Top PDF A Theory of Literate Action: Literate Action Volume 2

A Theory of Literate Action: Literate Action Volume 2

A Theory of Literate Action: Literate Action Volume 2

Nonetheless, the whole idea of social construction has been met by some with a kind of moral outrage, that it is akin to anarchy and nihilism, casting us into radical relativism, throwing all meanings into skeptical disbelief (Sokal & Bricmont, 1999). Even worse, recognition that all statements of knowledge are socially constructed raises the fear that the material world is unknowable, or rather that adherents of social construction are enemies of the scientific and philosophic projects that attempt to know the world outside of our constructed meanings. There have of course been many books and articles written on this epistemological debate, both throughout the history of philosophy (starting with Plato’s quarrel with the Sophists in the Gorgias) and more recently in what have been called the science wars. Without engaging this full debate and sidetracking the concerns of this volume, I just point out that Schutz was very careful to make his concept of reification only a methodological principle, an extension of the phenomenological epoché—a bracketing to hold in suspension those things we take as natural so as to investigate how we take them to be natural. He remained avowedly agnostic on the actually knowability of social and material reality (Schutz, 1967a). The pragmatist tradition, the topic of the next chapter, provides another way of conceiving this issue that get us outside of dichotomies between socially constructed language and the experienced world outside the world of representations. Pragmatism recognizes that we use language as part of our living in material and social worlds with which we have extended experience and in which we have continuing interests. This issue of how we represent our experience of the world is for writing more than a philosophic worry about the status of knowledge; it is a practical problem, as much writing aims at some representation of the world around us. More particularly, writing often draws its force and authority from its claimed accuracy or truthfulness of representation of the world about us. Much writing, moreover, is specifically driven by the attempt to create useful or accurate or truthful accounts of the world we live in and experience.
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A Theory of Literate Action: Literate Action Volume 2

A Theory of Literate Action: Literate Action Volume 2

For people writing in alphabetic and syllabic languages where the symbols are limited and abstracted from meaning units such as words, these principles are imbibed early in their training and are not necessarily a matter of reflection or subtle expressive choice (except when perhaps defamiliarized as in some poetic contexts or writing in dialects). Depending on the language and the instability of the phonetic correspondences, alphabetic transcription may be variously problematic for literacy learners, but is usually resolved by primary school years. Spelling may also contain etymological information as well as morphological features tied to grammar and syntactical issues. These may be called to students’ attention as they are learning more advanced spellings and are being held accountable for grammatical correctness. Even when moving between two languages using an alphabetic system with Roman characters, there are challenges of phonetic mapping and spelling—issues highlighted for example, when singers must perform scores in different languages. In some consonantal syllabic languages without vowel pointing (such as dialects of mid-Eastern languages), understanding and using the transcription system properly is intertwined with lexical, morphological, and syntactic issues as well as meaning, such that a high level of expertise is necessary for accurate transcription and reading. Further, in languages which have complex mixtures of iconic, pronunciation, and disambiguation elements in the characters, such as Chinese, the study of characters and their differentiation remains a complex concern throughout one’s literate life, intertwined with extended vocabularies, meaning potentials, allusions, and fresh combinations. So in choosing or forming a character a writer may be invoking cultural histories, textual resonances, regional differences, or meaning associations of the sort that in other languages occur at the word, phrasal, and intertextual levels. So while in some languages the orderliness of the writing (or character) system is relatively unproblematic and thus usually not foregrounded, in others distinctions within the transcription system remain important carriers of meaning and thus call for conscious attention.
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A Rhetoric of Literate Action: Literate Action Volume 1

A Rhetoric of Literate Action: Literate Action Volume 1

Many scientific fields have extensive methodological discussions of credible ways of gathering evidence and ways to evaluate the evidence so gathered. They have discussions about what objects are properly the concern of a field and what belong to other fields, as well as what appearances are not appropriate to the field and what common sense ways of looking are not really accurate by disciplinary standards. Fields also often discuss or contend over the appropriate way to represent information gathered about the world so as to enter into the reasoning and calculation of the field. Each domain has its appropriate forms of representation. For example, in ancient days, taxes were collected directly in kind from agricultural produce, so that one would have to offer every tenth bushel of wheat or every tenth cow to the authorities. Accounting of these taxes were in terms of the produce. But modern taxes are now accounted through the local currency in quantitative form, so that if you were paid through food and lodging, you would have to convert that into its cash equivalent to be reported on the tax forms. In some fields results need to be presented as quantitative data of the sort that can be manipulated and evaluated through various statistical procedures. Some fields favor theory-driven graphs of energy levels, aggregating many trials. Typically in historical fields, specific historical actors need to be identified and evidentiary documents need to be identified and discussed to establish specific actions, intentions, and beliefs. In some areas of ethnographic social science research, identities of people need to be kept hidden, although detailed accounts of their social circumstances may be elaborated. Over time fields also change their modes of representation as new theories become important and new data collection devices are used. These modes of representation make the data or evidence available for reasoning, evaluation, and calculation in the ways characteristic of the field. If the information is not represented in the proper form, the readers will have a hard time working and reasoning with it.
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A Rhetoric of Literate Action: Literate Action Volume 1

