Top PDF The process-structure-properties of steel in abrasive wear

The process-structure-properties of steel in abrasive wear

The process-structure-properties of steel in abrasive wear

 FEM is employed via two models (Linear and non-linear work hardenings) to link a range of mechanical properties to the scratch behaviour. In the first model, the thickness of the worn layer is similar to that of austenitic steel in the experiments. In the HDF and Fe-0.6C-20Ni steel, deformed layer depths fall between the depths resulting from simulated scratches whose critical strains are 0.5 and 1. It means that scratch simulation results are in proper consistency with our experimental data despite the drawback of not including the damage in the numerical modelling. The results of the second simulation model with different work hardening rates confirm different strain distributions for the scratched material. For low work hardening rates, a region with a higher strain is found on the top-ridges of the groove with a higher potential to be worn off. For material with higher work hardening, the strain is mainly localised in the areas closer to the material/indenter interface. Hence, this leads to a lower wearing off potential and to better wear resistance in this case. This result is comparable with that of empirical examination. In Fe-0.6C-20Ni with the maximum work hardening, for instance, the least degree of wear off is visible. This finding is consistent with the previous simulation result.
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Abrasive wear failure analysis of tungsten carbide hard facing on carbon steel blade

Abrasive wear failure analysis of tungsten carbide hard facing on carbon steel blade

Abstract. This study investigate the abrasive wear failure of tungsten carbide hardfacing on continuous digester (CD) blade (carbon steel) in an environment of sulphuric acid and ilmenite ore mixture. Comparison being made on the hardness, thickness and microstructural of the hardfacing between unworn and 3 months old worn blade on few locations around the blade. The cross sections of the blade revealed non-uniform coverage of the hardfacing on the blade for both worn and unworn blade. The edge of the blade has the least amount of hardfacing thickness which with time acts as the point of failure during the wear process. The hardness obtained from both the unworn and worn samples are around 25% lower from the hardfacing electrode manufacturer’s hardness specification. Microstructural micrograph analysis of the hardfacing revealed non uniform size carbide with non-uniform distributed of carbide in the hardfacing layer.
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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ABRASIVE WEAR RESISTANCE OF VARIOUS STAINLESS STEEL GRADES

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ABRASIVE WEAR RESISTANCE OF VARIOUS STAINLESS STEEL GRADES

Stainless steels are widely used materials due to their excellent corrosion resistance properties. Martensitic stainless have added advantage of higher hardness / strength over other stainless steels. Because of higher hardness, martensitic stainless steel grades are also used for applications involving abrasive media. However, relative data on wear resistance of stainless steels is not available in open literature. In view of this, abrasive wear studies on stainless steel grades AISI 420, AISI 440C, CA6NM (13Cr-4Ni) and 17- 4PH (AISI 630) have been conducted using a dry/sand rubber wheel test according to standard ASTMG65. Samples of all grades were heat treated to obtain desired hardness values and then abrasive wear tests were carried out. Silica quartz sand in size range of 211 to 297 µm was used as an abrasive medium. Samples were characterized for all relevant properties before wear test and evaluated for wear pattern of surface after wear test using optical and scanning electron microscope. It is observed that AISI 440C possesses highest abrasive wear resistance among the four grades investigated.
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Effect of V Ti on the Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Behavior of 6CrC Cast Steel Mill Balls

Effect of V Ti on the Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Behavior of 6CrC Cast Steel Mill Balls

White cast iron is widely utilized in applications that require resistance to wear [1] [2]. White cast iron is exten- sively used in ore processing, mining, metallurgy and energy industries [3]-[6]. In particular, iron-chromium white cast irons (C-Cr-Fe) are specific groups of materials characterized as highly resistant to abrasive wear [7] [8]. Hence, there is a type of iron-chromium cast alloys which are often utilized in the manufacture of milling balls. Owe to milling ball application in ore grinding; the ball surface is exposed to different abrasive mediums like: silica (quartz), corundum, feldspar, basalts and other mineral particles [1].
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Study of Abrasive Wear Characteristics, Mechanical and Wear Properties of Carburized Mild Steel Samples

