Top PDF The UK skills system: how well does policy help meet evolving demand?

The UK skills system: how well does policy help meet evolving demand?

The UK skills system: how well does policy help meet evolving demand?

A distinction is usually made between general or academic education and initial vocational education and training (VET). The skills system tends to be associated much more with the latter than the former. The history of VET in the UK is one of anxiety, stretching back at least 150 years, over the VET system’s inability to sufficiently deliver the skills a successful economy required. As long ago as 1882, the Royal Commission on Technical Education (the Samuelson Report) diagnosed relatively poor technical skills development as a cause of the UK’s eroding competitiveness (Harbone 2010). Successive government reports over the course of the 20th century bemoaned the failure to sufficiently develop technical skills amongst school pupils. The Spens Report in 1938, for instance, noted that clever pupils preferred to take the academic route through grammar schools so that they could gain access to professional occupations. The two-tier system of grammar schools, with an academic bent and secondary modern schools with a vocational and technical one, effectively confined VET to being ‘second best’. Not that much technical or vocational education was necessarily taking place in secondary modern schools.The Newsom Report in 1963 drawing attention to the fact that these schools provided remarkably little of either. Even with the introduction of comprehensive schools in the 1970s, vocational education tended to be limited to woodwork, metalwork, and domestic science. With little in the way of further education being available, if pupils failed to acquire vocational skills in school, then their chances of gaining them thereafter was largely dependent upon provision by their employer. This was not happening on a sufficient scale.
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The UK skills system: how aligned are public policy and employer views of training provision?

The UK skills system: how aligned are public policy and employer views of training provision?

From a theoretical perspective, the respective roles of employers and the State are clear. The major tension in the system in the UK is being able to shift to a demand led system that is able to generate a relatively high level of demand for skills from employers. In the future, it is likely that less public funding will be available with which policy makers at either the national or local levels can use to ratchet-up the supply of skills to employers. The Apprenticeship Levy may well fulfil this role in the future, but only time will tell whether this will be the case (CIPD, 2016). The skills system has been amended in an endeavour to make it more attractive to employers so this may well have the impact of ensuring that employer demand for initial VET will continue to grow. But this does place pressure on local players – via the LEPs in England and combined authorities – to both stimulate the demand for initial VET from employers and then ensuring that there is appropriate and relevant supply of training in place – notably via FE colleges and
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The UK skills system : how aligned are public policy and employer views of training provision?

The UK skills system : how aligned are public policy and employer views of training provision?

From a theoretical perspective, the respective roles of employers and the State are clear. The major tension in the system in the UK is being able to shift to a demand led system that is able to generate a relatively high level of demand for skills from employers. In the future, it is likely that less public funding will be available with which policy makers at either the national or local levels can use to ratchet-up the supply of skills to employers. The Apprenticeship Levy may well fulfil this role in the future, but only time will tell whether this will be the case (CIPD, 2016). The skills system has been amended in an endeavour to make it more attractive to employers so this may well have the impact of ensuring that employer demand for initial VET will continue to grow. But this does place pressure on local players – via the LEPs in England and combined authorities – to both stimulate the demand for initial VET from employers and then ensuring that there is appropriate and relevant supply of training in place – notably via FE colleges and
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Electrical Energy Storage to Meet Evolving Aircraft Needs .

Electrical Energy Storage to Meet Evolving Aircraft Needs .

The potential benefits of an ultracapacitor in parallel with a battery will be illustrated through a very simple lab demonstration as well as a more complex system consisting of a large motor “outrush” load (cold-cranking condition) through the use of a computer simulation tool (Simulink). Similarly, a peak power case will be evaluated through a simple lab demonstration and computer modelling (LT Spice IV). All simulations and testing are intended to illustrate basic transient performance behavior as improved energy storage technology might be applied to a power system (versus steady-state or frequency response performance). In addition to the ultracapacitor discussions and demonstration, other forms of advanced energy storage will be reviewed for their potential near or long term
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The evolving UK market for telecare

The evolving UK market for telecare

With greater awareness of the challenges posed by an ageing society comes change and opportunity. Developed countries are no longer in any doubt as to the economic, fiscal and social impact of medium- and long-term demographic change. The demand for innovative solutions to maintain ‘quality of life’ for as long as possible, and to manage the cost of public services for the older population, is driven primarily by government. It is government who is responsible for its nation’s overall health and wellbeing and it is the public purse that faces financial pressure to continue to deliver quality services whilst the number of people with multiple chronic conditions is increasing, whilst tax revenues are static and whilst the cost-benefit of new therapies is strongly contested.
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EU Nationals in the UK under pressure due to Brexit : does an apology help?

