Top PDF Three essays in Health and Labour Economics

Three essays in Health and Labour Economics

Three essays in Health and Labour Economics

Cattan (2016) summarises findings from different countries and argues that significant differences across countries and periods can be explained by policy parameters and the country- specific context. She suggests four main driving factors that affect the magnitude of the effect of childcare availability on maternal labour market outcomes. The first one is the initial maternal employment rate. The effect of childcare expansion can be substantial in those countries where the initial level of female employment is low. This argument generally works in absence of other barriers for female employment such as slow economic growth or lack of flexible and part-time work opportunities for mothers. The second factor is the difference in nonparental care use. The effect of the introduction of free preschool places can have no effect (or an effect that is smaller than the increase in childcare attendance) in countries where there is a well-developed private childcare system or parents intensively use informal childcare. In this case, parents switch from informal/unsubsidised to formal/subsidised childcare and we observe just a crowding out effect without significant changes in maternal labour market outcomes. The third driving factor behind the variation in results among countries is differences in mothers’ non-labour income and welfare benefits. As described previously, single mothers can be affected more due to the fact that relatively smaller non-labour income forces them to join the labour market. Also, countries with more generous welfare systems for parents experience lower changes in maternal employment rate in response to expanding childcare availability because mothers have less financial need to come back into the labour market. Finally, one of the most obvious factors is the differences in policies. Policies in different countries are aimed at children of different ages, at different social groups, and provide different amounts of free education.
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Three Essays on Health Economics

Three Essays on Health Economics

Our main variable of interest in measuring the quality is the standard height and weight from the U.K. growth chart 2 . Researchers predominantly tend to use intelligence related measures including educational attainment and IQ scores to indicate the quality of children (J. Angrist et al., 2010; J. D. Angrist & Evans, 1998; Black et al., 2005; Blake, 1981; Conley & Glauber, 2006; Goux & Maurin, 2005; Guo & VanWey, 1999; Hanushek, 1992; J. Lee, 2008; Li, Zhang, & Zhu, 2008; Qian, 2009; Rosenzweig & Schultz, 1987; Rosenzweig & Wolpin, 1980; Rosenzweig & Zhang, 2009; Taubman, 1986; Zajonc & Markus, 1975). Some use labor market, marriage, and fertility outcomes to measure the quality (J. Angrist et al., 2010). A few study the birth weight related measures (Liu, 2013; Rosenzweig & Zhang, 2009). Because intelligence related measures have been widely used, we are going to focus on a less explored area—children’s weight and height measurements. Moreover, past studies heavily focus on the effect of increases in the number of children from two to three or even more. In contrast, our paper focuses on the effect of an additional child on the first one.
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Three Essays in Applied Health Economics

Three Essays in Applied Health Economics

I would like to begin by thanking my chair, Tom Buchmueller. Tom has been a constant source of support and encouragement throughout my graduate studies, and his efforts have been instrumental in my development as a health researcher. I am grateful to him for believing in my ideas and abilities even at times when I did not. I would also like to thank the rest of my committee – Scott Masten, Sarah Miller, Edward Norton, and Yesim Orhun – for their help and guidance. Scott has provided me with a wealth of detailed feedback and writing tips on various projects, and I am grateful to him for guiding me through my first experience as an instructor. Sarah has been kind and generous with her time since my first week of graduate school, and her research has been a constant reminder (and inspiration) of the impact that studying health care has on advancing health policy for vulnerable populations. Edward has been an invaluable resource throughout my graduate studies, and I credit his courses in health econometrics with helping me to develop an understanding of material that I had found difficult and at times overwhelming. Yesim has been helpful and encouraging, and her detailed feedback on early drafts of this dissertation greatly improved my approach.
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Three Essays in Health Economics