Study of Abrasive Wear Characteristics, Mechanical and Wear Properties of Carburized Mild Steel Samples

light of the fact that too high a carbon substance can bring about held austenite and fragile martensite.During agricultural operations (either dry or wet ) the farm implements undergo abrasion by the scratching actions of sand and stone particles present in the soil and it is the most common cause of their quick failure and damage. It is therefore necessary to minimize wear. Due to limited resources and unavailability of economically feasible technology, agro industries have not been able to substantially get better the mechanical properties and wear resistance of these steels. The attempt have been made by researchers to improve the resistance of wear of steel materials, but very little attention has been paid in reducing the wear of farm implements materials. Thus, there is an imperative need to substantially upgrade the mechanical properties and resistance of wear of low carbon and mild steels in actual soil conditions. The present work aims to improve the wear resistance and mechanical properties of mild steel by developing an economically feasible carburization technique. Also the present work is applicable not only for the farm implements but also for the applications like material of automobiles, machines, gears, springs and high strength wires etc.
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Effect of corrosion on abrasive wear in a range of materials

Effect of corrosion on abrasive wear in a range of materials

Since the roughness of the mechanical seals influences leakage, post-test roughness tests were conducted at the free corrosion abrasion (FCA) and cathodically protected coupons, as illustrated in Table 6. These were performed to investigate the effect of corrosion and synergy component on the surface topography. It should be noted that the zirconia and the DLC coating were excluded from this assessment as they were immune to any corrosion effect. According to Table 6, two groups of materials are evident; those whose surface was significantly deteriorated/roughened by corrosion and synergy processes and those for which their surface remained relatively intact. The HVOF WC-12Co coating and the medium carbon steel (UNS G10400) fall into the first group, with 62% and 41% decrease of the surface roughness, respectively, with the application of cathodic protection. On the other hand, the HVOF WC-10Ni and the martensitic stainless steel comprised the second group, by exhibiting a decrease in roughness no more than 11% with the isolation of the mechanical damage through cathodic protection.
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Abrasive wear of alloys for ground engaging tools

Abrasive wear of alloys for ground engaging tools

Chapter 2. Literature Review P a g e | 46 progressively as the microstructure is changed from martensite to bainite. Zum Gahr [191] attributed the increase in wear resistance to the retained austenite in the bainitic microstructure. Kwok et al. [192] reported that dislocated lath martensite combined with retained austenite displays higher wear resistance than bainite-martensite or pearlitic microstructures. In a pin abrasion test with SiC abrasive particles, predominantly austenitic matrix displayed lower wear rate than a martensitic microstructure due to higher workhardening capability and ductility of the former [193]. Zum Gahr [31] experimentally showed that the microcutting to microploughing ratio or f values of two Hadfield type steels decrease with increasing amount of retained austenite. This suggests that the wearing material undergoes deformation induced transformation during abrasion. A transformable amount of retained austenite (10-30%) in a martensitic [194] or bainitic [31, 191] microstructure is beneficial which is transformed to martensite (i.e TRIP effect) during deformation [195-199]. Retained austenite in the structure of the carburized case inhibits the nucleation and propagation of fatigue cracks during deformation [161, 196, 198]. Bhat et al. [200] suggested that under high stress two body abrasive wear a low alloy steel microstructure should be either martensite or lower bainite combined with retained austenite. The Face centred cubic (FCC) structure of austenite offers an increased deformation capacity to the microstructure by providing numerous slip systems during wear process [201]. Thus, the high toughness reduces the cutting efficiency of the abrasive particles increasing the wear resistance [31].
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Abrasive and erosive wear of technical materials

Abrasive and erosive wear of technical materials

Operating reliability of agricultural, transport and construction machines is in a considerable degree infl uenced by corrosion and wear. These sorts of damage signifi cantly infl uence the costs for the restoration of mechanical components, as well as their service and repairs. This article deals with comparing the abrasive and erosive wear of technical materials (so steel, wear-resisting steel, ledeburitic cast-iron, cemented carbides). A test of the abrasive wear by means of bound particles was carried out on an apparatus with a corundum abrasive cloth. The erosive wear was made in a testing mechanism manufactured by the fi rm Kovo Staněk Ltd., which simulated the operating conditions by jetting with both spheroidal granulate and angular crushed material.
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Effect of corrosion on abrasive wear in a range of materials