A Rhetoric of Literate Action: Literate Action Volume 1

Many scientific fields have extensive methodological discussions of credible ways of gathering evidence and ways to evaluate the evidence so gathered. They have discussions about what objects are properly the concern of a field and what belong to other fields, as well as what appearances are not appropriate to the field and what common sense ways of looking are not really accurate by disciplinary standards. Fields also often discuss or contend over the appropriate way to represent information gathered about the world so as to enter into the reasoning and calculation of the field. Each domain has its appropriate forms of representation. For example, in ancient days, taxes were collected directly in kind from agricultural produce, so that one would have to offer every tenth bushel of wheat or every tenth cow to the authorities. Accounting of these taxes were in terms of the produce. But modern taxes are now accounted through the local currency in quantitative form, so that if you were paid through food and lodging, you would have to convert that into its cash equivalent to be reported on the tax forms. In some fields results need to be presented as quantitative data of the sort that can be manipulated and evaluated through various statistical procedures. Some fields favor theory-driven graphs of energy levels, aggregating many trials. Typically in historical fields, specific historical actors need to be identified and evidentiary documents need to be identified and discussed to establish specific actions, intentions, and beliefs. In some areas of ethnographic social science research, identities of people need to be kept hidden, although detailed accounts of their social circumstances may be elaborated. Over time fields also change their modes of representation as new theories become important and new data collection devices are used. These modes of representation make the data or evidence available for reasoning, evaluation, and calculation in the ways characteristic of the field. If the information is not represented in the proper form, the readers will have a hard time working and reasoning with it.
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REVIEW ON HEALTH EFFECTS OF FOODS AVOIDED BY LITERATE BANGLADESHI WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY

REVIEW ON HEALTH EFFECTS OF FOODS AVOIDED BY LITERATE BANGLADESHI WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY

Hypoxia is known to influence cardiovascular (CV) function, in part, through adenosine receptor activation. Maternal caffeine consumption has additive negative effect to fetal cardiovascular response to acute maternal hypoxia mediated via fetal adenosine A(2A) receptor inhibition during cardiovascular development of rat fetus (Nobuo Momoi, 2012).Another in vitro study on murine embryo shows that, caffeine exposure during pregnancy alters embryonic cardiac function and disrupts the normal cardiac response to hypoxia through blockade of A1 adenosine receptors (A1ARs) action which may lead to embryonic hypoxia (Daniela L. Buscariollo G. A., 2011). Evidence indicates that disruption of normal prenatal development influences an individual's risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease as an adult. In utero caffeine exposure at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight in mice, reduces DNA methylation of genes associated with cardiac hypertrophy which leads to the alteration of cardiac function in adult stage of life by decreasing cardiac output and increasing left ventricular wall thickness (Daniela L. Buscariollo X. F., 2014). Coffee and 70% chocolate consumption by pregnant woman increases maternal uterine contraction and variation in fetal heart rate where coca was found to have no effect on these factors (Buscicchio G P. M., 2012) (Buscicchio G L. S., 2013).
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Teaching and Knowing beyond the Water Cycle: What Does It Mean to Be Water  Literate?

Teaching and Knowing beyond the Water Cycle: What Does It Mean to Be Water Literate?