Three Essays in Health Economics

Duration analysis easily accommodates time varying covariates, and so is ideal for this context where an individual’s current BMI plays a significant role in determining their BMI (and their obesity status) in the next period. Within the realm of standard duration analysis lays three separate and distinct parameterization strategies. The first, nonparametric analysis, does not require any assumption about the distribution of failure times (i.e. the baseline hazard), and does not include covariates. This modeling technique essentially lets the data speak for itself, and models the time to occurrence based solely on the passage of time. The second modeling approach is to utilize, semiparametric analysis, which, does not require an assumption about the baseline hazard, but parameterizes the effect of covariates. Finally, the third modeling approach, parametric estimation, requires an assumption about the shape of the baseline hazard, and includes covariates in the analysis. In general,
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Three Essays in Health Economics

Three Essays in Health Economics

For this study, I follow the previous studies and use the overall star rating for nursing homes. However, even though the overall star rating is largely determined by the health inspection domain, nursing homes with extreme staffing and/or quality ratings could receive overall star ratings that are different from their health inspection ratings. If the overall rating of a nursing home equals its health inspection rating, the thresholds in the health inspection domain determine the number of stars for both the health inspection and overall domains. From the perspective of the RD identification, a sample of nursing homes with health inspection ratings that equal the overall ratings accommodates the design well. On the other hand, the issue of generalizability arises when using this group of nursing homes. To address this concern, I compare the characteristics of all nursing homes and the nursing homes with overall ratings that equal their health inspection ratings. Table A1 shows the summary statistics for these two groups. As shown, the preferred sample accounts for slightly more than 50% of the full sample. However, all characteristics are extremely similar between the two groups of nursing homes, which alleviates the concern about the generalizability of the results using the preferred sample.
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Three Essays on the Economics of Health Reform.

Three Essays on the Economics of Health Reform.

and economic conditions but were unaffected by the rule, they can serve as a within-state control group for commercial insurers. Table 3.4 presents the results from regressions specified in equation (3). The coefficient of interest is the triple interaction, which gives the difference in the difference-in-differences estimates presented in Table 3.2. The interaction coefficient is negative and statistically significant, meaning that commercial MLRs fell as a result of the rule. Controlling for state and year fixed effects and state-level income and demographic controls (column 1), Michigan’s commercial MLR fell by eight percentage points (s.e.=0.0129). The results are robust to the inclusion of controls for the size of the health insurance market (column 2). In terms of the pre-rule MLR among Michigan’s commercial insurers (80%), these point estimates imply a 10 percent decrease in the MLR after the rule took effect. Adjusting for potential outliers with robust regression, the size of the standard errors increases, but the magnitude of the effect remains unchanged. The results of the permutation test are displayed in Figure 3.4; Michigan’s point estimate of -0.0819 ranks in the 6th percentile of the distribution of state effects and is therefore only marginally statistically insignificant at the 10 percent level.
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Three essays on the economics of immigration and health

Three essays on the economics of immigration and health

Notes - The plotted curve reports the predicted low birth weight differences between 3rd generation Mexicans and white natives for each level of selection on health at migration, assuming that the intergenerational correlation in health ρ is equal to 0.35 and the effect of maternal health on birth weight, γ, is equal to 0.75 (baseline). The scenario considered assumes that Mexicans fully assimilate in behaviors but incorporates the estimated effect on birth weight of the observed socioeconomic differences between second-generation Mexicans and white natives (less than full socioeconomic assimilation, µ M X 2 = −0.1). The lower dashed line (y = −0.001) describes the observed
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Three Essays on Commodity Markets and Health Economics

Three Essays on Commodity Markets and Health Economics

There is a fast growing body of recent literature on interconnection of commodity markets or the role of financialization in markets co-movements. Saghaian (2010) presents empirical results using vector autoregression (VAR) and Granger causality supplemented by a directed graph theory modeling approach to identify the links and plausible contemporaneous causal structures between energy and commodities in the grain sector (wheat, soybean and corn). Although Saghaian (2010) finds strong correlation among oil and food prices with monthly data from 1996 to 2008, there is mixed evidence of a causal link from oil to the other three commodities. B¨ uy¨ uk¸sahin and Robe (2017) model dynamic correlations between equity market and commodity in grains and livestock sector, and find that world business cycle shocks have a substantial and long-lasting impact on the food markets co-movements with equity market, while changes in the intensity of financial speculation have a short-lived and not significant impact on cross-market return linkages using various specifications of structural vector autoregression (SVAR). Tang and Xiong (2012) find increasing correlation since 2004, but they model dynamics of correlations by rolling-window for all pairwise combinations of commodities one after another, which is inefficient as they do not explicitly take all information into account and not necessarily robust to the structural change in correlations. Adams and Gl¨ uck (2015) consider structural breaks in correlations but their sample only include eight commodities and also do not provide a joint estimation of dependence structure in futures returns. Most of these studies, however, only focus on specific commodities or just use low frequency data (monthly or weekly), and one may want to know if these empirical results are still robust if relative high frequency information of more futures markets is used.
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Three Essays in the Economics of Child Health and Development

