Guide dogs are trained to lead visually impaired individuals around various obstacles, offering increased mobility, location of objectives and destinations. They have arguably higher demands than the other types of assistancedogs (Whitmarsh, 2005). Guide dogs must learn to avoid environmental features which may come into contact with their owner, including objects at height. Training principles such as straight line work are introduced to aid user orientation, where the dog must walk only in straight lines unless requested otherwise. Stopping at each kerb they encounter is introduced for safety. The amount of learning for a guide dog is very high, however it is their decision making that sets them apart from other assistancedogs. Although it is the owner who announces when it is safe to cross a road, the dog too must be traffic aware, showing selective disobedience if their owner thinks it is safe to cross when it is not. Confidence in decision making is vital for a guide dog (Guide Dogs UK, 2014). [PHOTO]
The civil society took an active role to ensure democratic oversight of the security agencies were called to account for their actions through accountability mechanisms; and interfacing with the media for a factual and balanced reporting of all election related developments (International Crisis Group, 2014; Musa, 2014, Adams, 2012). In this wise, civil society organizations engaged various political and security actors proffering how they can carry out peaceful election in a bid to ensure a violent free and fair election.Also, the Democracy Vanguard and Enough is Enough Nigeria conducted voter's education and enlightenment campaigns. Furthermore, the Transitions Monitoring Group (TMG); CLEEN Foundation; the Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Centre (CISLAC);and National Association for Peaceful Elections in Nigeria (NAPEN);the Niger Delta Civil Society Coalition(NDCSC)all participated to ensure a peaceful, free and fair election (International Crisis Group, 2014).Ikhilae (2015) also largely attributes the success of the 2015 elections to the activities of the Nigerian Civil Society Situation Room. The Situation Room, is a coalition of about sixty civil society organizations, which monitored the processes leading to the elections and which also engaged major key players in the electoral process. The key officials of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), top security operatives, chieftains of the various political parties and the flag bearers of the political parties are called to actively participate in the elections.
Abstract:- Contemporary notions of civil society are diverse, and debates around its fundamental role in enhancing the process of democratization in Eastern Europe, Africa and other parts of the developing world are the basis for its existence. Increasing political instability, unaccountable economic and management systems, corruption, asymmetric development, social injustice, authoritarian regime forms amongst others, have been the key areas of anxiety in many countries. This paper begins by tracing the emergence of civil society in Eastern Europe from the 1980s extending to Africa. It subscribes to the fact that civil society existed in Africa before colonialism, and that civil society formations were mostly captured under the voluntary sector which to some extent demonstrated some form of autonomy from the state. Civil society agenda during this period was apolitical. It was only when colonialism sets in and politicized the very existence of civil society formations that a growing political sensation started gaining grounds. However, the repressive measures of colonial administration silenced any form of civil society awakening. From the colonial era to that of independence under president Ahidjo, civil society was configured under same trade associations, agricultural work parties and the voluntary sector in general, with virtually no political activism. As a point of departure and anchored within the broad paradigm of civil society and Africa’s political activism, this paper intends to critically analyze some captivating elements surrounding the civil society of Cameroon. It starts by positioning the concept within the framework of Cameroon’s political transformation process and the actual role civil society played in attaining this objective. Acknowledging both the conformist and activist roles played by Cameroon civil society, this paper focuses more on the activist dimension of the concept. This paper contends that Cameroon civil society during the early 1990s was more vibrant and willing to exert pressure on the Biya regime for a pluralistic political system. During this period, political activism was crafted in what I have captioned ‘civilian group militancy.’ Unlike then, current trends of civil society shows a relatively weak
In a liquidity crisis the markets for a range of financial assets become dysfunctional. Trading volume plummets and trading only occur at prices that are far lower than would prevail in more orderly times. To restore market functioning, the central bank may have to act as the market-maker of last resort by purchasing or accepting as collateral the financial assets which either cannot be sold in the market, or can only be sold at fire sale prices, at prices below but near to those that would prevail in normal times. If the central bank succeeds in reviving the dysfunctional market or markets and if it paid below-market prices for the financial assets it purchased then the change in the composition of its balance sheet is profitable, its net worth increases and tax payers and society are better off. However, if the action is not a success and the assets turn out to be worth significantly less than expected, there is a risk that tax payers and society may be worse off.
