Top PDF Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Nanaka believes that tacit knowledge is highly personalized and formalized; therefore, it is rather difficult to be communicated or shared, for example, subjective insight foretelling, and intuition (Nonaka, 2004). In addi- tion, tacit knowledge is rooted deeply in people’s actions and experiences as well as in people’s ideals, values, and emotions. Basically speaking, it is the knowledge that is not “verbalized” and “articulated” yet, difficult to be described or explicated. In addition the possessor is unconscious of possessing such knowledge. Similar to learning new things, people may not need to be particularly concentrated or use much effort. Instead, they learn it in tacit manners. Reber (1993), a psychologist, suggests that the features connected to “implicit learning” in- clude: 1) Tacit learning is the foundation of obtaining tacit knowledge and it is also the representative and sum- mary of environment structure; 2) the best way of acquiring tacit knowledge is unconscious learning; and 3) Ta- cit knowledge can be used in problem solving and to make a reasonable judgment. The process of problem solving and judgment is tacit. Therefore, in design instruction there are various kinds of tacit knowledge worthy of further exploration and understanding. As educators, it is necessary for us to find out an effective method of in order to transfer tacit knowledge of design to the students, other than explicit knowledge, so that they can grasp the key of learning easily.
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The interactive effect of communication media choice and personal relationships on tacit knowledge transfer success : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Business Studies in Business Information Systems

The interactive effect of communication media choice and personal relationships on tacit knowledge transfer success : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Business Studies in Business Information Systems at Massey University, Manawatu campus, New Zealand

The strength of ties between the knowledge source and recipient significantly influence knowledge transfer. Hansen (1999) found that “weak ties” (infrequent communication, a distant relationship and low reciprocity of services) between the knowledge source and receiver facilitated the search for useful knowledge, and shortened a project’s completion time, when knowledge was not complex. However, when the knowledge is complex, strong ties (frequent communication, a close relationship and a high reciprocity of services) between the knowledge source and recipient facilitate the transfer (Bouty, 2000; Hansen, 1999). Similarly, Cavusgil et al. (2003) found that a close relationship aids in the transfer of tacit knowledge, and therefore improves the innovation capability of a firm. Based on Carlson and Zmud’s (1999) Channel Expansion Theory (discussed further in section 2.6), Hasty et al. (2006) found that cumulative experience in communicating with each other helps individuals to develop a mutual understanding, which improves the efficiency of communication and further enables knowledge transfer.
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Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

Tacit knowledge manifestations in an institute of higher learning

In the knowledge-based theory of the firm, the most important strategic resource for an organization is knowledge. The application of knowledge in an organization creates new knowledge that leads to competitive advantage for an organization (Grant, 2002; Zack, 1999). However, knowledge within a firm or organizational knowledge is a wide-scope concept. It involves people and context, depends on people’s value and assumptions that leads to its behavior, decision and action in a specific context (Guzman and Wilson, 2005). Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) define organizational knowledge as what is commonly known within a group of people associated with the organization. Common knowledge is knowledge shared among members of society entity, and also known as “collective knowledge” (Baumard, 2001) and originates from the experiences of those in an organization (Dixon, 2000). For Liebotwitz (1999), knowledge in an organization resides in human mind, organization, documents and can either be personalized or diffuse and distributed.
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Knowledge ubiquity through the transfer of tacit knowledge in Australian universities