Three Essays in the Economics of Child Health and Development

cigarettes, adjusted for inflation to 2000 dollars. There are also several other state/county/year- varying policies that might affect infant birth outcomes; these controls are in the vector P. We include a simulated variable to account for changes in public health insurance eligibility. It is constructed the same way as Currie and Gruber (1996). Using a 1990 national sample, we calculate for each state and each year the percent of infant and children who would be eligible for Medicaid or State Child Health Insurance Programs (SCHIP). This variable varies only by legislative generosity within each state and over time, which does not capture the demographic characteristics of an actual state population that might affect infant health outcomes. We also control for the maximum Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) or Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) benefit for a 3-person family in each state and year. County-level control variables in the model are: annual unemployment rate, per capita personal income and population. 10 We merge the data on bans and policy controls to the infant birth data by state/county of infant birth and quarter/year of conception, which is imputed using birth month, birth year and weeks of gestation. 11 The summary statistics of smoking bans, cigarette taxes and other state level controls are presented in Table 1.
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Three essays in health economics

Three essays in health economics

Bünnings and Tauchmann (2015) and others and consider risk preferences as fixed over time, using the average value of an individual’s responses. Table 1.3 shows that risk aversion gives rise to advantageous selection in favour of the public sector: after controlling for observables, risk-averse individuals are less willing to opt out of public insurance and less likely to be hospitalised. Switching to private insurance implies uncertainty about future premiums, as changes in family status translate into premium changes in private insurance. For example, a privately insured couple who become parents has to pay for their child in private health insurance, whereas the child is insured free of charge in public insurance. This may explain why risk-averse individuals prefer public insurance. The finding that risk-averse individuals tend to be less risky has been observed also in other contexts (Finkelstein and McGarry 2006). Possible explanations for this result are that the risk averse use more preventive care, or that
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Three Essays on Health Economics

Three Essays on Health Economics

In the first chapter, I assess the impact of the small change of birth timing on infant health at birth, by exploiting a phenomenon in which some parents avoid holiday babies, especially during the holiday season at the end of the year. I focus on all full-term singleton births delivered by mothers without medical problems during pregnancy because newborns’ health outcomes are believed to be similar in the traditional full term pregnant period (37 weeks to 41 weeks). Using New Jersey birth certificate data with a baby’s exact date of birth and the exact date of the mother’s last menstrual period during the years 1989 to 2011, it was estimated that about 207 singleton births per year are moved to an early time from the Christmas break and the New Year’s break in the holiday season at the end of the year. Among different delivery methods, I find that induced vaginal and induced C-section deliveries are the two main methods used for the birth timing manipulation. I also find the group of mothers whose babies were born shortly before the holiday break appear to be slightly older, more educated, more likely to be white, more likely to be married, having more prenatal visits and fewer risky behaviors during pregnancy than mothers whose babies born during the holiday break. In addition, birth timing manipulation causes babies to be born before their expected delivery dates, which carries greater health risks, including lower Apgar scores, a lower probability of getting normal Apgar scores (i.e., scores > 7), and a higher probability of having respiratory problems.
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Three essays in labour economics

