Abstract. In recent years World Wide Web traffic has shown phenomenal growth. The main causes are the continuing increase in the number of people navigating the Internet and the creation of millions of new Web sites. In addition, the structure of Webpages has become more complex, including not only HTML files but also other components. This has affected both the download times of Webpages and the network bandwidth required. The goal of our research is to monitor the download times of Webpages from different Web sites, and to find out to what extent the images contained in these Webpages influence these times. We also suggest some possible ways of decreasing the bandwidth requirements and download times of complex Webpages.
Semantic technologies try to overcome IR limitation through explicit descriptions, internal structure and content and services overall structure . All meanings and information conveyed by content in unstructured form (such as text or audio-visual content) cannot be fully translated to a clear/formal semantic representation, for pragmatic reasons. But, it is possible to describe parts of conveyed information, albeit to an incomplete extent, as metadata. Metadata is data about other data (e.g., the ISBN number and the author’s name are metadata about a book) . For similar reasons it is useful to keep both information (data and metadata) parts in the system and relevant to have a link connecting both commonly called annotation. Different syntactic supports standards were proposed for metadata and annotation representations. Markup languages like HTML and XML are used with their features being effectively used for webpages classification.
Today the Web has become the largest information source for people. Most information retrieval systems on the Web consider webpages as the smallest and undividable units, but a web page as a whole may not be appropriate to represent a single semantic. A web page usually contains various contents such as navigation, decoration, interaction and contact information, which are not related to the topic of the web page. Furthermore, a web page often contains multiple topics that are not necessarily relevant to each other. Therefore, detecting the content structure of a web page could potentially improve the performance of web information retrieval.
By examining sequence alignments between α - and β - tubulin, Kuchnir-Fygenson et al. (2004) identified residues that differ significantly in variability. Most of these residues were shown to be clustered around the nucleotide-binding pocket, where the greatest functional differences between the two types of tubulin exist. The remaining residues associated with large differences in variability are found in the N-terminal loop between helix (H) 1 and beta sheet (S) 2. The statistical distribution of residue variability in both α and β -tubulins is strongly peaked at low values, with >50% of residues scoring in the bottom 10% of the variability range. In the structure-based alignment, the correlation coefficient for variability between the tubulins is R( α / β )= 0.42. This alignment involves two gaps in β - tubulin: a small one in the disordered N-terminal loop ( β , 39–40) and a larger one in the loop between S9 and S10 ( β , 362–365). Three distinct regions are misaligned to accommodate multiple residues with large differences in variability between the paralogs. These misaligned regions include a total of approxi- mately 100 residues located in helices H1 and H4, sheets S4, S5 and S9, two turns (T4 and T5) and the disordered N-terminal loop (L1). Among these, there are 40 positions that appear to be of particular functional importance where homologous residues differ in variability by more than a standard deviation from the mean. Half of these are clustered around the nucleotide-bind- ing pocket, four are clustered around the taxol binding site on β -tubulin and one participates in lateral binding between MT protofilaments. Of the 20 residues near the nucleotide-binding pocket, 16 are more variable in the «N-site», which binds GTP without catalyzing its hydrolysis and less variable in the «E- site», which hydrolyzes GTP as dimers assemble into protofilaments. Of the four residues that are less variable in the N-site, the tyrosine residue at position 172 in α -tubulin is particularly interesting as a target for directed mutagenesis because it interacts directly with the nucleotide. Because analo- gous differences in variability were so plausibly connected with functional differences in the other misaligned regions, Kuchnir- Fygenson (2004) predicted that these residues in the N-termi- nal loop have a role in making the biochemical functions of α and β -tubulin distinct. It is suspected that the functional distinc- tion is related to GTP hydrolysis and that the tenuously struc- tured glycines within β -tubulin are involved in a hydrolysis- driven conformational change that eventually results in a catas- trophe event.
The volume of AChE G 4 after its reaction with S-ACh in the absence of PI (Figure 3B–D) is larger than that seen in Figure 3A,F, and a gorge appears in some reacted proteins (Figure 3B–D). The loose arrangement of subunits of G 4 AChE is the most obvious effect following ACh in the absence of PI, with the average size being 104 ± 7 nm long, 91 ± 5 nm wide, and 8 ± 2 nm high, and there is an apparent free space in the center of AChE G 4 , with the average size being 60 ± 5 nm long and 51 ± 9 nm wide. Figure 3B–D represents different statuses of AChE G 4 when reacted with S-ACh in the absence of PI. The structure of AChE G 4 after its reaction with S-ACh is looser than seen in Figure 3A, and the enzyme is composed of subunits; there are linkages among the subunits (Figure 3C). A loose, pseudo-square planar tetramer of AChE after its reaction with S-ACh appears in (Figure 3C), and one protein particle is composed of two pairs of subunits; there are linkages in the lateral groups of one subunit, consisting of one pair of subunits with that of another pair (Figure 3C). With certain conditions, we found units composed of tightened AChE G 4 (Figure 4D), and some AChE G 4 emerged in the structure of the “lateral door” (Figure 3E); the average size of the lateral door was 52 ± 5 nm in width and 32 ± 3 nm in depth. Compared with Figure 3B–E, in the presence of PI (PAS inhibitor), ACh did not cause topological structure changes of AChE G 4 (Figure 3F).