EU Nationals in the UK under pressure due to Brexit : does an apology help?

Manipulation. The experiment was conducted online, therefore the participants needed a laptop or computer. The study was introduced through a statement containing information over Brexit as well as fears of EU nationals (see Appendix A), followed by an apology by a member of the perpetrator group (see Appendix B). During the first statement, the adverse consequences of Brexit for German people living and/ or working in the UK were pointed out to make each respondent aware of these. The text also contained a fictional quote by a German who lives in the UK, with the goal of conveying the negative consequences on a personal level. After this, the apology statement followed. In total, there were six different statements, with expressions and appraisals of five different emotions and one unemotional condition. The emotions were feeling responsible, guilt, shame, regret and very sad. The apologies always began with “One British citizen said: …”, followed by suitable appraisals (see Appendix B) and ending with the sentence “I feel responsible/ guilty/ ashamed/ regret/ very sad about the fears and stress that Brexit brings about among German nationals in the UK.”. The unemotional statement ended with “I therefore apologize for the fears and stress that Brexit brings about among German nationals in the UK.”.
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Does cardiac rehabilitation meet minimum standards: an observational study using UK national audit?

Does cardiac rehabilitation meet minimum standards: an observational study using UK national audit?

report, the number of CR programmes delivering core CR in 2013 – 2014 was 308. 10 Numerous clinical trials and sys- tematic reviews have shown the effectiveness of CR over the last 20 years. 3 11 The updated Cochrane review reported that CR is proved to reduce cardiovascular mortality, hos- pital admissions in addition to improving health-related quality of life. 3 On the other hand, the conclusion from the largest UK-based randomised controlled trial ‘ Rehabilitation after myocardial infarction trial (RAMIT) ’ of comprehensive CR in the modern era of medical man- agement showed that CR does not reduce mortality or morbidity and has no bene fi cial effect on psychosocial well- being or lifestyle. 12 RAMIT was included in the Anderson et al 3 review alongside 62 other trials and did not alter the overall cardiovascular mortality bene fi t. The negative results of RAMIT appear to differ from those of the latest Cochrane reviews. The negative fi ndings of this trial have also led to scepticism about the delivery of UK-based CR programmes. 13 14 Moreover, a recent clinical review of CR published in the British Medical Journal highlights that CR is highly effective but warns that not all programmes are working to the minimum standards. 11 The NACR is com- mitted to promoting and supporting quality service provi- sion based on measurable indicators of successful delivery. The aim of this study was to assess the extent by which pro- grammes meet national minimum standards for the deliv- ery of CR.
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When, How, and for Whom Does Creativity Predict Well-Being?

When, How, and for Whom Does Creativity Predict Well-Being?

adjustment of youths. During this time of increasing freedom and exploration, emerging adults can for the first time make important life choices on their own, yet do not have many enduring responsibilities (Arnett, 2000). This period can be highly stressful for youths who have not yet fine-tuned the skills needed to make decisions on their own, choose among the paths offered to them, and cope with the lack of structure and uncertainty afforded by their newfound freedom (Schulenberg, Sameroff, & Cichetti, 2004). Given these considerations, life experiences that prepare adolescents to become independent and competent adults may play a particularly important role in fostering psychological adjustment (i.e., low levels of depression and anxiety, as well as high levels of well-being) during this time period. A large body of research suggests that involvement in extracurricular activities (ECAs) during adolescence may provide such opportunities, yet, little is known about the specific mechanisms underlying the benefits of ECAs (Feldman, Farb, & Matjasko, 2012). The present study used a correlational design to assess whether two specific mechanisms – mastery and creative self-efficacy – explain the relationship between ECA involvement during adolescence and psychological adjustment during emerging adulthood.
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FAILURE TO MEET THE DEMAND AS INFRINGEMENT OF ARTICLES 106(1) AND 102 TFEU: THE NOTION OF FAILURE TO THE MEET THE DEMAND

