The Tellusairbornegeophysicalsurvey of NorthernIreland is being conducted over a two year period by the Joint Airborne geoscience Capability (JAC). This facility, formed by the Finnish and British Geological Surveys (GTK and BGS), provides both partners with a cost- effective means of acquiring high-resolution airborne data for their national strategic science programmes. NorthernIreland was the first part of the UK to conduct an independent cost- benefit analysis and recognise the benefits of modern, high-resolution aerogeophysical surveying. The survey is funded by the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment. In a sign of the times, the project was given the brand-name ‘Tellus’ by a public-relations company to fulfil a requirement for public outreach and to accommodate public understanding of science. This aspect of the project, although out with the JAC, has been a remarkable success. The Tellus project was conceived as a Resource and Environmental Survey for the benefit of both public and private development sectors. The derived datasets can be used to support government policy decisions in economic and sustainable development, social infrastructure, environment and human health. The 3 main geophysical measurements (magnetic, radiometric and electromagnetic) obtained by the JAC Twin-Otter contribute to different aspects of these broad objectives. The present report describes interim (block-based) data, acquired during the first year of the project.
investigate the extent to which regional databases such as Tellus can provide reliable data for use in forensic applications.
The future of Tellus
Since 2014, the Tellus programme has continued to expand southwards in Ireland under the direction of the GSI, with the objective of completing geophysical and geochemi- cal surveys of 50% of the area of the Republic of Ireland by 2017 (see www.tellus.ie). Contracts for airbornegeophysicalsurvey and geochemical sampling and analysis are let regularly and data are released as they become available. Wide participation by the research community is sought and encouraged, notably by commissioning multiple short research projects to work on the questions and challenges posed by the data. The survey of the island is scheduled to finish by 2023, just 25 years after the project was conceived. However, interpretation and analysis of such a volume of high-quality earth science data will continue into the foreseeable future, accompanied, it is hoped, by a stream of eco- nomic and environmental benefits.
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Figure 2. Ternary image of the entire Tellus radiometric dataset
Lower Palaeozoic rocks in the SE of NorthernIreland (Southern Uplands Terrane) form a block of ground with higher values for total count and all three radioelements. There is a general rise to the south and SE reflecting the highest concentrations in the acid intrusives of the Newry, Mourne Mountains and Slieve Gullion complexes, as well as generally higher levels in the Hawick Group relative to the Gala Group and older Lower Palaeozoic formations. There is a major contrast between the SE and the NE of NorthernIreland where the Palaeogene basalts (Cooper, 2004) and overlying sediments (mostly the Lough Neagh Group) have much lower concentrations of K, eU and eTh. Within this generally low radioelement area are much higher values associated with parts of the Proterozoic and Palaeozoic sequence in the inlier in the extreme NE and a small area of rhyolites NE of Lough Neagh. The SE and NW fringes around the basaltic outcrop have moderate K, eU and eTh levels corresponding to the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group and parts of the overlying Mercia Mudstone Group.
Various methods have been proposed to quantify and cor- rect for these static-shift effects, including continuous sam- pling and filtering of the electric channels (Torres-Verdin and Bostick, 1992), spatial filtering based on mapping of MT data (Berdichevsky, 1989), modelling of parametric homoge- neous layers at depth (Jones, 1988), estimation of distortion- related parameters as unknowns during inversion (Sasaki and Meju, 2006; Miensopust, 2010; Avdeeva et al., 2015; De Groot-Hedlin, 1991; DeGroot-Hedlin, 1995), and finally the use of complementary EM geophysical methods (Stern- berg et al., 1988; Pellerin and Hohmann, 1990; Miensopust et al., 2014). These methods can be broadly divided into methods that use intrinsic information from MT data and those that use extrinsic information from other geoscientific data. Whereas both families of methods can account for static shifts between MT modes at a single site and improve inter- station shifts, intrinsic information may not yield a correct resistivity in the case of both modes being distorted - as stated in Sternberg et al. (1988), “there is no reason to expect that either of the two MT polarisations will provide the cor- rect resistivity”. In contrast, extrinsic methods using purely magnetic measurements (i.e. with no instruments using the subsurface as a component of their circuitry) by definition are unaffected by the electric effects of galvanic distortion and thereby provide a more correct resistivity estimate, albeit generally for much shallower depths than magnetotelluric measurements. The use of extrinsic information may, in some cases, be limited by the requirement that both the extrinsic in- formation and MT data must illuminate some common depth volume within the Earth with a common current system in order to allow reconciliation of the resistivity structure. For example, if the near-surface is three-dimensional (3-D), then the current system from regionally induced currents observed in MT is very different from the current system from locally induced currents from a small EM transmitter–receiver array, and any resistivities estimated by MT would correspond to a different volume than that sampled by the smaller array.