Knowledge ubiquity through the transfer of tacit knowledge in Australian universities

significant opportunities to apply knowledge management practices to support every part of their mission. According to Lim and Klobas (2000), organisations need to have processes and systems in place that will promote knowledge acquisition, sharing, and creation. A study conducted by Foos, Schum and Rothenberg (2006), has revealed that the subject of tacit knowledge transfer, content, and process is poorly understood. One of the limitations of their study was that knowledge management efforts can be consistently different amongst different industries and thus no focus was prevalent when determining the knowledge management efforts. The collective, situated and tacit nature of organisational knowledge makes it complicated to transfer and duplicate and thus is a sustainable source of competitive advantage (Kogut & Zander 1996; Winter 1987). Knowledge reuse and sharing should be encouraged by developing adequate processes that allow tacit knowledge reuse. There needs to be a systematic model to identify and transfer knowledge from one person to another or from one process to another. It needs to be captured, retained and indexed so that employees can use it for future application (Weiser & Morrison 1998). A study of Australian software development companies, by Aurum, Daneshgar, and Ward (2007), reported that a uniform model of knowledge management process did not exist and there were inadequate processes to address effective management of knowledge in the companies.
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Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

This study confirmed the theoretical construct that succession can be framed in socialisation terms (derived from societal socialisation theory), but adds that family and business socialisation while distinct, are not necessarily sequential or triggered by the identification of the family member as the successor. The study also supported the application of Nonaka and Takeuchi’s (1995) knowledge spiral in the context of family business succession. The role of trust in family business succession is supported by the study’s findings, but the findings expand on the existing literature by differentiating between relationship trust and business competence trust and defining the two types of trust as essential. This study supports prior knowledge that female successors are often viewed as having less leadership ability than male successors, however in this study females experienced more business socialisation than reported in prior studies.
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Technologies For Enabling Knowledge Management For Organizational Performance

Technologies For Enabling Knowledge Management For Organizational Performance

Organizations use groupware systems when users in workgroups or departments need to communicate and collaborate. Groupware allows formal conversations in cases when the participants cannot communicate in real time. This makes groupware a central technology for enhancing the replace of tacit information. Like other applications, groupware databases become knowledge silos that must be integrated into the enterprise knowledge architecture. It is an application software designed to help people involved in a common task to achieve goals. One of the earliest definitions of collaborative software is 'intentional group processes plus software to support them. (Johnson-Lenz and Peter, 1990) Knowledge transfer processes often occur on an informal basis when the need for specific knowledge arises somewhere in the organization, but organizations also have a large number of formalized processes that regulate the flow of information. Workflow systems enable users to codify knowledge transfer processes when they require a more stiff method of distribution.
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Effective transfer of tacit knowledge across borders   A case study of DHV in the Netherlands and India

Effective transfer of tacit knowledge across borders A case study of DHV in the Netherlands and India

A striking result was that a negative correlation was found between power distance and effectiveness of knowledge transfer at DHV-NL, while the same correlation was positive at DHV-India. This difference can be explained with the help of the theory of Weber’s Bureaucracy (Weber, 1947). According to Weber, the growth in space and population being administered, the growth in complexity of the administrative tasks being carried out, and the existence of a monetary economy results in a need for a more efficient administrative system. At this moment India is economically growing very fast, see appendix E. According to the theory of Weber, this leads to a need of a more efficient administrative system. DHV-India is more hierarchical than DHV-NL, which is ideal for bureaucracy. It has delineated lines of authority in a fixed area of activity; action are taken on the basis of, and recorded in, written rules; rules are implemented by neutral officials, career advancement depends on technical qualifications judged by organization, not by individuals. The Indian see the power distance as a rational, efficient method of organization.
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Knowledge Creation in Constructivist Learning

