Intercultural dialogue as a critical component of modern society should contribute to the self- identification of a person in the cultural space. This research aims to demonstrate the importance of multiculturalism— learning a second language in the Russian system of higher education. To accomplish the research objectives, 78 students were recruited at Tula State University, 158 students at Kuban State University and 152 technical students at Moscow Aviation Institute. Analysing and comparing experiments on learning a second language, the findings determine the effective methods and forms of teaching. In doing so, the research foregrounds some forms of effective teaching and indicates the ways to achieve them. In other words, the findings made it possible to identify the effective strategies for teaching a foreign language both in local and global level.
41 in intercultural encounters compared to those with higher levels of ICC (Friedman and Antal, 2005). Those with higher ICC exhibit more empathy and respect for individuals from various cultures, respond to curious circumstances and behaviours in a non-judgemental way without showing visible or perceivable discomfort and enthusiastically use their knowledge and experience to predict various expectations in numerous situations (Samovar et al., 2014). Individuals with higher ICC may not only be more aware of cross-cultural differences in service roles and perceptions, but they are also more likely to agree with these differences. Furthermore, they have greater experience and knowledge about other cultures and can use this experience and knowledge efficiently with people from other cultures, compared to those with lower ICC (Thomas and Peterson, 2014). Hence, higher ICC may also contribute to reducing discomfort and uncertainty associated with ISEs. Thus, the study proposes and formulates the relationships among these dimensions that are namely interculturalcommunication competence, interaction comfort, interrole congruence and customer satisfaction.
belonging to different civilizations, cultures, nations, languages, religions in the geographical space for educational, business, commercial, travel, scientific purposes, creates trans, inter – and other financial, economic, spiritual, political, legal institutions. At the same time, the formation of international, regional organizations has incomparably influenced and deepened the communication process . Today young people act as the subjects that form interculturalcommunication between cultures in the internet space. They use visual forms of communication to form new types of interaction between people. In addition to the term ―social media‖ in scientific literature, we can meet other terms as ―new media‖, ―interactive media‖, ―civil Media‖, ―Web 2.0 projects‖, etc. Uzbek blogger, translator, former diplomat, doctor of philosophy in philological sciences (PhD) B.S. Alimov groups the existing social networks according to their types as follows:
It is apparent that internationally trained professionals are not always utilized productively in the receiving societies. The literature has identified numerous barriers to their employment, including language and communication difficulties (Adams & Kennedy, 2006). Language is a major barrier to employment, especially in non-English speaking destination countries. In recent years, many non-English speaking European countries (e.g., Finland, Germany, and the Netherlands) have assumed an increasingly active role in the global competition to attract highly educated people from abroad. (Li & Pitkänen, 2018.) In practice, however, the mobility of highly skilled workers and tertiary- level students from Asia and other continents mainly focuses on the USA, Australia, Canada and other English-speaking countries. In Europe the UK has attracted the lion’s share, while the non-English speaking of Europe faces serious challenges in their recruitment processes (Fargues et al., 2009). In some cases, such as decentralized units of multinational companies, the official working language is English, which makes it easier for English- speaking employees to join a local or virtual work community.
Even when language is not a problem, communication failure still happens, especially between two nations because of the lack of knowledge about behavior pattern in each culture. Based on Sapir’s theory which is quoted by Cooper (1973), culture is defined as “what a society does and think” (p. 99). Each society has diffferent ways of thinking, expressing ideas and interpreting messages; thus, each society has different cultural background. Furthermore, Cooper explains that culture is divided into “three crude devisions–perception, norms or attitudes and conceptualization” (Cooper, 1973, p.103). Since different nations have different cultures, they also have different perceptions, norms or attitudes and concepts. Thus, I would analyze how the Asians’ and Americans’ perceptions or concepts of differences can bring about interculturalcommunication hindrances, especially in business contexts and what might be the impacts of miscommunications.