professional setting who play a role in caring of the patiens with dementia, such as health care facilities. Participants from four different healthcare facilities were recruited. One of those healthcare facilities already had an activity where small pets such as rabbits, guinea pigs and also dogs from a local care farm came and visit for a cuddle session once a month or two months. One other allowed staff members to bring their own dog on occasion. The other two facilities used robot animals when needed. Next to healthcare facilities there was another organization which was important for this study: one who professionally train assistancedogs. Therefore a representative of Hulphond Nederland was recruited. Next to the professional setting, the private setting also played a vital role, such as familymembers. Due to the health problem and the subject of the study, patients with middle and late stage dementia would be difficult to get accurate information from and were not interviewed. Therefore, family members who knew the patients well were interviewed instead.
Poverty in Indonesia is experienced in almost all regions of the archipelago, including the City of Dumai. Poverty in Indonesia in general and Dumai City in particular not only extends to one particular group of people, but occurs at all levels of society especially the people who live in the city and rural areas. Poverty is caused by their lagging from the influence of development that they should get. Dumai is one area in Province Riau that has become secede from Bengkalis district in 1999. In 2013, the numbers in Dumai city of 4 , 83 % , then increased to 5, 2 6% in 2014 (Census Dumai t ear 2015). This is very contradictory when seen from Dumai strategic layout with South China bordering the State of Malaysia, has a wealth of natural resources, and has the international sea port hub (Pelindo I) and has an industrial area. See the above phenomenon with in the background wealth of natural resources, a large regional economic potential as well the strategic position of the city that are owned by municipalities and the reason for the author's Dumai research more about skin through research on the role of the Dumai City Government in its efforts to reduce poverty.
The role of isopropyl alcohol in the properties of Sudanese reformat gasoline (produced by the refinery located at Algily, Khartoum North city, in Sudan) was studied. The properties of the reformat gasoline which were investigated include , distillation, sulfur content, density, vapor pressure, oxidation stability, copper strip corrosion, gum existence, lead content, and the octane number . The addition of isopropyl alcohol (5 and 10% (v/v)) improved the properties of the Sudanese reformat gasoline to the limits assigned by American Society For Testing And Materials (ASTM) and Khartoum refinery. The motor octane number (MON) of the reformat gasoline was determined initially by the Cooperative Fuels Research engine (CFR engine), MON was found to be 88.5. Results revealed that the addition of isopropyl alcohol 5 and 10 % (v/v) to the Sudanese reformat gasoline shift the value of the (MON) to 94.1 and 96 respectively.
Fourth, skill build relationship in certain situations, include: (a) in the world of education, skill looking for choices life skills to be learned by finding opportunities and relevant information, (b) in the world of work, skill looking to find a profession options open, get a job, keep a job, switched professions, and overcome unemployment by developing specific skills for a changing profession as a career, life skills, nurturing the sustainability of the profession in order to remain a career life which gives guarantees the well-being of psychologically and materially, (c) in the House, the skills of choosing a particular lifestyle and kept them in order to consistently remain lasting until the old days as a pattern of family life, life skills together in a actualizing tenets on how to rebuke, greet, decisions, compromise, solve problems, negotiate in settings of nutrition, family and others, and etc., and (d) build skills in the community, the social contract in order to be accepted as a member of society (adaptation of the culture, traditions, customs), skills (constructive mindset change orientation to the future, rational, fair, honest, example, open, familiar, simple, polite, free yourself of envy, envy, social care) and utilizing the skills and cultivating potential resources in society as an opportunity for the young generation of entrepreneurship prepared through education and training.
question of defining mental illness remains an important one. In many settings, terms such as mental health issues, mental health problems and even mental health concerns have been used, which all under-estimate the seriousness of mental illness and its burden on society. There is no doubt that many of these “problems” may be due to the many social changes, economic upheavals including ongoing economic downturn, revolutionary advances of knowledge and to other developments. All this now requires a serious re-examination of the paradigms on which psychiatry and mental health care have been based in the last century 3-6 .