Effect of corrosion on abrasive wear in a range of materials

Since the roughness of the mechanical seals influences leakage, post-test roughness tests were conducted at the free corrosion abrasion (FCA) and cathodically protected coupons, as illustrated in Table 6. These were performed to investigate the effect of corrosion and synergy component on the surface topography. It should be noted that the zirconia and the DLC coating were excluded from this assessment as they were immune to any corrosion effect. According to Table 6, two groups of materials are evident; those whose surface was significantly deteriorated/roughened by corrosion and synergy processes and those for which their surface remained relatively intact. The HVOF WC-12Co coating and the medium carbon steel (UNS G10400) fall into the first group, with 62% and 41% decrease of the surface roughness, respectively, with the application of cathodic protection. On the other hand, the HVOF WC-10Ni and the martensitic stainless steel comprised the second group, by exhibiting a decrease in roughness no more than 11% with the isolation of the mechanical damage through cathodic protection.
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Influence of overlay layers on the abrasive wear

Influence of overlay layers on the abrasive wear

In the renovation practice many overlay alloys of different properties are used. For the tests the hard- facing electrodes UTP DUR 600 and UTP LEDURIT 65 (BÖHLER THYSSEN) were used. Their chemical composition is presented in Table 1. UTP DUR 600 is universally applicable for cladding on parts of steel, cast steel and high Mn-steel subjected to abrasion, compression and impact. Typical application fields are the earth moving and stone treatment industry, e.g. excavator teeth, crusher jaws and cones, mill hammers etc. UTP LEDURIT 65 is suited to highly abrasion resistant claddings on parts subjected to
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The resistance of ledeburitic tool steels against the abrasive wear

The resistance of ledeburitic tool steels against the abrasive wear

The ledeburitic tool steels which used to be used mainly for cutting and shaping tools nowadays are frequently used for a manufacture of injection moulds, moulds for pressure castings of aluminium alloys and for moulds for ceramics processing. The article deals with fi ndings of ledeburitic tool steels resistance against abrasive wear. For the tests there were prepared the test samples of ledeburitic tool steels 19 436 and 19 573 (both according to ČSN). Moreover there were prepared the samples from structural abrasion resistant material Hardox 450 and from unalloyed structural steel 11 373 (according to ČSN). A wear resistance was examined by means of a laboratory test with an abrasive cloth and the Bond’s device. Herea er the article deals with a possibility of utilisation of ledeburitic alloyed steels for a manufacture of tools for a land processing. For the examination of a resistance against wear in land there was made a plough test in which the tested samples were mounted on plough blades. By means of both the laboratory and operational tests there was found multiple higher resistance against wear of ledeburitic tool steels rather than of structural steels. During a land processing there was found unsuitability of steels processed for a maximum hardness, which came out as fractures of several samples.
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Analysis of Abrasive Wear Characterization and its Correlation with Structure for Low and Medium Carbon Steels

Analysis of Abrasive Wear Characterization and its Correlation with Structure for Low and Medium Carbon Steels

The most common material being used at present in India in metallurgical mining and agricultural industries is a plain carbon steel. Particularly mild steel is widely used in agricultural agro machinery industries for the fabrication of agricultural equipment and critical parts, and therefore which wears fast when subjected to high load and abrasive conditions. The present work has been devoted to access the suitability of adequate material properties and structure for agricultural industries. The En 8 is a plain medium carbon steel, En 19 and En 24 is a medium carbon low alloy steels containing molybdenum and chromium in different amount (up to 5% in total) . These steels are cost effective and easily available in local markets in all shapes and dimensions. Moreover their properties can be improved by simple heat treatment.
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Abrasive Wear Mathematical Model of 140MXC Nano Structured Hardfacing