Knowledge Creation in Constructivist Learning

Abstract In today’s competitive global economy characterized by knowledge acquisition, the concept of knowledge management has become increasingly prevalent in academic and business practices. Knowledge creation is an important factor and remains a source of competitive advantage over knowledge management. Constructivism holds that learners learn actively and construct new knowledge based on their prior knowledge. Therefore, there needs to be a shift in locus of constructing knowledge from the individual to collective construction. The concept of knowledge building communities has emerged recently as a foundation for re-examining pedagogical approaches in education. To understand the true nature of knowledge, it is necessary to recognize that tacit and explicit knowledge are essential to knowledge creation. Knowledge can be created through conversion between tacit and explicit knowledge by four different modes. The four modes of knowledge conversion are created when tacit and explicit knowledge interacts with each other. It is in this very act of conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge that learning is created. Educators must understand the dynamic nature of knowledge itself in order to practice effective knowledge management in multi-disciplinary contexts. It is also crucial for educators to focus on effective methods of delivering content, the media used, and the overall quality of the instruction materials. Information technology facilitates knowledge management practices by disseminating knowledge and making codified knowledge retrievable. The study therefore tries to find out the effectiveness of e- learning in developing the knowledge creation ability of student in the four modes suggested by Nonaka and Takeuchi .
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Knowledge Dynamics in Family Business

Knowledge Dynamics in Family Business

Furthermore, since the family members have a closer relationship at a personal level, the source's trustworthiness is not disputable and influence substantially the recipient's behavior in the knowledge transfer process. Even though some employees are not family- related receive and generate the same level of trust as the family members. Similarly, the availability and desire to transfer knowledge have to be taken into consideration. Romanian family business owners’ main goal is that their children take over and grow the company, therefore they tend to push their siblings into learning faster and accumulate knowledge from within the company at a younger age, later through academic and working outside the company to improve the chances of survival on the long term on the family company. In non-family organizations, this may not happen since there are high staff turnover and agency problems. The family is acting as a reference system of well- defined values, behaviors, and norms that are unconsciously transmitted from the incumbent towards the successor from its birth. These have the role of capitalizing on the traditions, acquiring, and increasing knowledge to further integrate and apply it in the business. The level of commitment is affecting the effectiveness and quality of the knowledge transfer, accelerating, or impeding it.
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The Role of Information Technology Tools to Support Knowledge Transferring Processes throughout SECI Model: An Empirical Study

The Role of Information Technology Tools to Support Knowledge Transferring Processes throughout SECI Model: An Empirical Study

technology (IT) is an integral element which can enhance knowledge processing by breaking temporal and spatial barriers between knowledge users and expanding access to knowledge-related information. However, the use of IT has its own shortcoming as it ignores when and how the quality of knowledge processes is enhanced. Despite of this setback, a more encompassing perspective can be discovered if IT is studied with relation to the supporting materials to facilitate knowledge process. Specifically, this exploratory study aims to investigate the role of IT tools to support knowledge management processes using SECI model in educational institutions in Iraq. In this study, data was collected from 228 students, academic staff, and administration staff at Basra University in Iraq. Primarily, this research highlights the significance of SECI model deployed in enhancing HEIs, particularly in Basra University by adding value to the learning process and basic activities. As a matter of fact, the empirical results indicate that the current IT infrastructure is dependent on simple tools. Additionally, this study also revealed that the respondents perceive social media, mobile technology, portal, and email as fundamental tools to SECI model. At the end of this study, further recommendations were provided and discussed for the reference of decision makers.
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Tacit knowledge in Vitruvius

Tacit knowledge in Vitruvius

Nevertheless, recognizing the presence of tacit knowledge as a limit not just of Vitruvius’ text, but of any text which aims to transmit knowledge, will help us gain insight into somethi[r]

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Global mobility of professionals and the transfer of tacit knowledge in multinational service firms

Global mobility of professionals and the transfer of tacit knowledge in multinational service firms

This is a repository copy of Global mobility of professionals and the transfer of tacit knowledge in multinational service firms.. White Rose Research Online URL for this paper: http://e[r]

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Workaround as a craft skill of the computerised paper production process