It is not our purpose to compare and contrast the various zona pellucida-binding proteins and attempt to rank them in terms of relative importance. Of the many proteins that have been charac- terized as having some role in sperm-zona interactions; a few of these are truly associated with the surface of acrosome-intact sperm (such as β -1,4-galactosyltransferase (Shur and Hall, 1982) and SED-1 (Ensslin and Shur, 2003)) while others have been conclusively demonstrated to be components of the acrosomal matrix (see discussion above concerning specific acrosomal matrix components). The observations that so many acrosomal matrix proteins are involved in zona pellucida binding suggests that the interactions between the acrosomal matrix and the zona pellucida may be more akin to the interface between extracellular matrices of two interacting cell types rather than a lock and key mechanism displaying species-specific binding. The one excep- tion may be zonadhesin which exhibits species-specific ZP- binding (Hardy and Garbers, 1995). In any event, sperm interac- tion with the ZP seems to be a very redundant process since the targeted deletion of SED-1, β -1,4-galactosyltransferase, ZPBP1, ZPBP2, or proacrosin does not necessarily result in a complete block to sperm-zona pellucida binding (Baba et al., 1994a, Ensslin et al., 2007, Lin et al., 2007, Lu and Shur, 1997). Rather, the subfertility or infertility seen with these gene targeted null animals results from defects in acrosome biogenesis, sperm morphogen- esis, or disregulation of acrosomal exocytosis. Finally, although a protein like proacrosin may not be absolutely essential for fertili- zation, its presence may provide a advantage when competing with sperm lacking that protein (Adham et al., 1997).
coxib tablets in a prospective, multicenter, placebo controlled trial in dogs (n = 239) undergoing soft tissue surgery. Robe- nacoxib, administered at a target dose of 2 mg/kg prior to surgery and once daily for two postoperative days, produced better analgesia than a placebo: analgesia was measured in terms of the need for rescue analgesia after surgery. No significant changes in the mean values for hematology and serum chemistry have been found in both groups. The most frequently reported AEs in both groups were emesis and diarrhea for a short period, similar to those reported in cats. Though it was not considered clinically relevant, a statistically significant rise in BUN/creatinine ratio has been detected in the robenacoxib group.
Even though the role of bone sialoprotein in the tissue mineralization has not been clearly stated, it was proven that BSP induces creation of hydroxyapatite crystals in the system of agarose gel, when low concentrations of calcium ions and phosphates are present²³. Some facts from literature suggest that BSP can have an initiation role of growing hydroxyapatite crystals in mineralized tissues²¹.
Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Zoonotic Parasites of Dogs was conducted in Jos metropolis of Plateau state. The species of gastrointestinal zoonotic parasites of dogs were evaluated in relations to sex, age and breed of each dog presented in veterinary clinics within the metropolis. The samples were analyzed using faecal floatation Technique. The result showed that T. canis and A. caninium were high, 45% and 44% respectively while Teania spp and D. latum were low; 8% and 3% respectively, this result was further subjected to chi-square analysis and showed significant difference in the percentage prevalence in the metropolis. The percentage prevalence was most in young dogs than in adult and puppies but when subjected to Chi-square, there was no significant difference in the prevalence; (P>0.05) and also in relation to sex; most prevalent in females than in males, statistically, there was no significant difference (P>0.05). Whereas, most prevalent with local breed compared with cross and exotic breeds; 23.19%, 13.05% and 17.99% respectively; statistically, there was no significant difference (P>0.05). Based on these findings, it is hereby concluded that the risk of the prevalence of gastrointestinal zoonotic parasites of dogs in Jos metropolis is at the minimal level. The local dogs should be restricted and provided with chain or kennel as well as clean/sanitary environment is required in keeping of local dogs and the cross and exotic breed are dewormed routinely. More veterinary clinics should be created by Governments and private agencies in strategic areas within the metropolis.