FAILURE TO MEET THE DEMAND AS INFRINGEMENT OF ARTICLES 106(1) AND 102 TFEU: THE NOTION OF FAILURE TO THE MEET THE DEMAND

The subsequent decisions adopted by the ECJ in failure to meet the demand cases mostly concerned with the possibility to justify failure to meet the demand on the basis of Article 106(2). Hence they provided only with some hints on the legal test, which should be applied considering failure to meet the demand. The most important of such cases is Ambulanz Glockner considered by the Court in 2001. This case concerned statutory monopoly of ambulance transportation services. The claimant stated that state-owned company failed to meet the demand available on the market as inter alia on certain occasions he failed to arrive to the destination within the statutory time limits. Interestingly, in this case opinion again was delivered by AG Jacobs, who explicitly stated in Albany that failure to meet the demand could be established only in extreme cases. In Ambulaz Glockner AG Jacobs was much more ready for compromise. In the opinion delivered to the Court Advocate General repeated his perception that infringement of Article 106(1) and 102 TFEU requires “manifest” failure to meet the demand. Nevertheless, in this case AG Jacobs associated such legal criteria with difficult economic and social assessment criteria, which legitimize some margin of discretion for the Member States, rather than possibility of the ECJ to intervene into exclusive competence of Member States on exceptional / marginal cases as suggested in Albany.
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How does telling the truth help educational action research?

How does telling the truth help educational action research?

Even if the natural sciences can offer us a truth that is value-neutral and truly objective it is quite something else for the social sciences to do so. I might suggest that it is ‘quite hot today’ another person in the same location may say ‘scorching’ another ‘boiling’ and another ‘roasting’ and another may say ‘it’s not quite as hot as it was yesterday’. If all these comments are honest and robust personal statements then all these are true (to the person saying them) yet their qualitativeness works to disguise an objective answer. This is where a quantitative statement, perhaps by a meteorologist, would help, ‘it is 32 degrees centigrade in the shade with 27% humidity and a high pollen count.’ Can such quantitative statements be made about taste?
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The NHS payment system: evolving policy and emerging evidence

The NHS payment system: evolving policy and emerging evidence

Groups (HRG), based on types of patient and treatments with similar cost implications. There are currently more than 1,300 HRGs included in the national tariff. In the English system, a single hospital stay, or spell, may include multiple consultant episodes. Where this is the case, the dominant episode counted within the spell will determine the HRG code for billing of that spell. Tariff prices are based on national average provider costs (as submitted by providers), which are adjusted equally for all providers to reflect changes in costs over time (for example, due to inflation, technology and efficiency improvements). Some tariffs are also adjusted to take account of NICE guidelines on cost-effective technology. Finally, tariffs are adjusted using the market forces factor to give a local price for a trust that reflects unavoidable local differences in costs (Farrar and others, 2007). With the end of the period of rapid financial expansion of the NHS in 2010/11, the potential of Payment by Results to generate efficiency savings in hospitals has been explored. The annual uplift in prices was set at zero per cent in 2010/11, at a time when the inflationary impact of hospital pay and prices was expected to run at about 3.5 per cent a year. In 2010/11, a marginal rate was applied to emergency admissions above the 2008/09 volume, for which only 30 per cent of the tariff price was paid, and seven ‘never-events’ for which hospitals would receive no payment listed (such as wrong-site surgery) (Department of Health, 2009). In a further change to reduce costs and incentivise quality in emergency care and follow-up, responsibility and funding for patients in the 30 days following discharge was passed to acute providers in April 2012, with no payment for emergency readmissions over this period (Department of Health, 2011c).
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HSBC Premier provides personal support to help you manage your personal economy. Our success is measured by how well we meet your needs

HSBC Premier provides personal support to help you manage your personal economy. Our success is measured by how well we meet your needs

To help meet your day-to-day banking and longer-term financial needs, an HSBC Premier Relationship Manager will identify and engage our global network, which consists of thousands of experts in different fields. Whether you require wealth management solutions, information on purchasing a local or international property, retirement planning or are looking for investment opportunities, we’re here to help. Our HSBC Premier Relationship Managers are measured on how well they meet your needs and how happy you are with their service. We believe that rewarding our people this way ensures a higher level of service and success.
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Does cardiac rehabilitation meet minimum standards: an observational study using UK national audit?