Undoubtedly, telecommunications technology and Internet has a very strong influence on culture in the modern world. It is worth mentioning that in informational communicative environment interculturalcommunication carries symbolic character to a great extent, since the process of exchanging information (symbols) happens in the form of words, actions and several objects (photographs, graphics, tables, audio files and etc.). They are interpreted this or that way by the people who belong to various language cultures. These distinctions in understanding connected with variations in dictionary words, grammars, conceptions of time, showing respect and social hierarchy as well as other distinctions in language cultures.
The ma in move ment is gestures . Gestures are the most important part of body language. The English teaching in classes focuses on communicat ion activities. Dull and dry commun ication will ma ke students produce detestable feelings ，but lively, vivid, even e xaggerated actions and gestures can enliven the teaching circu mstances, making the activities go of without a hitch. If the teacher gives a ball’s shape through his hands，then performs the action of shooting a basket when teaching the word ‘basketball’, a ll of the students can guess the mean ing of it. Simila rly, if the teacher imitates the usual gestures of monkeys , win ks at the students mischievously and then leaps and jumps for a while when teaching the word ‘monkey’, these move ments will affect the students intensely and attract their interest and get the function of intensifying their me mory. When the teacher teaches a verb, it will be more accurate to do a simp le gesture to the students than teachers’ repeated e xplanation. And the
Here the text refers briefly to iconic elements relevant to understanding the cultural significance of the baptism of Clovis within French secular thought. Two of these elements involve dating references: 1905 and (the time of) Clovis. In a discussion focusing on religion, a reference to ‘the 1905 law’ for a French audience invokes a singular, identifiable law separating church and state, together with a discourse around what that separation means (i.e. the ideologies of laïcité). The addition identifies the focus of the law and in so doing makes at least part of the knowledge invoked implicitly by the reference available explicitly to the target text’s readers. Similarly, in such a discussion a reference to dating from Clovis is also readily recoverable for a French audience in terms of the person involved (Frankish King... of France) and the foundational event (baptism). It also explicitly links the religious frames of the 1905 law and of the time of Clovis. A final addition is made to Église to specify it as the Catholic Church rather than another possible church, perhaps assuming that the term Church might be understood differently by an English-speaking audience (Anglican Church, Protestant Church?), from the interpretation of that word in French. The additions to the text in both examples provide the reader with resources that permit the text to be understood outside its original cultural frame. They involve responding to the world knowledge that is assumed by the language of the text (Liddicoat, 2009) but which the rewriting of the text into a new language means can no longer be assumed to be available.
The ITLO is an educational and institutional tool which generates new levels of interculturalcommunication, interconnectedness and understanding. The event started 11 years ago with participants from 17 countries. Last year, the 2013 Olympiads saw 2000 students representing 140 countries competing in the Turkish language. The common experience of learning a new foreign language, in this case Turkish, gives the students the opportunity to participate in the ITLO which in turn exposes them to a platform where they are able to establish constructive relationships and, as a result, contribute towards stronger future global relations. Being of secondary school age, they are at a crucial stage in their personal development where they form their individual perspectives and outlook on life. A positive and intense experience in a multi-cultural environment can positively influence this development process. Diaz-Greenburg & Nevin (2003) believe that, through the medium of ‘languaging’ or ‘linguicism’, a platform and springboard is created that permeates, mediates and establishes national and transnational identities, cultures and values. This includes committing oneself to envisage the potentiality of a ‘transcultured self’, which navigates the transnational terrain in understanding and tolerance of the other (Jordan 2001; Turner 2003 & Parry 2003). From a similar perspective Murphy (1994) holds that the best way to prevent misunderstandings and conflicts is to increase face-to-face communication and interaction. As a result, perceptions of prejudice, misunderstandings and intolerance can be corrected immediately.