To allow students develop water-related scientific literacy, we need teachers who are knowledgeable and capa- ble of creating appropriate curriculum materials and designing stimulating classroom environments. Clearly, teachers play a pivotal role in developing and implementing classroom activities that enable students to develop their scientific literacy. As such, a necessary first step for the successful development and implementation of ac- tivities that promote scientific literacy is to ensure that teachers and pre-service teachers are themselves water literate. To provide a snapshot of water literacy in pre-service teachers, a case study was conducted in Semester one, 2011 at a large multi-campus university in Queensland, Australia. This study used an interpretative mixed methods approach. Interpretative mixed methods aligns with this research as it aims to “understand how indi- viduals make meaning of their social world” and “allows for multiple views of social reality” (Hess-Biber, 2010: p. 104). The focus of this methodology is not specifically that it employs both qualitative (textual data) and quantitative analysis, but rather the standpoint that social reality is created through the interactions of individuals with others and with the world around them. It seeks to contextualize people’s experiences. To this end, this re- search employed a survey method with quantitative measurement questions to frame the representative sampling while also employing qualitative questions to gain deeper insights into how the participating students understood the science, as well as the teaching and learning of concepts associated with water.
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ONLINE SHOPPING APPLICATION FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI-LITERATE USERS AND ITS USABILITY EVALUATION

ONLINE SHOPPING APPLICATION FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI-LITERATE USERS AND ITS USABILITY EVALUATION

E-shopping has become the most popular and preferred way of shopping throughout the world *11+. In recent years it has grown considerably but still it is not a major contributor to economy as only a fraction of population uses it. There are many factors. Major factors in our opinion are security risks, fraud, psychological issues and high illiteracy rate. However, being the root cause of many other problems, we suffer from the illiteracy factor. Lack of interest of illiterate people in e-shopping can itself be because of many reasons. It is a common observation that even rich illiterate people shy away from using technology and that is mainly because of the interfaces which are designed for literate people only. This motivated us to carry out this research work so as to make computer technology accessible to illiterate. The objective of this research is to evaluate such user interface of online shopping for illiterate users which will be more responsive. The main contributions of this work include i) analysis of the illiterate and semi-illiterate users’ requirements, ii) design of the web-based shopping application based on the users’ requirements analysis, iii) data gathering for SUS test, iv) analysis of the data for extraction of useful information.
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Transformational grounded theory: theory, voice, and action

Transformational grounded theory: theory, voice, and action

Enacting decolonizing methodologies in knowledge creation can reduce power differences between the researcher and coresearcher and result in a more authentic process of research inquiry. So how can we understand power in this context? Power is a productive force which “produces things ... it forms knowledge and produces discourse” (Foucault, 2000, p. 120). The production of knowledge and discourse occurs in partnership with research participants when we are explicit about the historical conditions for the power distribution, and who has power. Enacting principles of decolonizing research in the field, I took small but deliberate steps to reduce my power as an international researcher and to increase the power of the coresearchers. Women were invited to participate in the research by other women leaders in their community to increase the possibility that they would choose to participate in the HIV research, rather than feeling obliged to participate because the White meri (woman) was asking. I explicitly stated that the women, as coresearchers, were the experts who were able to advise me as a researcher. It would be their ideas that would be communicated and considered for future health policy and health-service decisions. Interpretive focus groups were cofacilitated with a colleague from PNG, Rachael Tommbe, to enhance cultural safety. We shared stories about ourselves, our families, and where we came from, which enabled the coresearchers to “place” us before we started discussing the sensitive research topic. Stories about family, place, and shared connections are markers for developing relationship and trust in PNG, as in many indigenous communities (Kovach, 2009). When conducting focus groups and interviews, we often spoke in PNG Tok Pisin (a lingua franca of PNG) rather than English (the language of the ex-colonizer), and I purposefully sat on a mat alongside of women (rather than in a chair). In addition to the planned research activities, we also discussed what women wanted to discuss about HIV, using local metaphors and stories. Further, trust between researcher and coresearchers was enhanced when I returned to discuss in more detail the women’s original ideas and to plan action to address identified HIV risks. Along with Chilisa (2012), we are committed to developing and supporting transformative research methodologies and methods, in the small spaces in which we operate, so that they are “inclusive of the [i]ndigenous knowledge systems and life experiences of the historically colonized, disenfranchised, and dispossessed communities” (p. 6).
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Action in context - context in action:
towards a grounded theory of software design

Action in context - context in action: towards a grounded theory of software design

increasingly complex. However an apparent anomaly exist here as many in vivo descriptions of the process of designing software suggest problernfraining rather than problem solving. Th[r]

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IUHPE Position statement on health literacy: a practical vision for a health literate world

IUHPE Position statement on health literacy: a practical vision for a health literate world

The breadth of the variations of the definition of health literacy, an evolving concept, has been documented and systematically updated in the scientific literature (2-4). The application of the concept varies markedly from country to country, between public health and clinical care, between government and civic society groups, and is applied on the individual, the community, the institutional/organizational, the national and global levels. More specific aspects and sub- dimensions of health literacy have evolved and been developed and validated, with relation to specific illness, age-groups, and in new contexts such as eHealth literacy, mental health literacy, media health literacy and nutrition literacy. In an era characterized by rapid technological change, there is also increasing emphasis on digital health literacy and e-health literacy, defined as the ability to seek, find, understand, and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem and others (5,6).
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Early occurrence of childhood dental caries among low literate families

