Top PDF Thymidine Metabolism in Neurospora Crassa

Thymidine Metabolism in Neurospora Crassa

Thymidine Metabolism in Neurospora Crassa

From a pyr-1 Neurospora strain was isolated a double mutant, pyr-1 uc-5, which was unable to utilize the free pyrimidine bases, thymine, 5-CH 0H ·uracil, 5-formyluracil and uracil, altho[r]

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REGULATION OF PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN NEUROSPORA CRASSA: ISOLATION OF MUTANTS DEFICIENT IN THE REPRESSIBLE ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE

REGULATION OF PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN NEUROSPORA CRASSA: ISOLATION OF MUTANTS DEFICIENT IN THE REPRESSIBLE ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE

The specific activity of the repressible alkaline phosphatase produced by pho-2 (MKG-2) is roughly one hundredfold lower than wild type (see Table 1 ).. Tf this lowered [r]

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The NDR Kinase DBF-2 Is Involved in Regulation of Mitosis, Conidial Development, and Glycogen Metabolism in Neurospora crassa

The NDR Kinase DBF-2 Is Involved in Regulation of Mitosis, Conidial Development, and Glycogen Metabolism in Neurospora crassa

functional conservation: the NDR kinase DBF2, the coactiva- tor MOB1, and the Ste20-like kinase (CDC15). It was sug- gested that the binding of MOB1 to DBF2 enables CDC15 to phosphorylate DBF2 (35). Apart from its involvement in Hippo signaling, previous studies of yeasts also revealed the involvement of DBF2 in exit from mitosis and cytokinesis (66). Yeast DBF2 interacts genetically and physically with MOB1, an interaction imperative both for its translocation from the nucleus to the mother-bud neck during cell cycle (16) and for its phosphorylation and activation by CDC15 (35). Consistent with its late mitotic role, DBF2 protein kinase expression peaks after the metaphase-to-anaphase transition (66). These components (and others) are part of the mitotic exit network (MEN) and parallel septation initiation network (SIN) de- scribed in budding and fission yeasts, respectively, and whose counterparts have been identified in filamentous fungi (21, 28). In S. cerevisiae, DBF2 has also been identified as a component of the CCR4 (carbon catabolite repression 4) transcriptional complex, a general transcriptional regulator which affects ex- pression of numerous genes both positively and negatively (32). In addition, DBF2 disruption in yeasts results in glycogen accumulation, indicative of the involvement of DBF2 in glyco- gen metabolism (69). DBF2 shares at least one essential func- tion with a homolog, DBF20, as yeasts with either gene deleted are viable but deletion of both genes results in lethality (66).
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Studies on the Metabolism of Threonine and Related Substrates in Neurospora Crassa

Studies on the Metabolism of Threonine and Related Substrates in Neurospora Crassa

threonine. It was concluded that alpha-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid or a deaminated alpha-ketobutyric acid pre- cursor in equilibrium with alpha-ketobutyric could [r]

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Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade Required for Regulation of Development and Secondary Metabolism in Neurospora crassa

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade Required for Regulation of Development and Secondary Metabolism in Neurospora crassa

Mass spectrometry analysis. Total protein was extracted from cell pads col- lected from 6-day-old SCM plate cultures of wild-type (ORS-SL6a), ⌬mik-1, ⌬ mek-1, and ⌬ mak-1 strains as previously described (24). Samples containing 50 ␮ g of total proteins were subjected to electrophoresis using 12% SDS-PAGE gels. The gel was stained with Coomassie brilliant blue dye and then destained following procedures previously described (6). An area of the gel including a protein that was abundantly expressed in ⌬ mek-1 and ⌬ mak-1 mutants was cut into thin horizontal slices from wild-type, ⌬mik-1, ⌬mek-1, and ⌬mak-1 lanes. Gel slices were then digested with trypsin and processed as described previously (6). The gel digest was analyzed by a nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) instrument with a Waters nano-Acquity UPLC/Q-TOF Premier system (Waters, Milford, MA). An LC- MS-MS survey scan method was used for analyzing all peptide precursor ions for the wild type and three mutants. The raw data-dependent acquisition from the survey scan was then processed by Protein Lynx (Waters, Milford, MA) software to generate pkl text files that were used to search the NCBI Neurospora database with the MASCOT algorithm for protein identification (6). The quantitative
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REGULATION OF PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN NEUROSPORA CRASSA. CHARACTERIZATION OF REGULATORY MUTANTS

REGULATION OF PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN NEUROSPORA CRASSA. CHARACTERIZATION OF REGULATORY MUTANTS

