Top PDF Thermal comfort conditions in airport terminals: Indoor or transition spaces?

Thermal comfort conditions in airport terminals: Indoor or transition spaces?

Thermal comfort conditions in airport terminals: Indoor or transition spaces?

There has been limited work, however, on the evaluation of the thermal environment in airport terminals and the investigation of the thermal comfort requirements for the different user groups. Balaras et al. took spot measurements of the thermal and visual conditions in three Greek airports for a week during summer. The study reported lack of proper humidity control and problems with temperature regulation in all three buildings, while through 285 questionnaires it highlighted the different satisfaction levels be- tween passengers and staff with all IEQ parameters [22] . The satisfaction with IEQ was also evaluated in eight Chinese airports where subjective and objective data were collected over a year. The study highlighted thermal issues such as overcooling and over- heating in several terminal spaces, however, the buildings were shown to underperform more in terms of acoustic environment and indoor air quality [23] . Environmental and subjective data were also collected from passengers in Terminal 1 at Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, China, over a period of two weeks in summer and winter. Neutral temperature was 21.4  C in winter and 25.6  C in summer, with the respective comfort zones at 19.2 e23.1  C and 23.9 e27.3  C. Based on 569 questionnaires, the study reported that 78.3% of passengers were generally satis fied with the thermal environment and 95.8% considered the thermal conditions acceptable [24] . Another study surveyed 128 staff and passengers in the terminal of Ahmedabad airport, India, during the summer, and found a very high comfortable temperature range in the air- conditioned part of the building, 24 e32  C [25] . Ramis and dos Santos collected temperature and humidity data from three air- ports in Brazil. The temperature was found below the acceptable
Show more

16 Read more

Thermal comfort conditions in airport terminals: Indoor or transition

spaces?

Thermal comfort conditions in airport terminals: Indoor or transition spaces?

a b s t r a c t This paper reports on the investigation of the thermal comfort conditions in three airport terminals in the UK. In the course of seasonal field surveys, the indoor environmental conditions were monitored in different terminal areas and questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted with 3087 terminal users. The paper focuses on the thermal perception, preference and comfort requirements of passengers and terminal staff. The two groups presented different satisfaction levels with the indoor environment and significant differences in their thermal requirements, while both preferring a thermal environment different to the one experienced. The thermal conflict emerges throughout the terminal spaces. The neutral and preferred temperatures for passengers were lower than for employees and considerably lower than the mean indoor temperature. Passengers demonstrated higher tolerance of the thermal conditions and consistently a wider range of comfort temperatures, whereas the limited adaptive ca- pacity for staff allowed for a narrower comfort zone.
Show more

17 Read more

Evaluation of comfort conditions in airport terminal buildings

Evaluation of comfort conditions in airport terminal buildings

As a result of the extensive development of airport terminals across the globe, the last two decades have seen a worldwide inception of studies (e.g. Greece, UK, China, India) on the evaluation of indoor environmental conditions with implications for energy saving strategies. Balaras et al. took spot measurements of the thermal and lighting conditions in three Greek airports and revealed issues with temperature regulation and humidity controls as well as lack of lighting uniformity, insufficient lighting in certain areas of the buildings and excessive lighting in other as a result of poor solar control. Using a sample of 285 passengers and staff, the study found considerably different satisfaction levels between the two groups with all IEQ parameters. With respect to the thermal environment, for instance, the satisfaction range was 40-70% for employees and over 80% for passengers, similarly to lightings conditions which were satisfactory for about 30% of employees and 40- 90% of passengers across the three terminals [5]. Environmental and subjective IEQ data were also collected in eight Chinese airports. The study reported thermal issues such as overcooling in summer and overheating in winter in certain buildings, however underperformance was considerably higher in terms of air quality and acoustics across the terminals surveyed [6]. Another study on IEQ investigated the effect of individual IEQ factors on passenger overall satisfaction using Kano’s model [7]. Thermal comfort conditions were highlighted together with space layout as basic factors, indicating that their underperformance has a prominently negative effect on overall satisfaction. On the other hand, lighting conditions were highlighted alongside air quality and acoustic environment as proportional factors denoting that their under- and over-performance have approximately equal strength of influence on overall satisfaction [8].
Show more