Early occurrence of childhood dental caries among low literate families

Results: Out of 756 preschool children, 51.5% boys with mean age of years 5.76 (SD = 0.78) were enrolled. The median (25th–75th Pertcentile) of dmft index in boys and girls was 4 (2–9) and 5 (2–8), respectively. Only 15.1% children had decay‑free teeth. The results of univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between dmft index and child age (P < 0.001), mother’s years of education (P = 0.001), mother’s employment status (P < 0.001), and family socio‑economic status (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, statistical significance was found in sex (P = 0.007), age groups except for 5 years (P = 0.210), mother’s education status (P < 0.001) as well as in families with intermediate (P = 0.024), and high (P = 0.072) socio‑economic status.
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Normative data for the Pyramids and Palm Trees Test in literate Persian adults

Normative data for the Pyramids and Palm Trees Test in literate Persian adults

used different means to evaluate the semantic system and semantic relations including Camel and Cactus test, the picture-word matching, picture naming, category fluency, phonemic fluency, synonym judgment for words, double description, word checking, class name selection, picture group naming, concrete and abstract word synonym test, environmental sounds test, and target class and association test. 2-7 Considering

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Battling to Become English-Literate in Semi-Pastoral Society of Eastern Ethiopia

Battling to Become English-Literate in Semi-Pastoral Society of Eastern Ethiopia

This small scale study adopted a critical ethnographic approach that ethnography not only deals with what people are, how they interact but also tries to reveal what lies beneath it. Newly, ethnography becomes considerably interest to linguist who sees the need to study human behavior in social context. The context of this study is among the worst affected areas in both adverse environmental condition and poor access to opportunity to schooling. Based upon conditions of accessibility, five schools of the Oromo pastoralist communities located in 5 communities were selected, namely Adiga Felema, Eja Anani, Debelie, Belewa and Biyo Awalle. From these, 25 grade 4 children were selected based on their availability in order to involve them in one of the data collection methods named as ‘Basic Vocabulary Assessment Battery’ (BVAB). EFL/ESL basic vocabulary list contains a set of important words worth learning, especially, for primary level students. The twenty- five vocabularies were randomly selected from the list. 2 It is assumed that like any vocabulary test, the BVAB attempts to measure the comprehension and production of words used in speaking and writing. It is believed that vocabulary is one of the linguistic components influencing the development of communicative competence and learners’ language skills as well [10-15].
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A digital coach that provides affective and social learning support to low-literate learners

A digital coach that provides affective and social learning support to low-literate learners

Abstract—In this study, we investigate if a digital coach for low-literate learners that provides cognitive learning support based on scaffolding can be improved by adding affective learning support based on motivational interviewing, and social learning support based on small talk. Several knowledge gaps are identified: motivational interviewing and small talk must be translated to control rules for this coach, a formal model of participant emotional states is needed to allow the coach to parse the learner’s emotional state, and various sensors must be used to let the coach detect and act on this state. We use the situated Cognitive Engineering (sCE) method to update an existing foundation of knowledge with emotional models, motivational interviewing, and small talk theory, technology, and a new exercise in the volunteer work domain. We use this foundation to create a design specification for an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) coach that provides cognitive, affective, and social learning support for this exercise. A prototype is created, and compared to a prototype that only provides cognitive support in a within- and between-subjects experiment. Results show that both prototypes work as expected: learners interact with the coach and complete all exercises. Almost no significant differences are found between the two prototypes, indicating that the affective and social support were not effective as designed. Potential improvements are provided for future work. Results also show significant differences between two subgroups of low-literate participants, and between men and women, reinforcing the importance of using individualized support measures with this demographic.
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The Self-Action Leadership Model: A Qualitative, Nomological Expansion of Self-Leadership Theory Rooted in Action Research Theory

The Self-Action Leadership Model: A Qualitative, Nomological Expansion of Self-Leadership Theory Rooted in Action Research Theory