Abrasive Wear Mathematical Model of 140MXC Nano Structured Hardfacing

ABSTRACT: Hardfacing is a technique in which deposition of material on the surface of dissimilar material is done to improve its wear resistant properties. In the present work, 140MXC nano structured wire was deposited on IS2062 steel substrate by using GMAW, with two different conditions of low and high heat input. A set of mathematical models has been developed for the prediction of wear behaviour of 140MXC nano composite using 3–factor, 2 – levels factorial design. The factors considered were Load (L), Sliding velocity(SV) and Sliding distance(SD). The developed models were checked for their adequacy. The main and the interaction effects of the wear parameters on wear behaviour are presented in graphical form. The abrasive wear of low heat input (max.135mm 3 ) was found to be less than that of high heat input (max.296mm 3 ).
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Study and analysis of abrasive wear properties of 60Cu40Zn

Study and analysis of abrasive wear properties of 60Cu40Zn

On more experiment is carried out by Satpal kundu et al to study the behavior of aluminium. The name of his paper is “study of dry sliding wear behavior of aluminium/SiC/Al2O3/graphite hybride metal matrix composite using taguchi technique”. We simply use the stir casting process. For this he made a pin of AL6061T6/10%Sic/10% Al2O3/5% Graphite MMC. The specimen used having specification 12 mm diameters and 30 mm length. Input parameter while consideration several parameters like loading, sliding speed and sliding distance. And output parameter is weight loss of pin which can easily be measure by weighing machine. In their experiment, he simply use EN32 steel disk having hardness of about 65HRC. Taguchi method simply analyzes the wear condition and formulates the problem and gives best result about wear behavior of hybrid composite. ANOVA is used to judge the parameters which directly affect the wear rate. The end results which he has taken out are:
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Mechanical properties and abrasive wear behaviour of Al-based PVD amorphous/nanostructured coatings

Mechanical properties and abrasive wear behaviour of Al-based PVD amorphous/nanostructured coatings

achieved with this design. Table 1 provides a summary of the individual and overall compositions of the sputter target materials. The stainless steel substrate holder was mounted at a distance of approximately 100 mm from the sputter target. The rectangular substrate coupons were first washed in acetone, then cleaned ultrasonically in isopropanol for 15 min. Sputter cleaning of the substrates was carried out for 20 min in an argon plasma at approximately 3.0 Pa gas pressure, with a negative bias of –600 V applied to the substrate holder. The segmented target was then pre- conditioned for 40 min at approximately 0.3 Pa argon gas pressure and 1500 W power, to arrive at a target voltage of –430 V (while shielding the substrates with a shutter). Coatings were deposited at around 0.3 Pa total gas pressure and at 1500 W target power, with the target voltage pulsed at a frequency of 150 kHz. Although it was difficult to record directly the substrate temperature during the coating runs (because of the target/substrate/shutter configuration used), the substrate temperature is unlikely to be (in any stage of the process) less than 150 C, or more than 250 C; most probably it would be in the range of 200 ± 20 C during coating deposition, based on the specific parameters selected. This is based on the previous work done on the same equipment using similar deposition parameters [12-14]. In order to increase ion bombardment at the substrate, thereby improving coating adhesion, the substrate holder was biased negatively at –50 V DC and deposition was carried out for 120 min to obtain coating thicknesses in the range of 7 – 14 m. Coatings of a wide range of chemical compositions were produced by placing the abovementioned stainless steel coupons at three different positions in front of the segmented target (see Fig. 1) and, in each deposition cycle, choosing different nitrogen flow rates between 0 and 20 sccm. Coated sample designations are presented in Table 2.
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Influence of heat treatments on the abrasive wear

Influence of heat treatments on the abrasive wear

The particular samples were made of the steel 14 260 and were exposed to following different heat treat- ments − soft annealing, normalizing, heat refining and hardening. After these heat treatments the sam- ples were exposed both laboratory tests and also field tests. The wear test particles was carried out on the device with abrasive canvas. The laboratory test was realized in room temperature and normal atmos- pheric pressure. Measured values were statistically and graphically analyzed and interpreted. Results of the tests confirmed our preliminary expectations that the extent of the wear would depend on the value of hardness of the used materials. The hardest structure of the hardened steel had the smallest material decrease compared to the largest decrease of the soft annealing steel.
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Abrasive Wear Studies on Austempered Ductile Iron Castings