Does cardiac rehabilitation meet minimum standards: an observational study using UK national audit?

report, but only 170 programmes entered NACR data electronically, which was a requirement of this study. Although it can be argued that there are enough data to carry out the analysis, future work should aim to achieve greater capture of available data across the UK. Although CR programmes are encouraged to provide complete patient records, it was expected that a propor- tion of patient data would be missing due to non- completion of patient records. On the basis of the NACR data, of all patients who completed CR, 32% did not have a post-CR assessment recorded, which might have affected the representativeness of our sample.
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Economic Policy, Does it Help Life Expectancy? An African Evidence on the Role of Economic Policy on Longevity

Economic Policy, Does it Help Life Expectancy? An African Evidence on the Role of Economic Policy on Longevity

(2005), Baltagi and Wu (2010) and Wooldridge (2010) for further discussion. We include year effect to capture the differences in life expectancy over years. Our results are shown in Tables 4 to 5. We control for time effect using time dummies for the specification for economic policy and government consumption spending but not for the model with the “interact” effect where we use year because it does not follow a chi square distribution with year dummies. The results of our F-test in Tables 2 and 3 shows that our instruments are highly correlated with the first stage dependent variables respectively. The results in Table 4 show that economic policy has no effect on life expectancy using OLS (with p-value 0.914) and has a negative significant effect on life expectancy using 2SLS after controlling for endogeneity, using investment in stock as instrumental correction for economic policy (with p-value 0.016). This shows the importance of controlling for endogeneity since economic policy might suffer from measurement problems. The results in Table 5 show that government consumption spending has an effect (with p-value 0.014) on life expectancy using OLS and has a stronger effect (with p-value 0.000) on life expectancy using 2SLS. This shows the reliance of using health access as instrumental correction for government consumption spending, since we assume that government consumption is endogenous. The results in Table 6 show that government economic policy has a negative effect (p-value 0.019) on life expectancy without interacting economic policy with institution. After interacting economic policy with institutions the interactive variable (interact) becomes weakly statistically significant (p-value 0.061). This shows that economic policy contributes to a reduction in life expectancy, without the appropriate institutions to execute policies. It is likely that economic policy is not effective due to apathy between the civil service (the embodiment of institutions) and government officials who float economic policies making economic policy not to be contributing in a significant manner to improving life expectancy. Based on the above results we answer the hypothesis that we posed earlier below
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Regional policy spillovers : the national impact of demand-side policy in an interregional model of the UK economy

Regional policy spillovers : the national impact of demand-side policy in an interregional model of the UK economy

The positive demand shock boosts commodity outputs in the traded sectors, and also in the wider economy via increased demand for intermediate inputs, though the effects are less significant in these sectors. In the long run, in each sector, all inputs rise by the same proportionate amount, which equals the growth of output in that sector, so that constant technical coefficients are maintained, and all prices return towards their base-period equilibrium (Figure 2). This confirms previous long-run simulation results for similar model configurations in a single region context: a small region with fixed wages and no migration will encounter demand-invariant prices, which motivates fixed production and consumption coefficients 7 . This paper extends the existing research to a two-region CGE analysis, but the absence of population and supply-side constraints makes the framework IO-like, and the long-run equilibrium exhibits the IO characteristics of constant technical coefficients and constant prices.
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Economic policy, does It help life expectancy? an african evidence of the role of economic policy on longevity

Economic policy, does It help life expectancy? an african evidence of the role of economic policy on longevity

Sub-Saharan Africa according to 2009 United Nations Statistics also accounts for about 65% of HIV AIDS infected people and about 75% of all deaths associated with HIV AIDS Worldwide. While malaria fever, polio, tuberculosis etc are widely responsible for a high amount of deaths among Africa’s population. Government economic policies if favorable can empower people through employment, to afford access to health care and decent living which can prevent premature death. Social factors such as poor education and lack of information regarding treatment and preventive methods that could be useful in avoiding the risk of infection are also lacking, poor literacy rate makes it cumbersome to pass on such information to the populace. UNESCO World education regional review of year 2000 showed that only about 52% of the children in sub-Saharan Africa were enrolled in primary schools, this was the lowest anywhere in the World. Africa also recorded the highest number of children deprived of basic education according to Transparency International World report of 2010 conducted among 8500 educators in seven countries. Africa continues to account for the highest amount of illiterate adults worldwide and has one of the lowest school enrollment rates. Preventing major illness and other factors that can lead to early deaths can many a time hinge on early detection and prevention which can be achieved better in a more literate and socially aware society. Good information can help eradicate poor religious practices, outdated customary traditional rites and beliefs that are a risk to longevity such as female genital mutilation which can in some instance lead to death through female circumcision infections. Poverty and unemployment is also rampant among the population, this often makes a large section of the
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How well does Miscanthus ensile for use in an anaerobic digestion plant?