The introduction of the SAL model is an attempt to fill this gaping hole by providing a much needed burst of rain upon an academic environment that has grown profoundly and acerbically arid amidst an extended, postmodern drought of principle centered-leadership at both the individual and organizational level. In so doing, we have intentionally steered clear of any one theological, philosophical, ideological, or political dogma or doctrine. The SAL theory, model, and philosophy are general, non-partisan constructs. We therefore leave specific policy questions to the politicians, specific questions of legalities to the lawyers and judges, specific questions of ethics and morals to the philosophers, and specific “thou shalts” and the “thou shalt nots” to the pastors, pontiffs, and prophets. Our goal is not to start a new political party or religion by dictating specifics in every arena of life choice. Our seminal intention is merely to teach correct principles (generally speaking) and then encourage wise self-governance among individuals and organizations when it comes to the specific moral and practical decisions and dilemmas of work and life.
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Prologue: value as theory: value, action, and critique

Prologue: value as theory: value, action, and critique

In the introduction to part one of this special issue we addressed the thorny question of whether an anthropological theory of value is needed or indeed possible at all. By way of a Socratic debate, we argued respectively for one of two opposite positions. Ton Otto suggested that anthropology can make a major and quite coherent contribution to the issue of value in social theory and he was in favor of bringing the papers together from a “history of ideas” perspective, thereby tracing how the authors’ varied perspectives and approaches to questions of value advanced particular—and easily specified—trends in social theory. Rane Willerslev, to the contrary, proposed that anthropology is an ethnographically driven disci- pline, which can only produce idiosyncratic “antitheories” of value. In Willerslev’s view, anthropologists are and should be, primarily, warriors of the periphery—that is, “guerrilla warriors,” using indigenous conceptual productions as tactics to fight dominant theoretical traditions. The debate reflects an underlying disagreement, which runs through the collection of articles themselves, about the place of anthro- pology in relation to other disciplines and, in particular, whether anthropology is primarily theory-driven or ethnography-driven, and whether or not these two ab- stractions (“theory” and “ethnography”) can be reconciled.
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Theory into practice, practice to theory : action research in method development

Theory into practice, practice to theory : action research in method development

We introduced this paper by reference to the issues of making operational research/ management research both relevant and rig- orous. The research we report here demonstrates that Action Re- search in practice can deliver rigour and relevance, as long as it is conducted as Research Oriented Action Research to distinguish it from “forms of action research that do not have research output as their raison d’etre” ( Eden & Huxham, 2006 : 388). In particu- lar the process of developing soft-OR through Action Research is a particularly significant opportunity for operationalising and de- veloping promising theory – in this case making the concept of emergent strategy meaningful for strategy making in practice. In the debates on rigour with relevance there is often a presumption that application presumes the knowledge to be complete prior to its use in practice and that the issue of gaining relevance is sim- ply that of translating the knowledge further down the knowledge chain ( Thorpe et al., 2011 ). The work reported here strongly sug- gests that knowledge will become increasingly more complete as it is applied in practice. Developing operational research techniques involves working with managers on their problems and so through attempts to apply theory it is well placed to ensure rigour and relevance. Managers are part of the knowledge production pro- cess – through providing feedback. So too are OR practitioners as throughout the development of the method (from SODA to JOur- NEy Making) countless discussions have taken place.
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Chapter 2 Unified Action

Chapter 2 Unified Action

All US armed forces-Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard- and special operations forces (SOF) are required to provide globally respon- sive assets to support combatant comman[r]

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Content and action: The guidance theory of representation

Content and action: The guidance theory of representation

immensely important, as it brings with it the potential for behavior driven by stimulus- registrations that occur without the stimulus being present, as well as for non-mechanical behavior with respect to the stimulus (by processing and contextualizing an organism’s registrations within an integrated control system). For it’s not just that an animal like the frog can evolve to react one way, or another way, to a given registration. A given registration can be processed in combination with other registrations of circumstance— for instance, responding to a fly-detection by suction-feeding while in water, and by tongue-prehension when on land (Deban et al., 2001)—and furthermore, the same registration can be consumed by more than one action-guiding system, resulting in different (albeit coordinated) behaviors, as is the case with turning toward a prey-object and snapping at it, behaviors that are in fact controlled by separate systems (Ingle, 1991).
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Action theory in Habermas and educational practices

Action theory in Habermas and educational practices

instrumentalist (the practical or technical interest) is demonstrably untrue (see, for example Hammersley, 2003). What is of interest here is the way the typology of knowledge constitutive interest can be operationalised in relation to the three ‘worlds’ predicated - the objective, the social and the subjective – as a practical tool for educators to help frame their thinking about educational practices. We have, then, an action theory, based upon a central understanding of the capacity of humans who use communication to solve problems and come to agreements in a lifeworld which is increasingly susceptible to rationalisation through the ability of participants to theorise their lifeworld, using the very
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