Abrasive Wear Studies on Austempered Ductile Iron Castings

ADI has attracted has considerable interest in recent years because of its excellent properties [5,6] Further, it is reported that ADI possess advantages such as cheaper than forged steel, lighter than steel counterpart , production of ADI components needs less energy than for steel component. Hence it finds wide range of applications. Applications include digger teeth material in agricultural sector, transmission gears ,crankshaft, connecting rods in automotive industry , aircraft landing gears , cannon shells in defence etc[7-10].Wear is now gaining importance and is thought as an important study in characterizing a material for a particular application[11,12]. Wear has been classified by different authors based on mechanism involved, interaction between the surfaces and medium used [13,14]. In the present investigation IS400/15 grade ductile iron castings were subjected to standard austempering heat treatment cycle. Mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, Brinell hardness measurements were carried out. Sand abrasive wear test was carried out carried out using ASTM G 65 Specifications for ascast condition and austempered condition. The results indicate that higher austempering temperature and longer austempering duration exhibits superior wear properties compared to other conditions.
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Effect of abrasive particle size on abrasive wear of hardfacing alloys

Effect of abrasive particle size on abrasive wear of hardfacing alloys

Abstract: Hardfacing is one of the most useful and economical ways to improve the performance of components submit- ted to severe wear conditions. This study has been made for the comparison of microstructure and abrasion resistance of hardfacing alloys reinforced with chromium carbides or complex carbides. The hardfacing alloys were deposited onto ČNS EN S235JR low carbon steel plates by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) method. Different commercial hardfacing electrodes were applied to investigate the effect of abrasive particle size on abrasive wear resistance. The abrasion tests were made using the two-body abrasion test according to ČSN 01 5084 standard, abrasive cloths were of grits 80, 120, 240, and 400. Microstructure characterisation and surface analysis were made using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results show the different influence of abrasive particles size on the wear rate for different structures of Fe-Cr-C system. The structures without primary carbides are of high abrasive wear rate, which increases nonlinearly with the increasing abrasive particle size. On the contrary, the structures containing primary carbides are of low abrasive rates and theses rates increase linearly with the increasing abrasive particle size.
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Abrasive Wear Behavior of Al6061- Frit particulate composites

Abrasive Wear Behavior of Al6061- Frit particulate composites

Hardness is one important property which effects wear resistance of any metal or alloy, hardness measurements were carried out on Al6061 matrix alloy and Al6061-Frit particulate composite specimens of both as-cast and treated. Brinell hardness measurements were carried out in order to investigate the influence of Frit particulate on the matrix alloy hardness. The applied load was 500 Kgs and an indenter of 10 mm diameter steel ball (HB500). Round specimens of 20 mm in diameter were prepared and polished on different grits of emery paper. The polished specimens were tested using Brinell hardness tester. The test was carried out at five different locations to controvert the possible effect of indenter resting on the harder particles. Hardness was determined by measuring the indentations diameter produced. The average of all the five readings was taken as the hardness of as-cast and composite specimens. Figure 1 & 2 shows the hardness test specimen before and after indentation.
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INVESTIGATION OF OPTIMAL PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR MECHANICAL AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF CARBURIZED MILD STEEL USING TAGUCHI APPROACH

INVESTIGATION OF OPTIMAL PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR MECHANICAL AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF CARBURIZED MILD STEEL USING TAGUCHI APPROACH

Changing demands of dynamic market place have improved and increased the commitment to quality conscious- ness. All over the world, companies are developing quality management systems like ISO 9001-2000 and investing in total quality [1]. One of the critical requirements for the ISO 9001-2000 is adequate control over process parameters. An auditing report of the ISO indicates that the majority of the heat treatment processes in Indus-tries present improper application of process variables and inadequate control over the process parameters [2]. Adequate control of process variables is possible if the level at which each of the parameters has to be maintained. Optimization is one of the approaches that help in finding out the right level or value of the parameters that have to be maintained for obtaining quality output. Determination of optimum parameters lies in the proper selection and introduction of suitable design of experiment at the earliest stage of the process and product development cycles so as to result in the quality and productivity improvement with cost effectiveness [3].
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