29 Read more

Thermal comfort of heterogeneous and dynamic indoor conditions — An overview

Thermal comfort of heterogeneous and dynamic indoor conditions — An overview

Table 1 presents the time taken by certain physiological and subjective responses to stabilise after a step-change, as reported in different works, with t sk symbolising the mean skin temperature. The data in Table 1 points to a transition time of 20e30 min, during which, the individual is still adjusting to the new conditions, both physiologically and mentally. Spaces through which transitions last shorter than this duration, could do with relaxed set-point controls. Areas like lobbies, hallways etc., in typical commercial buildings, are examples of such transitional spaces. Occupant activity, behaviour, and attire in such spaces are more dynamic, making PMV predictions inaccurate [95] . Users in transitional space can adapt to a wider range of conditions and such spaces do not need precise HVAC control (or, depending on weather, no conditioning at all) [72,96] . Having transition spaces at an intermediate tempera- ture can also help reduce the physical distress of transiting directly between a conditioned building and the outdoors. [81] showed that for people moving between an of fice and the adjacent veranda, TSV differences are not signi ficant and any discomfort is short lived. To avoid overwhelming burdening of thermoregulatory system, the magnitude of step changes from main area to transition spaces may be limited to ±3  C ( Fig. 4 ) [71,80,89,90] .
Show more

19 Read more

FIRE RISK ANALYSIS OF THE AIRPORT TERMINALS

FIRE RISK ANALYSIS OF THE AIRPORT TERMINALS

The new airport at Chek Lap Kok serves as a gateway to Hong Kong and acts as a transfer point to passengers for tour and business. The terminal building is expensive with billions of dollars of construction cost. Therefore, it is very important to ensure life safety and normal operation of the airport. Site visits without disturbing the normal operation of the airport were carried out to understand the safety aspects of the airport. The retail areas were identified to be the key area of concern. By touring around and observing what a passenger can see, fire safety in the retail areas was studied. A design fire was suggested for studying the probable fire environment in those retail shops. The two-layer zone model Hot Layer of FIREWIND version 3.5 was used as the simulating tool. Two retail shops were selected for a more detailed analysis. Key parameters such as the fire load density of each shop were estimated. The software FRAME version 2.0 was applied for the fire risk analysis.
Show more

5 Read more

The Architecture of Airport Terminals: Gateway To A City

The Architecture of Airport Terminals: Gateway To A City

Bengaluru International Airport Limited (BIAL) is envisioned as the ‘Gateway to South India’ (The Hindu, Business Line, Aug 4, 2018)It is one of the prominent and busiest airports with one Terminal building having 12 gates, 6 each for domestic and international travels (wiki). The addition of Terminal 2 is underway, conceptualized with a‘garden themed’ designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) and executed by L&T. (DH. Oct 30, 2018) Reflecting the Garden city image of Bengaluru, the massive Terminal building with 213 counters shall be glorified as a natural extension of the city’s much-heralded green aesthetics based on sustainability.This is achieved by the Terminal enclosure used to temper natural light, while minimizing reliance on artificial illumination. Systems will be developed to capture and reuse water where possible and leveraging the temperate climate of Bengaluru to reduce dependence on mechanical conditioning (DH.Jan 15, 2018)The most visually impressive feature is the large and elegantly swooping roof that unifies new and old structures (Fig 12). The Terminal is going to be connected by Metro rail to help easy and quick approach from the city for over 35 km. BIAL has Check-in and baggage claim on the lower floor, while all departure gates are located on the upper floor.
Show more

7 Read more

Psychological Adaptation of Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Shaded Green Spaces in Malaysia

Psychological Adaptation of Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Shaded Green Spaces in Malaysia