3.3 Imaging the crustal thickness beneath the Okavango Dike Swarm
Crustal depth values (Moho depth) across northern Botswana were estimated using the 2D radial average power spectrum method. The method of depth estimation through spectral analysis has been widely used by several authors for both magnetic and gravity data ( Tselentis et al., 1988 ; Maus and Dimri, 1996; Maden, 2010; Hussein et al., 2013). We utilized a composite gravity data set assimilated from a 7.5 km survey performed by the Geologic Survey of Botswana, supplemented by additional data sets acquired from various industry sources, and a higher resolution (2 km) data set collected as part of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded PRIDE (Project for Rift Initiation Development and Evolution) project (Figure 5). The radial average power spectrum method is based on an observation by Spector and Grant (1970) that the depth factor invariably dominates the shape of a 2D power spectrum curve. The radially averaged power spectrum of potential field data within a 2D observation plane decreases with increasing depth by a factor of (-2hr), where h is the depth to the top of the source and r is the wavenumber. Hence, the depth to source can be derived directly from the slope of the log radially averaged power spectrum curve.
effectively provided the first modern airborne radiometric survey undertaken across southern England.
The full survey area covered a total on- and off-shore rectangular area of 36 x 22 km (792 km 2 ) which was investigated with flight lines spaced at 200 m and flown in an N-S direction, orthogonal to the major structural trends of the region. A nominal survey altitude of 56 m was adopted but over the built environment a regulatory flight altitude of 240 m was required. In forming the survey rectangle, a small area on the mainland (Lymington area) was included to provide continuity of information. The sampling of the radiometric data (see later) provided 74,441 survey measurements. The geology of the Isle of Wight can be fairly evenly divided into a northern zone of Palaeogene sands, clays and limestones and a southern region of Cretaceous strata. The structure is dominated by a prominent east-west trending monoclonal fold or ramp structure (White, 1921; Melville and Freshney, 1982). The two zones are divided by the east-west trending chalk beds of the late-Cretaceous (Figure 2). The youngest units on the island are the Oligocene succession of the Cranmore Member and Hamstead Member (HM-CLSS, Figure 2) of the Bouldnor Formation.
Electrode contact resistances were checked before each line was collected, and repositioned if necessary to gain equivalent contacts across each survey line, following standard practice (Milsom and Eriksen, 2011). ERI data were then collected using a Wenner array after initial testing to determine optimum array configurations (Kearey et al., 2002). Raw ERI data were then processed using Geotomo™ Res2Dinv64 v.6.1 software in accordance with Loke & Barker (1996) resistivity surveying recommendations. Anomalous isolated measurements were removed (<1%) before a Least-Squares algorithm was utilised to invert each profile using finite-element modelling, with the fourth iteration used for interpretation, after testing found further iterations made results unstable. Optional ½ cell spacing inversion was also used to reduce the near-surface effect of electrode resistivity variations within respective profiles (see Loke & Barker, 1996). Collected GPS survey data were integrated within the profiles to allow topographic corrections of ERI sections. Finalised models of inverted resistivity sections (using a common colour-contoured scale for each inferred stratigraphic layer) then interpreted (see below).