A mutant of Neurospora crassa, called UW-6, differs from wild type in be- ing partially constitutive for synthesis of a species of alkaline phosphatase, and also for a spe[r]

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Physiological Role of Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetase Homologs in Lipid Metabolism in Neurospora crassa

Physiological Role of Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetase Homologs in Lipid Metabolism in Neurospora crassa

A previous phylogenetic analysis of human, mouse, zebrafish, fruit fly, nematode, and yeast ACSs revealed clades corresponding to FA substrate toward which the ACS was active (i.e., medium-, long-, or very-long-chain FAs) (42). To evaluate relationships among fungal ACSs, the genome sequences and protein databases of 11 additional fungi representing diversity across the fungal kingdom (Aspergillus nidulans, Botryotinia fuckeliana, Candida al- bicans, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, Coccidioides immitis, Crypto- coccus neoformans, Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe grisea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Puccinia graminis, and Rhizopus oryzae) were interrogated for ACSs using the same search param- eters as above. As many as 12 and as few as 3 putative ACS genes were identified in each fungal species. Protein sequences from the 94 identified fungal ACSs grouped into 4 clades (Fig. 1A; see Table S2 in the supplemental material). The clustering of the ACSs was consistent with the substrate specificity of characterized S. cerevi- siae ACSs and predicted FA specificity for the long-chain (LC) and very-long-chain (VLC) clades. The FAA homologs, all predicted to have LC specificity, fell into two subclades. One subclade in- cluded N. crassa ACS-1 (Nc-ACS-1), S. cerevisiae Faa2p (Sc- Faa2p), and A. nidulans FaaB (An-FaaB), all of which localize to the peroxisome/glyoxysome (21, 43, 44). Within the second sub- clade, S. cerevisiae has two closely related paralogs (Sc-Faa3P and Sc-Faa4p), plus an additional ACS (Sc-Faa1p), while A. nidulans has only one (An-FaaA) in this entire subclade. In contrast, N. crassa has two predicted proteins, ACS-2 (encoded by NCU03929) and ACS-3 (encoded by NCU04380).
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THE CORRELATION EFFECT FOR A HISTIDINE LOCUS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

THE CORRELATION EFFECT FOR A HISTIDINE LOCUS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

Not only two, but three outside markers were used because this allows one to distinguish histidine independent recombinants from several other possible types: wild[r]

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A Nonself Recognition Gene Complex in Neurospora crassa

A Nonself Recognition Gene Complex in Neurospora crassa

That In(het-6) is old is suggested by two observations in addition to its inferred trans-species distribution. First is the extensive sequence divergence between PA and OR haplotypes immediately adjacent to In(het-6) breakpoints. While this may suggest an ancient haplotype split, strong diversifying selection could also result in rapid sequence divergence at the breakpoints. The second observation is that disequilibrium is limited to markers close to the inversion breakpoints. Since regional decay of linkage disequilibrium at neutral markers is expected to occur through time (S abeti et al. 2002), the presence of shared polymorphisms in and around the inversion suggests that In(het-6) is old. A comprehensive taxonomic analysis of the distribution of In(het-6) would provide additional insight into the evolution of the incompatibility gene complex. In this context, it would be interesting to ask whether the association of un-24 with this inversion breakpoint marks the acquisition of heterokaryon in- compatibility function or whether the two events are independent, with, perhaps, the inversion event locking a beneficial allelic combination of un-24 and het-6 into a supergene configuration in N. crassa. As for the former of these two possibilities, genetic rearrangements such as gene duplications, inversions, and somatic recom- bination are responsible for generating diversity at non- self recognition loci in other organisms. In tomato, for example, unequal crossing over between Cf-2 and Cf-5 R-genes can lead to deletions or duplications of open reading frames that affect plant disease resistance. In addition, intragenic recombination between repeated LRR domains within R-genes generates variation that directly affects R-gene function (H ammond -K osack and J ones 1997). The MLA locus involved in powdery mildew resistance in barley is another example of a gene cluster that has undergone multiple rearrangements (W ei et al. 2002). A final extreme example is evident in somatic recombination within V, D, and J gene segments of B-lymphocytes (class switch recombination) to generate antibody diversity and thus increase nonself recognition potential in mammals (L i et al. 2004). Additional re- arrangements around un-24–het-6, aside from the inver- sions described herein, are suggested by a general lack of synteny around the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase among N. crassa and the other Sordariomy- cetes, F. graminearum, Chaetomium globosum, and M. grisea (S. Q adri and M. L. S mith , unpublished results).
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A GENETIC MAP OF THE td LOCUS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

A GENETIC MAP OF THE td LOCUS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

From crosses between mutants whose true and pseudowild-type progeny were not as readily distinguishable, the proportion of prototrophs giving rise to mutant progeny when[r]