The respondents were asked about their perception towards the actual microclimate conditions; wind, heat and humidity. The weather station data was then classified into standard rating. Then, the counts of the level were compared. Figures 7, 8 and 9show the frequency percentage on the perception of respondents and the actual measured data classified by specified indices.Figure 7 shows the comparisons between the wind speed level and the perception of the respondents towards wind flow. The x axis of this graph shows the classified level of wind speed (Bedford scale) and respondents perception on wind while frequency percentages (%) appear on the y axis. The wind speed (m s -1 ) level is classified into five categories; <0.3 is Calm, 0.3-1.5 is Light Air, 1.5-8.0 is Breeze, 8.0-10.8 is Strong Breeze and >10.8 is Windy. It may be seen clearly that the wind condition is mostly fe
Show more

14 Read more

Principles of experience design for airport terminals

Principles of experience design for airport terminals

The  refinement  of  these  models  over  the  last  four  decades  has  been  partly  enabled   by   advances   in   technology,   and   partly   through   iterative   improvements   and   new   knowledge  in  the  field  (Brunetta  &  Jacur,  1999;  de  Neufville  &  Odoni,  2003;  IATA,   2004;  Manataki  &  Zografos,  2009;  Zografos,  Andreatta,  &  Odoni,  2013).  The  main   advances   in   this   area   of   work   have   been   in   the   sophistication   of   the   simulation   power  of  these  systems.    Today,  these  models  are  used  to  predict  terminal  capacity,   effects  of  delays  on  terminal  congestion  and  the  effects  of  physical  changes  in  the   airport   environment   on   passenger   flows   and   congestion   (Brunetta   &   Jacur,   1999;   Chun   &   Mak,   1999;   de   Neufville   &   Odoni,   2003;   Fayez,   Kaylani,   Cope,   Rychlik,   &   Mollaghasemi,   2008;   Joustra   &   Van   Dijk,   2001;   Parlar   &   Sharafali,   2008;   Richter,   Ortmann,  &  Reiners,  2009;  Takakuwa  &  Oyama,  2003;  Tosic,  1992;  van  Landeghem   &   Beuselinck,   2002;   Wilson,   Roe,   &   So,   2006).   At   a   high-­‐level,   the   various   approaches  differ  in  the  specifics  of  the  algorithms  that  are  used  in  the  simulations   of  various  conditions  in  a  terminal  building  (Zidarova  &  Zografos,  2011).  
Show more

245 Read more

A review of researches about human thermal comfort in semi-outdoor spaces

A review of researches about human thermal comfort in semi-outdoor spaces

Likewise, in the study by Metje et al. (2008), the pedestrians’ comfort level in outdoor and semi- closed spaces at the university campus was evalu- ated conducting a field measurement and question- naire survey concurrently. They found the wind speed and the air temperature affect the human thermal comfort, while, it is difficult for respon- dents to distinguish the role of solar radiation and humidity on thermal comfort. In addition to mi- croclimate parameters, they confirmed subjective adaption extremely influences on human thermal comfort. Similarly, in the research by Hwang and Lin, (2007) six distinctive semi-open locations were investigated in order to discover the thermal com- fort demands for inhabitants in semi-closed areas using SET* thermal index. Their significance result is that in contrast to dwellers of easily restrained en- vironments, inhabitants of difficult conditions are more comfortable at higher temperature. Further- more, they expressed the potency of global radia- tion to modify the human thermal sensation is more powerful in comparison with air movement. Finally, they concluded in hot and humid climate, enhanc- ing the wind speed and diminishing the amount of direct sun light in design concepts, can impressive- ly improve the comfort level of individuals in semi- outdoor spaces.
Show more

8 Read more

Analysis of Thermal Comfort and Indoor Air Quality in a Mechanically Ventilated Theatre

Analysis of Thermal Comfort and Indoor Air Quality in a Mechanically Ventilated Theatre

# 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Post-occupancy building evaluation; Ventilation rates; Thermal comfort; Indoor air quality; Theatres 1. Introduction Indoor air quality (IAQ) and thermal comfort are important factors in the design of high quality buildings [1]. Although innovations in air-conditioning and other forms of cooling or ventilation,which can be viewed as technologicalsolutionsto the problem of producing and maintaining energy efficient environmental conditions that are beneficial for human health, comfort and productivity [2], there is often a conflict between reducing energy consumption and creating comfortable and healthy buildings [3]. Unhealthy buildings have been associated with the high prevalence of several symptoms: headaches, dry eyes or throat, itchy or watery eyes, sneezing, blocked and stuffy nose, runny nose, and dry or irritated skin [4].
Show more