2 Technical Background
2.1 DATA SETS
The EM data used here are from contractor supplied final data files available through GSNI and GSI. Processing reports that accompany the data are also available from the 2 organisations. In EM data terms, the change from a 2 frequency system used in 2005 to a 4 frequency system used in 2006 (and thereafter) provides an added complication to merging the 4 primary data sets. The method used previously is described in the final processing report (Beamish et al., 2006; http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/7427/1/IR06136.pdf). EM data from two common frequencies (3125/3005 Hz) and (14,368/11,962 Hz) were used to construct low frequency (LF, 3125/3005 Hz) and high frequency (HF,14,368/11,962 Hz) estimates of the half-space apparent conductivities/resistivities uniformly across the combined survey area. The procedures used also supplied uniform/merged estimates of the coupling ratios at each frequency. This was made possible by 2 control lines (LINES 1214 and 1215) repeated by both the 2005 and 2006 surveys and passing over the large water body of Lough Neagh. The use of a large body of water ensured that flying altitudes of the two control survey lines were well-maintained.
Gamma radiation comprises signals of varying energies and the various radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium can be distinguished by the energy of their emissions. Separating these signals is the function of the 256 channel radiometric spec- trometer, which was calibrated prior to survey over pads dosed with known amounts of uranium, potassium and thorium. Processing of these data was undertaken according to methods set out by the International Atomic Energy Agency. After processing and conver- sion to equivalent concentrations, based on the pad calibrations, the values of equivalent uranium, thorium and potassium are presented in coloured imagery. These data may also effectively be displayed as ratios (for example, uranium/potassium) or in a ternary format where the three isotopes are represented collectively, presentations that serve to identify anomalous features.
compounds at monitoring wells along the northern and north-western perimeter of the site, highlighting the potential for off-site groundwater impact in this area.
Figures 27.6 and 27.7 show the AEM apparent conductivity data in plan and cross- sectional view, respectively, for Site 2. Apparent conductivity is the conductivity calculated according to a simple planar model. The ‘depth of penetration’ depends on the local elec- trical and spatial characteristics but most of the response comes from within 60 m of the ground surface. The elevated conductivity values seen within the landfill boundary are as would be expected with the deposition of organic material and landfill materials. The fre- quency response for each of the four available EM frequencies is illustrated in Fig. 27.7 for flight line 2. The highest apparent conductivity values occur in the two higher frequency data sets (12 and 25 kHz). These have a shallower depth of investigation similar to that of the buried waste, whereas the lower frequencies penetrate to greater depth. (Responses at the lower frequencies incorporate response of the deeper bedrock, which is likely to be more resistant and to dilute the landfill signal.) Areas of interest are delineated where the conductivity appears to extend outside the landfill boundary, possibly indicating dispersion of high-conductivity leachate which may pose a potential risk to groundwater. However, this must be approached with caution as, although the Tellussurvey is high resolution at a regional scale, at site scale this equates, for example, to 75 data points within the landfill boundary for Site 2. Although the resolution is high along the flight line (approximately Ofterdinger et al.
The NILTS was designed to yield a representative sample of adults living in NorthernIreland. From the 1,800 (achieved rate = 68%) adults interviewed for the survey, data was also collected pertaining to the ages of young people residing in the adult participant’s household. Where any young people aged 12 to 17 years were identified, their parent or guardian was asked for permission to interview the young person. The parent / guardian was shown a copy of the YLTS questionnaire and asked to sign a formal consent form for the interview to proceed. Questionnaire based interviews were subsequently held unless the young person was unavailable or
The two deprivation indicators that all regions showed the highest level of material deprivation on were; ‘make savings of £10 per month or more’ and ‘holiday away from home one week a year not staying with relatives’, with almost one third of households answering that they would like to but could not afford to. Notably, nearly half of households in the Urban West could not afford to have a holiday away from home one week a year not staying with relatives (48%) or to make savings of £10 per month or more (46%). The two Rural regions had the lowest levels of material deprivation across the material deprivation indicators, primarily the Rural East. Six percent of all households in NorthernIreland indicated they could not afford to keep up-to-date with bills. This ranged from 2% in the Rural West region to 11% in the Urban West.