The role of the inflammatory hormones and the elimination of the effect of sex hormones in increasing factors affecting the classic pathway (C1, C4 and C2) can be considered as reasons for a higher level of these components in the ovariohysterctomy and ovariectomy groups. The highest activity in secondary pathway of the complement system was seen in the day 7 after the surgery in the ovariectomy group. In accordance with this result, an increase in the expression of the genes involved in the secondary pathway of the complement system, including C3, Factor B and properdin was reported in rats which underwent ovariectomy . Lysozyme reduction in the control group in the studied time period can be attributed to the surgery-induced inflammation, and the higher levels of this enzyme in the ovariohysterctomy and ovariectomy groups can be attributed to the elimination of the inhibitory role of sex hormones in the production of this enzyme by blood leukocytes. The proximity of serum antitrypsin values in the ovariectomy group and the control group can be attributed to the better health of these animals compared to the hysterectomy group. The lowest change in myeloperoxidase activity was observed in the ovariohysterctomy group, and the highest change was observed in the ovariectomy group. The lower level of estradiol H2O2 reduced the activity of myeloperoxidase, but in the cases where H2O2 level was high, this trend was reversed . In other studies, the administration of high levels of estradiol cypionate in sterilized male caws had no significant effect on the absolute and relative number of leukocytes, function of neutrophils, blastogenesis of lymphocytes, or blood cortisol.
In order to understand the role of Otx2 in the specification of the anterior patterning, it is of particular relevance to define its func- tional contribution to the different tissues where it is expressed during gastrulation. More direct evidence proving a role for Otx2 in the AVE has been recently provided by generating murine chimeric embryos and new mouse models (Acampora et al., 1998b; Rhinn et al., 1998; Acampora et al., unpublished results). Chimeric embryos containing Otx2-/- epiblast and wild-type VE rescue an early Otx2-/- neural plate but subsequently they fail to develop a brain, suggesting that Otx2 is required in the AVE for induction of rostral neural plate and, subsequently, in the epiblast-derived tissues for specification of forebrain and midbrain regional identi- ties. Conversely, when chimeric embryos consist of an Otx2-/- VE and an Otx2+/+ epiblast, none of the phenotypic features of Otx2- /- embryos are rescued (Rhinn et al., 1998). This latter result also argues, as previously suggested by Otx2-/- mice (Acampora et al., 1995), that impaired axial mesendoderm of Otx2-/- embryos is a consequence of Otx2 requirement at earlier stages in the VE.
All the animals were observed daily and followed up for any post-surgical edema or infection, adverse or allergic reactions due to the placement of the stem cells. Ten % IM gentamicin antibiotic (Gibco/BRL, New York, USA) was given with a dosage of 0.5 ml/kg twice daily for seven successive days. Analgesic therapies were applied for 3 days. Regular application of 2% betadine solution during the recovery period was done to clean and remove any debris around the wound, twice daily. The dogs were fed concentrated commercial diet (pellet) for one week and transitioned to a soft diet. They were housed in separate cages and observed for any wound complication and delayed reactions until the time of euthanasia.
The APEC Economic Forum can also be used as a means of sharing best practices that can help women to optimize and improve their business performance. Enhancing the role of women in the economy by implementing a clear division of labor within the family, the provision of health services for mothers and children, as well as the flexibility of time and work. Socio-cultural factors need to be considered because it will affect the quality of life of women, and ultimately impact the economic capabilities of women. In connection with these conditions, the APEC forum could share information about policies that promote a good work-life balance for women and men in every country.