3. In a large community (unlimited) migration, mutation and drift would not and 50% per generation Homozygous to remove any recessive gene frequency in the population is 2 0.0 5 0.0 8 0.0, after 10 20, 200 and 400 generation, what will change? After applying choice of study population and its effect on
A factor analysis with the principal factor method and varimax rotation was performed with the five original subscales. The items were assigned to each subscale if they loaded on a specific factor at greater than 0.50. The best model (Table 2), which consisted of 18 items, was extracted from the 39-item TEMPS-A. The first factor was defined by items 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8 and interpreted as the cyclo- thymic temperament. The second factor was defined by items 29, 30, and 31 and interpreted as the hyperthymic temperament. The third factor was defined by items 13, 14, and 15 and interpreted as the depressive temperament. The fourth factor was defined by items 22, 23, 24, and 26 and interpreted as the irritable temperament. The fifth factor was defined by items 37 and 39 and interpreted as the anxious temperament.
SyDoM  is a semantic annotation of Webpages system. This allows the enrichment of these pages so that they take account of their writing without language find it with textual XML format is dedicated to manage documents stored. we see that SyDoM has two main advantages: first, multilingual research and other But the improvement of the representation of Webpages, we SyDoM  out research on Webpages only if it has been already annotated, yet this annotation by using different means to inquire Webpages created thesauri have been unable to get that information. The W3C also made the task of making existing databases available for the Semantic Web one of its goals and initiated the RDB2RDF Incubator Group. In the course of their work in 2009, they collected and evaluated the state of the art in this field and published their final report in . This survey showed several approaches – from a complete transformation of an existing relational database to an RDF database on one side, to on-demand mapping and query translations from SPARQL to SQL on the other side. When publishing data that has to be maintained and updated over time, it is impractical to have to publish the same information twice – once for humans and a second time for tools, especially if content is also provided by users of the site. In this case, it is not just a single effort when initially publishing the data, but results in consequently having to update and maintain two separate pieces of work. A practical and easy way to integrate semantic information into an existing document is to use annotations. A first solution for this was proposed by  who described the concept of miro formats. These are small sets of semantic data that can be embedded in a webpage, invisible to the user but visible for tools and search engines. By using this data, structured information about things like authorship or even cooking recipes can be given that can be extracted from the page. But these formats have to be agreed on by the community in order to understand the structure and the content.
Abstract: Intelligent systems require knowledge-rich resources. The most important tasks in information extraction from the web are webpage structure understanding as many web sites contain large collections of pages generated using a common template or layout makes it increasingly difficult to discover relevant data about a specific topic. Extracting data from such pages has become an important issue in recent days as the number of webpages available on the Internet has growing in exponential. Tools and protocols to extract all this information have now come in demand as researchers and web surfers want to discover new knowledge at an ever increasing rate. A web crawler also known as, a robot or a spider is a system for the bulk downloading of webpages, whereas the goal of a focused crawler is seeking pages that are relevant to a pre-defined set of topics. The topics are specified not using keywords, but using exemplary documents. Instead of collecting and indexing those accessible web documents which can answer all ad-hoc queries, a focused crawler analyzes its crawl boundary to find the links that are likely to be most relevant for the crawl, and avoids irrelevant regions of the Web. Since all search engines take their data fed using crawlers, it is critical to improve its working ability. As the size of data is huge, Common Crawlers are no longer applicable in real life. So there is need to develop a domain specific crawler builds on stock of existing algorithms. This led to considerable savings in hardware and network resources, and helps keep the crawl more up-to-date. This paper proposed a novel framework called StructWebNLP, which enables bidirectional integration of page structure understanding and text understanding in an iterative manner. We have applied the proposed framework to the judgments information system to extract text of judgments.