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Lysine Metabolism in Neurospora

Lysine Metabolism in Neurospora

Now if the degradation of lysine is predominantly via o-arninoadipic ando., -ketoadipic acids as postulated by Borsook, .o ne might reasonably expect incorporation of isotopic nitrogen b[r]

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A Novel Cryptochrome-Dependent Oscillator in Neurospora crassa

A Novel Cryptochrome-Dependent Oscillator in Neurospora crassa

would be expected to exist to desensitize CRY activity during chronic light treatment. It has been shown that VVD func- tions in N. crassa to desensitize photo-transduction path- ways during chronic light treatment and plays a role in establishing the phase of the clock in LD cycles (Elvin et al. 2005). Thus, VVD is a good candidate for desensitizing CRY to chronic light to promote CDO function. Consistent with a role for VVD in LL, the period of the CDO rhythm is significantly reduced in Dvvd, cog-1 strains (Figure 5). This model leads to several testable predictions: (i) that the ac- tivity of CRY would be increased in cog-1 mutant strains and reduced in WC-1 deletions in LL; (ii) that the activity of CRY would cycle in LL and LD in the absence of WC-1; (iii) that Dvvd will double the cycling of the CDO due to increased CRY activation in LL, which would be dependent on WC-1; (iv) that mutations in cry , or artificially increasing the levels of CRY in Dwc-1, cog-1 strains, would alter the period of the CDO rhythm; and (v) identification of CRY-interacting pro- teins would uncover additional components of the CDO. In any case, the clock system is likely to be even more complex than depicted here. For example, under specialized growth conditions, developmental rhythms with periods ranging be- tween 6 and 21 hr were observed in vvd mutant alleles in LL that are dependent on WC-1, but not on FRQ (Schneider et al. 2009). In addition, rhythms in the expression of the ccg-16 gene in N. crassa are controlled by a FLO that requires WC-1, but not FRQ, for activity. This FLO, called the WC- FLO, that appears to be both temperature-compensated and entrained to environmental cycles independently of WCC and FRQ (de Paula et al. 2006, 2007).
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Synaptic adjustment of inversion loops in Neurospora crassa.

Synaptic adjustment of inversion loops in Neurospora crassa.

Crossing over does not hinder synaptic adjust- ment of inversion loops: It is reasonable to assume that the constant dimensions of the zygotene loops, and the ab[r]

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LINKAGE STUDIES WITH BIOCHEMICAL MUTANTS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

LINKAGE STUDIES WITH BIOCHEMICAL MUTANTS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

Centromere distance was calculated from all crosses (except those in.. Segregation type 1 represents asci in which sex and both mutant genes segregated in the first division an[r]

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A GENE THAT CAUSES NATURAL DEATH IN NEUROSPORA CRASSA

A GENE THAT CAUSES NATURAL DEATH IN NEUROSPORA CRASSA

As no nd strains and heterocaryons made of two nd strains survived more than three transfers in growth tubes at 25" C, those heterocaryons containing nd and no[r]

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Activator-independent gene expression in Neurospora crassa

Activator-independent gene expression in Neurospora crassa

A transgenic position effect that causes activator-independent gene expression has been described previously for three Neurospora crassa phosphate-repressible genes.. We repor[r]

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A MAP OF LINKAGE GROUP VI OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

A MAP OF LINKAGE GROUP VI OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

If ad-1 is in the opposite arm, then the one double recombination ascus and the four non-recombination asci result from equally probable events, if there is no chromatid interf[r]

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STUDIES OF ADENYLOSUCCINASE IN MUTANTS AND REVERTANTS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

STUDIES OF ADENYLOSUCCINASE IN MUTANTS AND REVERTANTS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA

On the other hand, the primary F12 reverse mutant having 25 percent of wild type enzyme activity gave rise (through secondary mutant Mi ) to secondary revertants possessing [r]

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ASCUS FORMATION AND RECOMBINANT FREQUENCIES IN NEUROSPORA CRASSA

ASCUS FORMATION AND RECOMBINANT FREQUENCIES IN NEUROSPORA CRASSA

Two-marker crosses give three general classes of eight-spored asci, parental di- types, nobparental ditypes and tetratypes ( BARRATT, NEWMEYER, PERKINS and GARNJOBST 1954). Th[r]

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Co-regulation of ribosomal genes in Neurospora crassa

Co-regulation of ribosomal genes in Neurospora crassa

In Drosophila Sharp and Garcia, 1988, silk worm Morton and Sprague, 1984, and Neurospora crassa Tyler, 1987, the 5' flanking sequences and other internal elements in addition to the A an[r]

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