Assessing the quality of a health care system is not straightforward given the multifaceted nature of quality. A recent review assessed the quality of the health care systems of each of the four countries of the United Kingdom (Sutherland & Coyle, 2009). It examined the systems in terms of effectiveness, access and timeliness, capacity, safety, patient centeredness and equity – these qualities collectively being deemed to constitute the quality of the service. Where data were available, NorthernIreland compared reasonably relative to other United Kingdom countries across many of the measures used. With respect to life expectancy at birth for example, among males this increased by 4.8 years in NorthernIreland in 1991–1993 and 2005–2007 matching the increase in Wales and exceeding that in Scotland where the increase was 4.6 years (the increase in England was 5.3 years). Female life expectancy at birth increased over the same period by 3.3 years in NorthernIreland compared with 2.9 years in Wales and 3.4 years in Scotland (and 3.4 years in England). Improvements in cause-specific mortality in NorthernIreland exceeded those of other United Kingdom countries in some areas, notably ischaemic heart disease; the declines in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in 1999 and 2006 in NorthernIreland, England, Wales and Scotland, respectively, were in males 37.4%, 33.5%, 35.0% and 36.2% and in females, 33.7%, 33.2%, 29.6% and 33.3%. However, in other areas, such as cancer improvements in mortality, rates in NorthernIreland have lagged behind those in all other countries of the United Kingdom (and by international standards).
O U R L O C A L P O L I T I C I A N ’ S P O I N T O F V I E W Rotterdam
»I’m very enthusiastic about TELLUS. Problems with traffic and environ- ment don’t stop at country or city borders; it there- fore is and should be an European concern, on all levels. Already 70% of our national legislation comes from the EU, especially on the themes traffic, trans- port and environment. The TELLUS project gives Rotterdam the opportunity to improve not only our own but also the European policy, in a practical way. In the participating cities we can implement measures that can show whether or not anticipated European regulation will function or whether additional European regulation or encour- agement is necessary. That’s why I became a mem- ber of the policy advisory programme of CIVITAS. We can learn a lot from other CIVITAS cities and exchange experiences to select solutions that work. That’s the good thing about TELLUS, it’s about de- monstration and practical solutions!«
Figure 4.1 (see table S4.1) examines the percentage of households that hold a direct payment account, including Post Office Card Accounts (POCAs). As illustrated the percentage of households holding a direct payment account (including POCAs) has shown an overall increase over the time series in BMUA, Urban and Rural areas. In NorthernIreland the percentage of households holding a direct payment account (including POCAs) in 2013/14 was 93%, a 9 percentage point increase from 2002/03. This may partly be due to the introduction of POCAs with DSD moving to direct payment of benefits into bank accounts for the majority of claimants, and the drive in the consumer market to make direct debits the preferred method of payment (utilities in particular).
NorthernIreland Ombudsman 2013-2014 Annual Report Section One
of bodies in my jurisdiction. As a result of my liaison with the Public Record Office of NorthernIreland (PRONI) in relation to the good records management aspect of these Principles I have developed the Principles further. In conjunction with the Information Commissioners Office I intend to launch a Guide to Good Administration and Good Records Management in July 2014 and to develop workshops for practitioners in the Autumn of 2014. As a result of a Service Level Agreement with the NorthernIreland Human Rights Commission (NICHR) I have also been working on a human rights based approach to my investigations so as to ensure best practice and to test whether bodies meet the FREDA values of Fairness, Respect, Equality, Dignity and Autonomy in their interactions with the public. My staff have had extensive human rights training and with the NIHRC I intend to launch a joint working manual for investigation staff in September 2014.
Provide design-specific business advice: In the current absence of funding to establish a design industry body exclusively for NorthernIreland, a programme could be developed to better understand current government schemes and make public funding available specifically for the design sector. There is clearly an appetite to tap into this, and it may be a case of simply ‘translating’ available opportunities, funding and networks for the design industry to take advantage of. In particular, the survey suggests the need for support for design businesses to penetrate new markets and increase their client base. This could be facilitated through work by NIDA and the NI Executive.
Following the Comprehensive Spending Review and the publication of the revised NorthernIreland government budget, the Department for Employment and Learning (DEL) made a large number of cuts across its portfolio, with a large percentage of these cuts focused on the Higher Education sector.
The variety of walking trails in the Sperrins Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty is one of Northern Ireland’s great secrets. With more landowner access agreements in place, the Sperrin Mountains are now becoming an attractive walking destination. Many of the upland areas including Sawel and Dart Mountains can be fully enjoyed in the annual hillwalking festival. When walking in The Sperrins