At German model institutions, experience has shown that it is essential that the collaborating gastroenterologist is a skilled interventional endoscopist who is familiar with the procedure, the pitfalls, and the potential complications. Before starting the 2-day test phase with a nasointestinal tube, PD patients are routinely examined using fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing, videofluoroscopy, functional transnasal endoscopy to investigate the esophageal phase of deglutition, 53 high-resolution manometry, and endoscopy
The main objective of this research is to categorize the news highly focused on webpages of blogs; news channel portals, etc into relevant category. This helps the reader to get the news catalogs directly accessed for the updates from various headlines, which makes WPC more efficient from search engine. But the complexity in obtaining exact match for the news on the basis of URL’s, Meta tags, Html structure traversal is observed very expensive and so there is a need to traverse the entire file path and its structure where the page resides. The URL file structure extracted by web crawler from any source is further considered as data set (path) to retrieve the news contents which are needed to be evaluated on its exactness before getting indexed into catalog. So to resolve the problem, the proposed model is designed with its architectural structure.
Dividend irrelevance theory of Miller and Modigliani (1961), explained that the dividend policy is irrelevant, since it does not affect at all the company's value or cost of capital. The value of the company depends on investment, not on how profits are divided for dividends and profits are not shared. This opinion was contrary to the thinking of the two. First, it is assumed that the investment decisions and the use of already made and does not affect his little big dividends paid. Second, capital market character was assumed to exist; that means (1) the Investor can sell and buy stocks without paying a transaction fee, as in a perfect capital market information is widespread investor can do everything yourself; (2) any company can publish a stock without the various fees; (3) no individual or corporate income tax; (4) details of every company is always available, so that investors do not need to see a special announcement regarding the dividend payment as an important indicator of the condition of the company; and (5) between the management and the owners of the shares there is no conflict or no agency problems.
Implementation of the proposed work is done in ASP.Net as the Front end development tool and SQLServer as a Back end database management system. Popularity of a web page is calculated by considering its linked structure. The whole page is parsed to extract the Links of the page. The extracted Links are then stored in the suitable table in the database. When a web page is accessed a script is loaded on the client side from web server. Script is used to check for the click event to occur. When a click event occurs, a message is send to web server with information of current web page and hyperlink. On server side a data base of log file is used to store the web page id, hyperlinks of that page and number of clicks on hyperlinks. Hit count value is increased by one every time a hit occurs on the hyperlink. The database or log files will accessed by crawler at the time of crawling. This hit count information is stored in search engine‟s database and is used to calculate the rank value of different webpages or documents.
Web documents can be viewed as complex objects which often contain multiple entities each of which can represent a standalone unit. However, most information processing applications developed for the web, consider webpages as the smallest undividable units. This fact is best illustrated by web information retrieval engines whose results are presented in the form of links to web documents rather than to the exact regions within these documents that directly match a user's query . Various approaches that have been adopted in carrying out the segmentation task have been identified and their advantages and disadvantages associated with each. We describe web page segmentation methods & compare them from theoretical point of view fixed-length technique is that no semantic info is taken into consideration within. DOM provides every online page with a fine-grained structure. VIPS discards content analysis and produce blocks based on the visual cues of webpages. In general, passages can be categorized into three classes: discourse, semantic, and window . Discourse passages rely on the logical structure of the documents marked by punctuation, such as sentences, paragraphs and sections. Semantic passages are obtained by partitioning a document into topics or sub-topics according to its semantic structure. A third type of passages, fixed-length passages or windows, are defined to contain fixed number of words. While directly adopting these passage definitions for partitioning webpages is feasible, there exist some new characteristics in webpages which can be utilized. We describe each of them below:
5.2 TESTING AND APPROVAL Client shall test all aspects of the Web Site within ten (10) calendar days after the Web Site and its WebPages are made available to Client for testing. Within that time, Client shall either accept, based upon reasonable standards, all aspects of the Web Site and make the payment due as set forth in the Addendum or provide WebSelect with written notice of the specific aspects in which the Web Site fails to meet the agreed requirements and request WebSelect to make corrections. Such notice shall be sufficiently detailed to allow WebSelect to duplicate and confirm any nonconformity. If WebSelect is unable to duplicate nonconformity, WebSelect will notify Client in writing, and the parties will attempt to resolve the problem within a reasonable time. If WebSelect is able to duplicate nonconformity, WebSelect will be required to use its best efforts to correct it within a reasonable time. Once the reported non-conformities have been corrected, WebSelect will provide Client with the opportunity to retest the corrected version of the Web Site and its WebPages.