How well does Miscanthus ensile for use in an anaerobic digestion plant?

of surface and groundwater [12]. Although biogas production from maize is highly ef fi cient, there are concerns that its wide scale use in AD could result in competition between energy and food uses [13]. A study by Styles et al. [7] strongly advised against the use of purpose-grown crops for AD due to adverse impacts of this competition on land use change. The authors identi fi ed that using food waste is a more environmentally sound option, assuming a reference case where 60% of the waste would have otherwise been land fi lled. They also compared the GHG savings of utilising maize silage in the AD plant with those from growing the energy crop Miscanthus on the equivalent amount of land to generate heat. They showed that the latter generated far better GHG savings, mainly because the indirect land use impacts of using land for Miscanthus were somewhat offset by sequestration of carbon under the crop. The use of the grass itself as a biogas substrate was explored by Mayer et al. [12], who examined the biomethane potential (BMP) of Miscanthus along with 13 other possible AD substrates such as hemp, immature rye, sorghum, spelt, sun fl ower, switchgrass and tall fescue. They identi fi ed Miscanthus to be the most promising alternative to maize for AD in terms of biogas yield, and it was also suggested that the crop would help reduce erosion from agricul- tural soils.
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The company is continuously executing a series of new mega projects that will help meet the worldwide energy demand. As quality is considered an important

The company is continuously executing a series of new mega projects that will help meet the worldwide energy demand. As quality is considered an important

S ix sigma technique represents a problem solving methodology to eliminate the root causes of defects in processes. In this way defects and variability and its associated costs can be reduced. It is considered as a customer focused approach, by which the emphasis is that defects are factors which increase costs and reduce customer satisfaction [1]. It is a combination of quality management methods, including statistical methods [2]. The sigma level indicates how frequently defects are occurring. Higher sigma level means that process would produce fewer defects. Another way of reading in six sigma language is through identifying the number of defects per millions
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How well do midwives use skills and knowledge in examining newborns?

How well do midwives use skills and knowledge in examining newborns?

All eight respondents felt that they met the theoretical objectives of the course and felt well prepared for clinical practice following the six month programme. They were also satisfied with the theoretical preparation they received for the physical examination of the newborn: Respondent one said, ‘I would like to say thanks for the support from the consultant who helped with supervision and discussion; tutorials were really great it helped and induced a lot of confidence in me’. Respondent two said, ‘examination of the newborn gives me the wide skills and knowledge to be able to assess babies on admission and discharge in the neonatal unit; it also helps me to improve my knowledge in diagnostic system’. Respondent three said, ‘It was very intense; however it prepared me for adequate assessment of newborn’.
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How could primary care meet the informatics needs of UK Biobank? A Scottish proposal

How could primary care meet the informatics needs of UK Biobank? A Scottish proposal

level of security on clinical data is imposed by the NHSnet. A log-in screen would be presented and all communications encrypted. Access would be determined by username and password. All attempts to log on to the Scottish RCC server and every action subsequently taken would be logged, producing audit trails. All clinical data will be anonymised with all patient-identifiable information removed before being passed for analyses, according to the UK Biobank pro- tocol. This system has already been employed by the Health Informatics Centre and MEMO (Medicines Monitoring Unit) at the University of Dundee, and was consulted as part of the Confidentiality, Security and Advisory Group’s report on patient confidentiality in NHS Scotland. Thus, every patient, GP, general practice and hospital clinic is allocated a unique, randomly generated identifier, intended for the pur- poses of anonymous research. Researchers are then restricted to ‘views’ of data that use these anonymous identifiers and omit any identifying fields. Thus, all demographic information is removed except sex, age (in months) and social class (Carstairs Index). For genetic research, only the nurse performing the fieldwork has access to the CHNo. This nurse does not have access to any other patient-specific data other than those collected during direct patient contact. In addition, though the system administrator (through necessity) has access to all data on the server, the identity of individual genetic markers would not be available to them.
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