Three essays in labour economics

The second category focuses on the country and time period of the study. The wage impact of immigration differs by country. This might be because either the host country under study is big and hence can easily adjust to the immigrant influx or it is small and therefore react more to the increased immigration. The size of a country under study does contribute to the impact of immigration. The third category relates to how the labour market conditions of a country under study can affect the wage impact of immigration. The economic conditions during the time period under evaluation might also have something to do with the variations in the results of different papers. Labour market conditions in the host country may influence individuals’ decision on when and where to migrate. Under a simple demand and supply model, less advantaged groups such as immigrants, less educated or young workers are particularly sensitive to economic slowdowns. When economic conditions are adverse, immigrants are likely to get laid off because immigrants frequently lack extensive social networks and are typically unfamiliar with local social norms and culture (Wang and Sakamoto 2016). These workers are not just directly affected by the slow eco- nomic activity during recessions but are also indirectly replaced by high skilled workers who move down the skill chain (Devereux 2004). Low skilled immigrants are affected more than the low skilled natives during rough times because they face additional difficulties such as language barriers, tend to have less social capital and are relatively ill-informed about the labour markets. For each coun- try and time period under study, a variable using the unemployment series from the World Bank Database is used as one of the indicators of labour market conditions and is included in the esti- mation in order to better understand the variation in the results. The average immigrant share in working population for each country from World Bank Database for the time period under study is also created and included in the estimation in order to examine whether the size of immigrant stock in total population in a country matters.
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Three essays in labour economics and the economics of education

Three essays in labour economics and the economics of education

Proponents of school choice argue that the structure of the public educational system – where education is mainly provided by government with substantial monopoly power and largely no competition – leaves educational consumers with limited choice among schools. They further suggest that this may result in a disconnect between school quality and parents’ preferences. There is a growing literature in economics that suggests that expanding school choice could improve educational outcomes by increasing disadvantaged children’s access to high quality schools, and by causing underperforming schools to become more effective or to shrink as families “vote with their feet” (Friedman 1955; Becker 1995; Hoxby 2003; Belfield and Levin 2003). 1 These ideas have gained strong currency in education policy circles, leading to policy innovations such as open enrollment systems, magnet and charter schools, private school vouchers, and expanded public school choice for students in poorly performing schools.
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Three essays on macro labour economics

Three essays on macro labour economics

In this paper, I have argued that own-account workers and employers are differ- ent and need to be treated separately. Having a large share of self-employment and small business owners does not mean a country is more entrepreneurial. I have argued that financial intermediation can help explaining the cross coun- try differences in occupation shares. A lower financial intermediation efficiency leads to a higher cost of borrowing and lower return on savings. Agents who save with financial intermediaries are more likely to seek alternative occu- pations to manage more wealth. Wage workers are more likely to become an own-account workers, operating small businesses to manage their wealth. Agents who need to borrow to become employers choose to be own-account worker instead. The result is less capital and labour intermediated through the market. The quantitative results presented here has shown that, by varying financial efficiency, the model can account for over 70% of the cross country variation in the share of own-account workers.
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Three Essays in Health Economics

Three Essays in Health Economics

Confirmation bias is a tendency to process information in a way that is consistent to ones prior beliefs. This has long been documented in psychological and cognitive research (Nikerson 1998; Kunda 1999). There are three major manifestations, which contribute to overconfidence and self-perpetuated false beliefs. First, people may selectively search for information in order to prove their pre-existing hypothesis of the world is correct (Kayhan 2013). Second, people may subjectively interpret new evidence based on their beliefs. They value more any information that conforms to their priors and devalue or even ignore information that contradicts their hypothesis. Even provided with the same ambiguous information, beliefs further diverge among people with different initial beliefs (Lord, Ross, and Lepper 1979). Third, people may suffer from biased memory, even if they seek for and evaluate information neutrally. Results from experimental studies are mixed: some suggest that people may recall information that match with their expectations more easily; in contrast, some also posit that unexpected information is more memorable (Oswald and Grosjean 2004).
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Three Essays in Health Economics