Due to the rapid pace in technology the data in the World Wide Web is increasing at a rapid pace. It is a consortium where data of different formats are pooled together so that the user can access their required information. The search engine is designed to cater the need of the users . As the data is in enormous form so it is quite difficult for the user to extract the needed information easily in constraint time period which is in different forms like text, image, video and audio . The process of data mining helps in managing the repository and is quite useful in finding out the required patterns as per user need . Various methods and tools have been designed for web mining that not only help to categories the data but also help in easy retrieval. Apart from these various ranking algorithms are designed that overall ease the task of arranging the webpages according to the priorities based on user queries. These algorithms have been modified from time to time so that more refined webpages can be displayed. The techniques being used are based on content and structural links while little work has been done on web logs file that incorporate web usage mining. Web Usage Mining will be quite helpful in information retrieval process as they take into consideration the usage pattern of the user which also helps in increasing the relevancy of the webpages. The paper throws light on the various ranking algorithms and the various web mining techniques that are used in these ranking algorithms with special focus on web usage mining techniques.
Several techniques exist for extracting useful content from webpages. However, the definition of ‘useful’ is very broad and context dependant. In this research, several techniques – existing ones and new ones – are evaluated and combined in order to extract object data in a fully automatic way. The data source used for this, are mostly web shops, sites that promote housing, and vacancy sites. The data to be extracted from these pages, are respectively items, houses and vacancies. Three kinds of approaches are combined and evaluated: clustering algorithms, algorithms that compare pages, and algorithms that look at the structure of single pages. Clustering is done in order to differentiate between pages that contain data and pages that do not. The algorithms that extract the actual data are then executed on the cluster that is expected to contain the most useful data. The quality measure used to assess the performance of the applied techniques are precision and recall per page. It can be seen that without proper clustering, the algorithms that extract the actual data perform very bad. Whether or not clustering performs acceptable heavily depends on the web site. For some sites, URL based clustering outstands (for example: nationalevacaturebank.nl and funda.nl) with precisions of around 33% and recalls of around 85%. URL based clustering is therefore the most promising clustering method reviewed by this research. Of the extraction methods, the existing methods perform better than the alterations proposed by this research. Algorithms that look at the structure (intra page document structure) perform best of all four methods that are compared with an average recall between 30% to 50%, and an average precision ranging from very low (around 2%) to quite low (around 33%). Template induction, an algorithm that compares between pages,
allowed us to study in detail the structure of individual structural components and the features of a fragment of the chemical structure of kerogen. The obtained model of the chemical structure of kerogen of Upper Jurassic deposits has a number of similar and distinctive features if compared to the structure of kerogen of Upper Devonian deposits. The kerogen of Upper Jurassic deposits is a highly aliphatic polymer, whose n-alkyl constituents are bound to the matrix with sulfur and oxygen atoms. The increased content of oxygen-containing structures in it is probably due to the effective conservation of carbohydrate components in diagenesis, and to the saturation with ether bonds typical of the initial organic matter of Algaenan shales. The presence of a carbohydrate component is confirmed by the high contents of “linear” short-chain thiophenes in pyrolysis products. The S/C values exceeding 0.04 classify the Upper Jurassic kerogen as Type II-S. The main sulfur-containing moieties of the geopolymer are sulfide(polysulfide)bound n-alkyl structures. Nitrogen is mainly present in the amino acid constituents of kerogen. Lipid moieties mainly dominate in the kerogen of Domanic deposits. The content of n-alkanes and n-alkenes in pyrolysis products of kerogen of Domanic deposits is twice as high as that in the kerogen of the Volga shales. The formation of n-alkanes and n-alkenes is partially due to the pyrolysis destruction of the algaenan structural moieties found in the geopolymer. The n-alkyl structures of the algaenans of domanik are allegedly bound mainly through ester bonds, as evidenced by the increased content of CO 2 released during pyrolysis as compared to CO. The S/C atomic ratio is below 0.04, thus allowing to classify this kerogen as Type II. Both short-chain and long chain sulfur-bound n-alkyl structures are less typical of D3dm kerogen. The low level of sulfurization of kerogen of Upper Devonian deposits is confirmed by low values of the thiophene index. The increased nitrogen content in such kerogen is explained by the presence of highly gelatinized chitinite, the starting material of which was the chitinous shells of tentaculites. Analysis of gaseous pyrolysis products of kerogen showed a high content of water released, probably, due to the elimination of hydroxyl groups of phenolic type. Some aromatic structures are formed directly in the kerogen itself in diagenesis and continue to form during further processes of transformation of OM, while some other aromatic structures are inherited
Cyclopendante ligands based on the crown polyethers are of interest as complexing agents. Thus, strontium complexes with the classical chelates typically are less stable than the analogous complexes of calcium, however the XIII.3 and XV compounds form complexes with the these cations which are practically identical in stability, and the ligand XIII.4 chelates the strontium more effective than calcium. The stability constant of the magnesium complex with the compound XV is more than by five orders lower than that of calcium. Unusually, that Ni 2+ and Co 2+ with the ligand XIII.3,