These remarks may be negative or positive. Some teachers are positively prejudiced about the countries where their target language is spoken and wish to pass this enthusiasm on to their learners. This might seen to be the role of the teacher but it is debatable whether teachers should try to influence attitudes or not. So this is one of the first issues teachers need to think about. The response to this problem may be different in different countries according to their education traditions. In some countries teachers believe that they should not attempt to influence attitudes towards other countries and in fact should be careful only to deal with the cognitive dimension of learning. Teachers in other countries may feel that it is part of their pedagogical responsibility to influence attitudes. Neither of these positions excludes the development of savoir être because this is not a question of developing particular positive (or indeed negative) attitudes towards a country or people but rather of creating curiosity and a sense of openness.
NGOs are often conscious of how power influences the ways in which different members of the community access or benefit from project interventions; less attention is paid to how power differences influence North-South relations and even South-South relationships between local staff of an INGO and a national NGO. In this context, awareness of the power of language, the need for translation and good communication skills are often ignored, even during processes of establishing collaborative working relationships. As Fowler (1991) points out, mutual understanding and shared values are often assumed more than negotiated. The concept of translation spaces and intercultural dialogue, together with the notion of Ricoeur’s linguistic hospitality (see earlier, and Footitt 2017) might usefully be explored by greater focus on the processes of these relationships; initial consideration of Scollon and Scollon’s (2001) mediated discourse analytical approach and Ting- Toomey’s (1990) intercultural ethical questions could be a useful starting point for uncovering the power processes which tend to receive less attention.
The students expressed their satisfaction with the written and oral texts used in the activities. Such texts gave them the opportunity to connect their previous experiences with the new information presented, increase their knowledge and practice the language. Students also developed cognitive and affective components and became more sensitive to reality. They also manifested their satisfaction with the way activities were sequenced. On the observation sheets we recorded how students responded to all of the activities and we can say they were two types of activities they liked the most. The first one was the awareness activity, since they had the chance to talk, and share opinions with their peers and also debate and defend their opinions. The second activity they like the most was the development activity, due to the fact, that usually those activities included games or role plays which required production of language and interaction.
For some time, the role of culture in language education within schools, universities and professional communication has received increasing attention (Corbett, 2003). This area of pedagogic activity is referred to as ‘interculturalcommunication’; the attribute of being able to communicate with interlocutors from other cultures is termed ‘intercultural competence’ (Feng, Byram & Fleming, 2009); and a person who possesses this attribute has been dubbed the ‘intercultural speaker’ (Kramsch, 1998; Byram, 2008, pp. 57-77). The aim of this paper is to disclose, critique and circumvent the implicit ethical imperative which underwrites this area of inquiry. Indeed, across many areas of contemporary discursive practice there appears to be an incitement to communicate with the other, the ethical grounds for which remain undisclosed and unproblematised. The central argument in the paper identifies two ‘aporias’, in the sense of untraversable boundaries, logical contradictions or antinomies (Derrida, 1993), which arise from the ontological and axiological assumptions of interculturalcommunication: first, they contain an unstated impetus towards a universal consciousness; second, the truth claims of much of interculturalcommunication (IC) discourse are grounded in an implicit appeal to a transcendental moral signified. Inter alia, we contend that these features constitute the study of interculturalcommunication as ‘totality’ (Levinas, 1969/2007, 1998/2009) or as a ‘metaphysics of presence’ (Derrida, 1976, 1978, 1981). We then propose more considered and radical ethical grounds for intercultural pedagogy and praxis.
The main goal of teaching culture is to nurture the intercultural communicative function of language. To R. Wardhaugh, language is a system of arbitrary symbols used for human communication Wardhaugh, (1972). In fact, every action in connection with English as a foreign language, either in the aspect of listening (to audio or audiovisual materials in English) or speaking (either with persons with English as their first language, or with persons who speak English as a second or foreign language), or in the aspect of writing or reading (materials in English), can be regarded as interculturalcommunication, for in each of the actions, there is an encountering of the native culture embodied in the EFL learners and the exotic culture (s) carried either in the English materials or by the persons who communicate with the learners of EFL. Intercultural communicative competence is an attempt to raise the learners' awareness of their own culture and help them to interpret and understand other cultures. In other words, the EFL learners will be able to predict the behavior patterns of the peoples from the target cultures. As a result, the interculturalcommunication will be greatly facilitated.