11 Read more

Indoor Thermal Comfort Assessment of Residential Building Stock in Quetta, Pakistan

Indoor Thermal Comfort Assessment of Residential Building Stock in Quetta, Pakistan

Heating In winter, the outdoor temperature is much lower, so indoor heating is used to achieve thermal comfort. According to the observations of this study, individual heaters are placed in houses which run between 6-12h per day depending on the occupancy of the residents in each house. Majority of the heaters are operated on natural gas and their continuous combustion increases the CO 2 level affecting the indoor air quality (IAQ). A small portion of window or door is usually kept open for fresh air. Fig. 7(a) shows common type of gas heaters used in Quetta. Gas heating and prices are cheaper than electricity, so people prefer such heaters. Another reason is the unavailability of electricity for few hours/ day and its high prices. Each year some incidents of fire and deaths occur due to use of 1 st type of heaters. However, in recent years another type of gas heater is also used in some houses. These heaters operate on both gas and electricity, see Fig. 7(b). These heaters are safe to use and do not create bad effect on the IAQ. Considering the energy issues in Quetta such heaters are not practical for daily use, so occupants always keep 1 st type of heaters which can also be used during electricity outage hours. House 9 and 10 uses both types of heaters during winter to heat their indoor spaces. It is common practice to keep second type of heaters turned on during whole night to avoid getting cold while sleeping as outdoor temperature drops during the night.
Show more

12 Read more

Numerical optimisation of thermal comfort improvement for indoor environment with occupants and furniture

Numerical optimisation of thermal comfort improvement for indoor environment with occupants and furniture

are adopted together with the two-equation renormalized group RNG k-ε turbulence model, due to its capability of accurate prediction of turbulent indoor airflows at low-Reynolds number with and without flow swirl, as previous studies have shown good model performances in terms of accuracy, numerical stability and short computing time [36, 39]. In the energy equation, radiation heat generation from a heating source is also included through a Discrete Ordinates (DO) model already implemented in ANSYS Fluent software and it is applied with various angular discretisation and sub-iteration parameters to control solid angles in discretising each octant of the angular space and volume overhang on each surface respectively, so that radiative conditions can be applied to each individual faces and fluid elements within the computational domain. All the equations can be found in a recent publication [37].
Show more

39 Read more

Analysis of Indoor Thermal Comfort Perception of Building Occupants in Jimeta, Nigeria

Analysis of Indoor Thermal Comfort Perception of Building Occupants in Jimeta, Nigeria

comfort in residential buildings to include the following: proper orientation of building, creation of microclimate, proper ventilation, using shading devices, and proper lighting Proper orientation of buildings to reduce the impact of unfavourable weather conditions like solar radiation, driving rain and thunderstorm. In the house, the rooms should be located in such a way that the ones frequently used should be elongated along the east-west dimensions to mitigate heat gain in summer and also making efficient use of winters sun (Cengel, 2002). By proper positioning the windows and opening them, air movement can be created in the rooms. Walls and vegetation should not be too close to the building in order to avoid diversion of wind away from the openings, thereby reducing air flow within the building. If possible, the rooms should be cross-ventilated. The most effective way of improving thermal comfort in residential buildings is to shade the windows, walls and roofs of buildings from direct solar radiation. The windows can be externally shaded by using overhangs or a horizontal projection to block off sun’s rays completely in summer while letting in most of them in winter. Double pane windows with tinted glass and glass coated with reflective film should be used for windows instead of steels, wood and zincs. External shading can also be provided by growing deciduous trees which block off the sun’s rays from reaching the building in summer and in winter, loose their leaves to allow about 60% of solar radiation to pass into the building envelope (Cengel, 2002). The roof of buildings can be shaded effectively by using removable canvass which can be used during the day time and rolled up during the night time to allow radiative cooling. A drapery could be used to internally shade the windows at the same providing privacy and aesthetic effect. A light colour drapery with close or semi
Show more