Three Essays in Health Economics

The regression discontinuity research design is compelling because it overcomes the omitted variable bias problem given a modest set of assumptions. Moreover, some of the assumptions are partially testable. Interpretation of the effects of Medicare eligibility on outcomes as causal requires two assumptions (Lee and Lemieux, 2009). First, the conditional expectation functions of the potential outcomes must be continuous with respect to age across the Medicare eligibil- ity threshold, which is analogous to saying that in the absence of treatment at age 65 outcomes would trend smoothly. There are two standard test for violation of the continuity assumption. First, there should be no changes in other variables across the threshold if this assumption holds. I test for discontinuities in educa- tion, race, labor market participation, health status, and Social Security receipt and present the results in Figure A3 and Table A2. These estimates are all statis- tically insignificant except for a decline in the fraction of the sample that is white, which is likely due to sampling error given that none of the other background characteristics change at the threshold. Second, I plot the density function of the running variable (spousal age) and test for a discontinuity at the age-65 threshold
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Three Essays in Development Economics

Three Essays in Development Economics

Like many developing countries, Thailand has been facing the challenge of a widening gap of inequality, including the inequity in access to health services prior to the UCS implemen- tation. The regional variations in health outcomes and the unequal distribution of health resources across geographical areas were major concerns in evaluating the country’s health profile. To address this concern of health outcome inequality and access inequity, the govern- ment swiftly introduced UCS in 2001-2002 to provide health services for the uninsured and achieve health equity across the entire population. Since then, monitoring the impacts of this scheme in terms of health status, utilization of health services, out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure, and strategic purchasing, has been a main focus of the policy evaluation and monitoring. Since the policy could also have distortionary impacts on the labor market, the paper examines the unintended policy impacts on the labor outcomes such as working and sectoral choices. The study contributes to the empirical pool of health policy impacts on the labor market, which is still limited in the developing countries setting. To my knowledge, Wagstaff and Manachotpong (2012b) is the only paper that studies labor impact of the UCS reform. However, the author uses a different survey and does not investigate the variation of policy effects by health demand or values placed on health insurance.
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Essays on development and labour economics for Mexico

Essays on development and labour economics for Mexico

With respect to other variables, it is observed that while household income increased by 21.3% between 2000 and 2006, it encountered a sharp decline between 2006 and 2012 falling by 29.2%. Household expenditures faced a similar pattern increasing by 27.2% between 2000 and 2006, and subsequently declining by 30.0% between 2006 and 2012. As a result, during the period of study, the average household included in the sample went from being a net saver to a net debtor. On the other hand, household health expenditures, which stood at 194.8 pesos per month in 2000, increased to 264.5 in 2006, but decreased to 122.1 pesos per month in 2012. Nevertheless, looking at the raw data it is not possible to identify how much of this decline is due to a reduction in household income or is a result of the implementation of Seguro Popular. Concerning the socio-demographic variables included in the table, it is noteworthy to mention that the proportion of households located in rural areas varies significantly between years. This variation in the sampling likely affects other variables such as the average years of schooling of the household head, and highlights the importance of controlling for additional factors when performing the econometric analysis. Finally, looking at the Seguro Popular coverage rate by state, in 2006 an average of 33.4% of the households in each state were enrolled in the program. By 2012, the coverage rate had grown to 82.5%.
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Three Essays on Financial Economics

Three Essays on Financial Economics

This table presents summary statistics for annual health expenditure for different cohorts of the Health and Retirement Survey from 1992 to 2010. AHEAD were born 1923 or earlier; CODA (Children of Depression) were born from 1924 from 1930; HRS were born 1931-1941; WBs (War Babies) were born from 1942 to 1947; EBBs (Early Boomers) were born from 1948 to 1953; MBB (Mid Boomers) were born from 1954 to 1959. All dollar amounts are in 2010 dollars using CPI data from the Federal Reserve of Minneapolis.

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Three Essays on Financial Economics

Three Essays on Financial Economics

Access to wealth is vital for our rapidly aging population. This paper studies the financial decisions of individuals nearing their end of life and examines if access to such wealth can enable longevity. I use transaction-level data from the secondary market for life insurance policies, also known as the life settlement market. In this quasi- experimental evaluation of bequest adjustments, I show that the ability to access wealth through the life settlement market leads to a significant increase in longevity. This effect is stronger for people in fragile health, with severe disease diagnoses, and those with limited access to hospitals. The regional supply of primary healthcare, and the social-economic background of the policyholder does not seem to explain the longevity effect. Taken together, these results appear to be related to the high-cost of care for individuals and the importance of financial liquidity for people nearing their end of life.
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