different interpretations between English and non-English major students. It indicates that even though English major students had studied English for at least 4 years, they were either not affected by the English language culture or were not aware of the non-verbal messages in English. Since the multiple choice questions were in English and also the explanation under the pictures were in English, if the participants knew the interpretations in English, probably they would have selected the Western interpretations which was not the case. In other words, it could be argued that nonverbal communication is not focused on by English language teachers as an essential part of a language.
The result of the third part of this questionnaire implies that more than half of participants have interaction confidence during interculturalcommunication. Only minority of participants have problems with interaction confidence. This interaction confidence problem is usually related with linguistics problems (Coleman, 2002). Moreover, Rodgers and Mc Goven (2002) also stated that individuals must meet the challenges of language barriers, unfamiliar customs and practices, and cultural variations in verbal and nonverbal communication styles in order to achieve successful intercultural understanding. As a result, linguistic and cultural barriers often carry evaluative and affective consequences for interactants in an intercultural context, resulting in their lacking of confidence.
communicators with intercultural insights and knowledge should perform what kind of actions of communication, and to whom. On the other hand, the language teacher should try to design tasks and activities for the learners in ESL classroom for providing them with the chance to practice a wider range of intercultural communicative competence basic skills which are necessary for learners to communicate in different intercultural circumstances. Learners are encouraged to immerse as real social roles in various speech events by series of activities such as role plays, simulation shows, cultural comparison and scene plays in ESL classroom. The language teacher should also incorporate more intercultural elements into activities, for example, cultural capsules, cultural problem solving, cultural assimilators, cultural discussion, ethnographic tasks, projects. All these activities and curriculum development can be considered as good practices to foster learners’ intercultural communicative competence and to avoid pragmatic failure in the setting of English culture. This research established a research model for researchers in the field of second language acquisition by showing a full investigation using quantitative method to collect and analyze data, while exploring the relationship among language proficiency, target culture experience and intercultural communicative competence.
contains a message sender, and a canal, and a receiver, and feedback. Every component has an original role in communication process, and all process satisfy people by responding main humane need of people (Cereci, 2002, 64). Many communication pracesses take people to positive results and people feel themselves well and think positive more than communication. After people began to communicate in arranged words, they tried to tell mysterious stories, legends and poems by spiritual power of language and created a spiritual culture via language. All accumulation and impression of people were told others and next generation via language and people had a great cultural accumulation via language. Language created culture and eased numerous business of people (Doyle, 2012, 117). In a way language is a kind of solution of matters. Communication makes people nearer even they live far and it provides people humanistic ambiences. People can know eachother via communication and they share their own worlds, and they sometimes meet for a new business, and they use many different instruments to communicate (Stafford ve Reske, 1990, 277). Communication is source of many arts like painting or like music or like photograph and communicate proved language for transmission of messages.
For seven years now the International Association for Languages and InterculturalCommunication (IALIC) has sought to bring together multidisciplinary perspectives and understandings in interculturalcommunication studies. This endeavour has largely proceeded on the premise that the people who are engaged in it have an interest in culture in one form or another, and in the differences (and commonalities) which exist within and between diverse communities at local and global levels. It is difficult, given the diversity of the material that exists, to try sum up in a few sentences the nature of the shared sentiment we as members of IALIC have, which supplies us with the motivation to renew our subscriptions, attend IALIC conferences, and submit papers to proceedings and to issues of the association journal; but in its most general aspect we might say that we are concerned to promote intercultural understanding and awareness across cultural divides, and to transform individual human consciousnesses in some way that is productive and positive for the communities to which we belong, as well as those to which we do not. We are also, inevitably, concerned with the academy, and the dissemination amongst our peers of scholarly research as an enjoining, we hope, to a greater intensity of intercultural praxis and debate.