectively modify risk factors, such as overfeeding or early introduction of solid foods, are essential for reducing the rate of overweight and obesity among Hispanic children in the future. The WIC program reaches some of the most at risk populations, and has a strong infrastructure at the federal, state, and local levels. Peer counseling for breastfeeding is a core component of many WIC programs. While peer education has been demonstrated to be effective for breastfeeding and initiation, there are many questions regarding how breastfeeding peer counselors can effectively address common behaviors in Hispanic populations, such as mixed and supplemental feeding, as well as the early introduction of solid foods that are associated with the development of obesity. Research is needed to further understand the factors associated with Hispanic mothers’ infant feeding beliefs and practices within the WIC population. A quantitative analysis of the TX-WIFPS data should provide valuable insights into these topics.
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The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Development and Treatment of Childhood Obesity

The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Development and Treatment of Childhood Obesity

total calories was a significant predictor, as was race (ie, black girls being at a greater risk for obesity) among the predictor variables of race, fiber, total calories, total fat, and[r]

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