10 Read more

Thermal comfort and indoor air quality analysis of a low energy cooling windcatcher

Thermal comfort and indoor air quality analysis of a low energy cooling windcatcher

The windcatcher dates back to 1,500 years ago. Their usage was spread to Middle East countries such as Iran, Egypt and the UAE. Natural ventilation and passive cooling of the airflow without electrical power are the most important features of windcatchers [1]. In the UAE, windcatchers can be seen in the town of Bastakiya and signified a remarkable effort to attain comfortable living in a hot climate. Coles et al. [2] studied the effectiveness of UAE’s Bastakiya windcatchers by carrying out measurement of temperatures, wind tunnel modelling and interviews with previous residents. Recently, McCabe and Roaf [3] performed dynamic thermal modelling of a Bastakiya house centered on the windcatcher ventilation system using historical climate data. The study analysed the potential of traditional windcatchers to increase the comfort by varying the height and cross-sectional area. To this end, most of the studies on windcatchers in the UAE are mainly based on the traditional systems and many of these historic buildings © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Show more

6 Read more

Simulation of photovoltaic airflow windows for indoor thermal and visual comfort and electricity generation

Simulation of photovoltaic airflow windows for indoor thermal and visual comfort and electricity generation

Airflow window façade can depend on two ventilation processes to supply and extract air from indoor space: mechanical and natural ventilation operations where the latter is attributed to two forms of driving forces as wind-induced or buoyancy-induced flow. The difference between the two mechanisms, mechanical and natural, is that the former has a fan as dominated force for the airflow. Obviously, a fan can provide controlled flow rates that result in reduced surface temperatures. Thus, mechanically ventilated façade can work more efficiently as HVAC system of the building (Jiru et al. 2008). However, when the façade unit is naturally ventilated, three important aspects can dominate its performance: solar radiation availability, proper orientation, and local conditions. For example, when airflow windows are installed in a building in Barcelona, 12 per cent of heating loads would be saved, whereas only two per cent of total energy consumption would be reduced in Stuttgart and Loughborough (Mei et al. 2003). Therefore, careful attention must be paid to these factors in building design in order to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. Failure to meet the proper airflow windows standards and considerations may result in inadequate level of occupant comfort.
Show more

295 Read more

Influence of the airflow in a solar passive building on the indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels

Influence of the airflow in a solar passive building on the indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels

According to these theories, the human body uses physiological processes (e.g., sweating, shivering, regulating blood flow to the skin) to maintain a balance between the heat produced by metabolism and the heat lost by the human body. Maintaining this heat balance is the first condition for achieving neutral thermal sensation. To be able to predict conditions where thermal neutrality will occur, Fanger investigated the physiological processes of the human body when it is under thermally neutral conditions [ 26 ]. Fanger determined that sweat rate and mean skin temperature are the only physiological processes that influence the heat balance and they are dependent on the activity level and clothing level. The resulting Fanger equation described thermal comfort as the imbalance between the actual heat flow from the human body in a given thermal environment and a heat flow required to achieve optimum (neutral) thermal comfort when a given activity is performed [ 28 ].
Show more

18 Read more

Quality Function Deployment in Airport Terminals: The Airport of Porto Alegre Case

Quality Function Deployment in Airport Terminals: The Airport of Porto Alegre Case

Meeting the demands of quality is ensured from the point of view of production of the service, the quality characteristics that are measurable actions that influence user satisfaction with quality items demanded. In this study, the quality prioritized features are shown in Figure 3. By analyzing the Pareto diagram, there is the main quality characteristics are related to transportation: the average age of the fleet indicates the quality of public transport available, and equipment that allow landing and takeoffs in low visibility are directly related also flight delays at the airport in Porto Alegre. The features prioritized below cover access to the airport, covering both modal (like number of public transport routes, number of taxis, parking spaces, cost of parking, etc.). As signs indicating nearby area airport (plates guidance in and out of the terminals, with two operating terminals embarkation / disembarkation). It also covers the access to the aircraft. The characteristics associated with information services and comforts are among the intermediate priority. The existence of foodservice and convenience were the lowest priority, but the costs charged by such establishments had higher priority, indicating that customers are more susceptible to changes that directly affect the financial aspect.
Show more