Workaround as a craft skill of the computerised paper production process

In the paper industry, production workers preserve a residue of valuable informal, manual and experiential knowledge vital to the production process, though their traditional skills loses some of their centrality, as many mills begin to rely on sophisticated instruments that bypass workers’ sensory methods of detection (Barley S. R., 1996). They lose their collective grip on production controls. 7 “The knowledge stays, but in the cracks. We like to keep it hidden” (Halle D., 1984; Hodson R., 1991a; Hodson R., 1991b). Although jobs working with fully automatic papermaking machine require far less manual activity, the computerisation does not lead to fully automatic production: the machinemen still act upon computer-generated information. The computer provides them with continuous information on the state of paper being produced, such as weight, wetness and thickness, but working with this information requires the workers to learn to interpret its readings and manipulate the production process (Penn R. and Scattergood H., 1985: 620-1). Though they press buttons more often than turning valves (some valves still need to be adjusted manually), their actions still
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The role of tacit and codified knowledge within technology transfer 
		program on technology adaptation

The role of tacit and codified knowledge within technology transfer program on technology adaptation

The origin of the metal-based industries in Pasuruan is unknown. However, in the mid-1800s, under Dutch colonisation, there were several sugar factories in Java. The Dutch government built large metal-based factories, namely NV De Bromo, NV De Industries, and NV De Vulkaan in Pasuruan to supply spare parts for the Javanese sugar factories (Syahra, 2004). In 1958, the Indonesian government gained control of these factories and renamed them PN Boma, PN Bisma and PN Indra. In 1971, these three companies were merged into a single entity, PT Boma Bisma Indra (PT BBI). According to the Department of Industry and Trade, following the creation of PT BBI, the company became involved in the transfer of knowledge and technology to SMEs in Pasuruan. PT BBI participated in supplier development programs and human resources training programs to SMEs. Technology transfer programs have included SME machinery and equipment calibration to enable standardisation of product manufacture between SMEs.
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The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

{Abilities, Accidental, Accomplishment, Action, Action oriented know how, Action slips, Ad hoc, Adaptation, After the fact, Analysis, Application, Attention, Automatic, Automatic knowledge, Awareness, Background knowledge, Between the lines, Body language, Charisma, Concentration, Coordination, create and enjoy challenges, Diagnostic closure, Emotions, Executive commitment, Exists, Experience, Expertise, Focal awareness, Force/tension required, Gaining promotion, Gaining respect, Getting one's feet wet, Hands on teaching, Have a feeling, Here and now, Hidden, High level goals, Holistic in nature, How to seek out, Idiosyncratic, Immutable, Implicit, Implied, Indeterminacy, Inferences, Inferred from actions/statements, Informating, Ingrained, Insight, Inspiration, Instinctive reaction, Intangibility, Intimacy, Intuition, Involuntary, Know more than we can tell, Know why, Knowing, Knowledge possessed by itself, Learning by doing, Learning the ropes, Lip service, Management, Managing relationships, Managing subordinates, Manual dexterity, Meaning requires tacit component, Mediation, Mental models, Meta-cognitive understanding, Motivation, Motor skills, Networking, No idea, Noiseless, Non awareness, Non focus on parts, Orientation, Out of the corner of the eye, Paradigms, Pattern recognition, Personality, Physical control, Place, Possessed, Power, Practical intelligence, Practice wisdom, Preciousness, Presuppositions, Principles, Product of process, Proximal knowledge, Psychomotor skills, Recognition, Recognition of musical note, Reflection in action, Reflection upon reflection, Relativity, Residual category, Rooted, Second hand, Second nature, See as' rather than see, Selective comparison, Semiconscious, Sense perception, Short term, Skill, Smell, Socialisation, Society, Spatial awareness, Spontaneity, Sub-consciousness, Thinking in practice, Tool, Touch sensitivity, Unanalysed, Unconscious, Vision, Vivid, Way things ought to be, Weltanschauung, Wholeness} ⊆ iTK
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Facilitating knowledge transfer based on a resource based view of tacit knowledge stock: a skills assessment perspective

Facilitating knowledge transfer based on a resource based view of tacit knowledge stock: a skills assessment perspective

Among various factors influencing knowledge transfer, a persons’ tacit knowledge stock is an important one (García‐Morales et al. 2008; Gupta and Govindarajan 2000). The research conducted by Empson (2001) reported that people inhibit knowledge transfer when their level of knowledge do not match with others knowledge level with whom they are sharing. Huckaby and Christensen (2012) pointed out that there is a strong relationship between attitude and the intention of people to transfer their knowledge. Negative attitude towards transferring knowledge is caused by differences in the knowledge stock (Cohen and Levinthal 2000). The research conducted by Fullwood et al. (2013) found that academic leadership, represented as superior knowledge stock, plays a vital role in transferring knowledge. A taxonomic analysis by Frank and Ribeiro (2014) identified four major factors influencing knowledge transfer including personnel, technology, work design and external environment sub-systems. According to this research, identifying technical and systematic knowledge stock of the team members was the most important factor that could influence knowledge transfer between the teams. Power and Cormican (2015) also mentioned that knowledge transfer is simpler when organisations are aware of the knowledge stock of their staff. Moreover, identification of knowledge stock of organisational staff before recruitment helps to select right staff for knowledge transfer within the organisation (Power and Cormican 2015).
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Dimensions of Knowledge Management and Its Impact on the Effective Outcomes of Innovation in Iranian Organizations

Dimensions of Knowledge Management and Its Impact on the Effective Outcomes of Innovation in Iranian Organizations

The experience suggests that organizations that closed and to meet the long term needs of the knowledge management in the social and technical relations are cautious. Although this is technically feasible by acquiring solutions, but to achieve knowledge management, should be a collaborative environment, create collaboration and knowledge sharing. According to the study, "Earnest" and "Jung" fifty percent of the experts believe that changing human behavior is one of the executive issues of knowledge management. Because of the changing trends in knowledge management projects and strengthening of traditional and new technologies is emphasized. Generally, an agent for growth and development in all fields and superiority over its rivals, need to set up and implement the system at four different fields. These systems include enterprise resource planning and management system, customer relationship management, supply chain management system and knowledge management system. Underscoring the need for this proposed system with other systems reason firmly in place and improve knowledge management system and its role in the development of enterprises in the twenty-first century (Lvayz, 2003).
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A critical survey of J  K  Arrow'S theory of knowledge

A critical survey of J K Arrow'S theory of knowledge

We suggest a critical review of Arrow's theory in respect to the following four major topics: 1 Codifiable Knowledge , Tacit Knowledge , and Mental Models : Arrow treats learning as the [r]

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Entrepreneurship Education: Tacit Knowledge and Innovation Transfer. An Analysis Through Nonaka’s Model

Entrepreneurship Education: Tacit Knowledge and Innovation Transfer. An Analysis Through Nonaka’s Model

Before tacit knowledge can become explicit, it should be codified or articulated. The process can be very difficult. Tacit knowledge has no limits in our brain, even if people want to communicate, they may be unable to do so. In order that transmission becomes possible in an active audience, it is necessary to have enough time and a "face to face" meeting with reliable trustworthy participants (Wright, 2008).

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Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge: An epistemology of skill in science

Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge: An epistemology of skill in science

“We should therefore look at the present state of the universe as the effect of its anterior state and as the cause of its subsequent state. An intelligence which for a given instant would know all the forces that are active in nature and the respective situation of the beings composing nature, and if moreover this intelligence were vast enough to subject this information to analysis, such an intelligence would embrace in the same formula the movements of the biggest bodies of the universe and those of the lightest atom: nothing would be uncertain for it, and the future, like the past would be present to its eyes. The human mind offers a weak sketch of this intelligence, in the perfection that it has attained in astronomy. Its discoveries in mechanics and geometry, combined with the discovery of universal gravitation, have brought this intelligence at the beginning of understanding in the same analytical expressions the past and future states of the world system. By applying the same method to a few other objects of knowledge, the intelligence could relate observed phenomena to general laws and could foresee those that given circumstances must bring about.”19 (Laplace, 1886, pp. vi-vii)
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