6 Read more

Modelling conjugate flow and heat transfer in a ventilated room for indoor thermal comfort assessment

Modelling conjugate flow and heat transfer in a ventilated room for indoor thermal comfort assessment

With the advancement of numerical method and computational power, modern CFD techniques provide an alternative way of obtaining 3-D time-dependent flow and thermal parameters at both system and component levels. Furthermore, CFD can produce much detailed information to optimise an existing or a future thermal design and to perform thermal comfort assessment of an indoor environment [12,26-27]. The fast growing computer technology and architecture such as multi-core CPU and GPU make CFD even more feasible to carry out vast number of parametric studies (for which it is almost impossible with physical tests and measurements due to extremely high computing time and cost requirements). With CFD, it is able to predict the performance of a new design concept, before it is going to physical prototyping and manufacturing stages [28-29]. For these reasons, numerical predictions have increasingly become an important element integrated in any engineering design and analysis for cost saving, durability and reduced time scale from product design to market.
Show more

41 Read more

Influence of the airflow in a solar passive building on the indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels

Influence of the airflow in a solar passive building on the indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels

thermal comfort levels was investigated. The numerical study for a university library was conducted using a software that simulates the building thermal behavior with complex topology, in transient conditions, for evaluating the indoor air quality and occupants’ thermal comfort levels for typical summer and winter days. Solar radiation was used as a renewable energy source to increase simultaneously the thermal comfort and air quality levels and reduce building energy consumption. Regarding the solar passive building, consideration was given to all of the building structure envelope, shading devices and interior details, while in the solar active building active ventilation was used. To analyze the airflow that simultaneously provides the best indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, a new integral methodology based on the minimization of the total number of uncomfortable hours was used. The results show that it was possible to determine an air change rate that ensures a good compromise between thermal comfort and indoor air quality. An optimal air change rate of two and three renewals per hour had been determined, respectively, for winter and summer conditions.
Show more

20 Read more

A review of sustainable rating tools in relation with indoor environment 
		quality and thermal comfort

A review of sustainable rating tools in relation with indoor environment quality and thermal comfort

wills emphasis on one of the most significant indoor environmental quality aspect that is the thermal comfort. Thermal comfort is defined in the ISO 7730 standard as “that condition of mind that express satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed mainly by subjective evaluation". (Harriman, 2008) describes human thermal comfort as the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment. There are potentially large variations, physiologically and psychologically, from person to person that makes it difficult to satisfy everyone in a particular space. As a result, environmental conditions required for comfort are not the same for everyone (Castro-Lacouture et al., 2009). They also believed that the most commonly used indicator to measure the thermal comfort of a space is the air temperature as it is the easiest and most obvious indicator that most people will be able to relate to when determining thermal comfort in given space. Comfort is gained when body temperature is held within narrow ranges; skin moisture is low, and the physiological effort of regulation is minimized. Numerical prediction of thermal comfort in a chamber is performed by using the PMV -PPD model (Sarbu and Sebarchievici, 2013). There are a few factors that affect the human thermal comfort that can be divided into three categories: 1. The subjective measurement factor that includes perceptions, opinions, clothing, age, activities, gender, metabolic rate; 2. Administrative controls such as working time schedule; and 3. Engineering controls that include the controls of air conditioning, heating, and the air movement in the workplace. (Harriman 2008). The need for optimum indoor overall thermal comfort is a real challenge nowadays that worthy of everybody attention (client, consultants, developer, facilities manager, as well as the building occupants and buyers). Incorporating of a good design, construction and the selection of appropriate materials for building will provide significant effects to the building in terms of optimizing indoor thermal comfort as well as implementation of sustainable rating tools that emphasis on the important of the sustainable construction in preserving environment for future generations.
Show more

6 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...