I hereby declare that the work in this thesis is based on my original work except for quotations and citations which have been duly acknowledged. I also declare that it has not been previously or concurrently submitted for any other degree at Universiti Malaysia Pahang or any other institutions.
were considered high. This situation may be a result of the monsoon season which occurs at east coast area at Peninsular Malaysia between the months of November and March, at times leading to heavy floods like that of 2006 to 2008, and this coincides with the sampling period for this study (Alias et al., 2016). In a study of the impacts of monsoon and dry seasons on physical waterquality changes and farmed Lates calcarifer mortality at Sri Tujuh lagoon, Tumpat, Kelantan, Malaysia, it was concluded that the monsoon season influences certain waterquality parameters (Abdullah et al., 2018). According to Abdullah et al. (2018), waterquality parameters like DO and turbidity fluctuated and deteriorated during the
DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.75013 132 Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection region that sustain the ripple of drinking and domestic uses in coastal environ- ment worldwide (Banks et al., 1998). In developing countries, anthropogenic factors, geological structure and mineralogy of both watersheds and aquifers play a substantial role in controlling the ground waterquality (Drever, 1988; Apello & Postma, 2005; Bahar & Reza, 2010). Being an agro based country, Ban- gladesh possesses 5,049,785 ha agro-arable land which depends on adequate wa- ter supply from both groundwater (80.60%) and surface water (19.40%) of usa- ble quality (Shahid et al., 2006; Hasan et al., 2007; Vyas and Jethoo, 2015; Islam et al., 2016). Usually, ground water is a critical concern in coastal Bangladesh as the people in this region are highly reliant on it for sustaining their livelihoods (Hasan et al., 2013). More than 50 million inhabitants of coastal area depend on ground water for encountering their drinking, domestic and irrigation uses, di- rectly related to poor drinking waterquality attributed by water borne patho- gens, fecal coli forms and various toxic pollutants (UNESCO, 2007; Kumar et al., 2009; Chitradevi & Sridhar, 2011; Pethick & Orford, 2013). Coupled with low socio-economic condition, people in the this region are the worst sufferers due to fresh and safe water crisis in both shallow and deep tubewells as a function of geochemical interactions, coastal hazards, salinity intrusion and major anthro- pological activities (sewage disposal, over withdrawal of fresh water, agricultural application etc.) (Rahman et al., 2000; Chidambaram et al., 2009; ADB, 2011; Sappa et al., 2015). Batiaghata is a part of south-western coastal region under Khulna division where subsequent encroachment of saline water is the most se- vere (Karim et al., 1990; Bahar & Reza, 2010). During dry season, almost 80% people rest on ground water fed
pollutants across watersheds (Jaroszewski et al., 2000), some of which have been previously funded through the USEPA (Boisvert and Schmidt, 1997). Together, Drs. Poe and Boisvert will prepare the chance-constrained model that will link the emission, transport and delivery processes in the Passaic River Watershed with geographically distributed firm-level marginal abatement costs. Concurrent with the development of this model, economists Poe and Boisvert will conduct a thorough review the current literature on the relationship between program design and the relative effectiveness of existing waterquality trading schemes in the United States, with specific attention given to the issue of why few nutrient credit trades have occurred (King and Kuch, 2003; Woodward et al., 2002). The model will also be used to account for any institutional and other real-world policy constraints (e.g., geographical limitations on trading) appropriate to this pollution trading program.
Several studies confirm that dissolved oxygen is higher in wet season and lower during the dry season (Annalakshmi and Amsath, 2012); Rahman et al., 2012) except for sewer waste waters that is the reverse. During the rainy season dissolved oxygen concentration is often higher because the rain interacts with oxygen in the air as it falls (Mason, 2002).Discharge of effluents from residential areas, municipal sewage and decaying plant in receiving water bodies also reduce dissolved oxygen concentrations as a result of the increased microbial activities occurring during the degradation of organic matter (Nel et al., 2013; CSIR, 2010; Dallas and Day, 2004; Mason, 2002). Oxygen depletion depends on the total amount and nature of the organic material load in the rivers, and the numbers and types of bacteria which degrade waste discharged into the river (Mason, 2002).
Knowledge of the development and evolution of tide–river dynamics that determine the behaviour of tidal damping and residual water level slope under external forcing (e.g. tidal and riverine flow) and geometry changes (e.g. deepening and land reclamation) are essential for improving the sustainable water management in estuaries. Adopting the method pro- posed in this study, one can evaluate the influence of human intervention on the estuarine system (such as large-scale sand excavation, dredging for navigational channels or freshwater withdrawal), on flood control structures (e.g. storm surge bar- riers, flood gates) and on the aquatic environment (e.g. such as salt intrusion and the related waterquality). For instance, Cai et al. (2019) explored how the freshwater regulation of the Three Gorges Dam (the world’s largest hydroelectric sta- tion in terms of installed power capacity) may affect the al- teration of the tidal limit in the Yangtze River estuary using the analytical model proposed in this paper. It was shown that the largest change of the tidal limit of around 75 km occurred in October owing to the substantial increase in freshwater discharge. When combined with ecological or salt intrusion models, the analytical approach presented in this study is par- ticularly useful for a quick computation of the longitudinal distribution of the salinity (e.g. Cai et al., 2015). Using salin- ity as a general predictor, it is possible to assess the poten- tial impacts of human intervention on the aquatic ecosystem health in general (e.g., waterquality, water utilisation and agricultural development in the estuarine area).
Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive species that has modified ecosystem functioning in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta), California, USA. Studies in lakes and rivers have shown that water hyacinth alters waterquality. In tidal systems, such as the Delta, water moves back and forth through the water hyacinth patch so waterquality directly outside the patch in either direction is likely to be impacted. In this study, we asked whether the presence or treatment of water hyacinth with herbicides resulted in changes in waterquality in this tidal system. We combined existing datasets that were originally collected for permit compliance and long-term regional monitoring into a dataset that we analyzed with a before-after control-impact (BACI) framework. This approach allowed us to describe effects of presence and treatment of water hyacinth, while accounting for seasonal patterns in waterquality. We found that although effects of treatment were not detectable when compared with water immediately upstream, dissolved oxygen and turbidity became more similar to regional waterquality averages after treatment. Temperature became less similar to the regional average after treatment, but the magnitude of the change was small. Taken together, these results suggest that tidal hydrology exports the effects of water hyacinth upstream, just as river flow is known to transport the effects downstream, creating a buffer of altered water chemistry around patches. It also suggests that although water hyacinth has an effect on dissolved oxygen and turbidity, these parameters recover to regional averages after treatment.
Since 1995, that document has been under review, and a new draft has recently been released for public comment (ANZECC, draft 1998). The updated version has changed the emphasis of guideline setting, suggesting a ‘risk assessment’ approach which utilises the concept of increased risk with increasing departure from ‘safe’ levels. It also restates the principle that they are simply guidelines to be used in the absence of local data, and that where local data can be obtained, they should be used to develop local waterquality standards. This needs to be kept in mind when examining the following tables which summarise the new draft guidelines. The figures quoted are suggested as interim trigger levels for assessing risk of adverse effects on different ecosystem types (for essentially natural ecosystems).
ABSTRACT : Gebeng is the main industrial area of Pahang, where, Tunggak is a strategic river. The anthropogenic impact on the river is as a result of rapid industrialization in Gebeng. This river is of particular importance in the study of surface waterquality status because effluents from industries of Gebeng discharge into it thereby deteriorating the quality. Waterquality parameters were analyzed across the river with the objective to disclose the spatial variation of the riverwaterquality. To conduct the study, water samples were collected monthly from 10 sampling station across the river basin. The physico- chemical parameters were analyzed using APHA & HACH standard methods as well as the trace elements were determined using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). Data analyses were done using SPSS statistical software. The study revealed that, pollution from non-point source was associated with runoff from construction sites of newly developed industrial areas and the point source contributing the major pollutants especially from industrial wastes. According to Interim National WaterQuality Standard (INWQS) based on DO, COD, ammoniacal nitrogen and some selected trace elements, major part of the river specially the mid-region was categorized as class V (very highly polluted) while some part was found in class IV (highly polluted) and rest of class III (polluted) as well. Furthermore, classification of the river based on DOE-WQI showed that seven (7) stations (2-8) were in class IV (highly polluted); station 1, 9 & 10 were found to be polluted. So, from the study it is concluded that pollution is higher in the middle stations of the river compared to the upper and lower stream. This was due to less industry at upper stream and the tidal interference was present in lower stream and obviously the industrial wastes were mixing in the middle stations most.
The Coal River catchment in south east Tasmania covers an area of 540 km 2 (Figure 3). The Coal River is 80 km long from its source south east of Tunnack hill at 580 m altitude and ends at the Pittwater estuary to the south of Richmond. It is surrounded by the Prosser River catchments and Little Swanport in the east, the Jordan River catchment in the west, and the Macquarie River catchment in the north (DPIWE 2003b). Only 1.5 km from Lake Tiberias, the source of the Jordon River, the Coal River channel turns southward into a sandstone gorge for approximately 10 km and from Brandy Bottom at the southern end of gorge it flows through alluvial flats to Richmond. Historical records show that stream flow was ephemeral in nature for its entire length being dependent on rainfall. It has two main tributaries, the Native Hut and White Kangaroo Rivulets, which make significant contributions to the flow. Craigbourne Dam in Coal River was built in 1986 with water storage capacity of 12500 ML as part of the South- East irrigation Scheme (Baker 2000). After construction of Craigbourne Dam river flow became continuous with high and low flow depending on the season. Before the dam construction there was higher and continuous winter- springs base flows and low summer– autumn flows was the characteristic of Coal River. But after construction of Craigbourne dam flow was regulated that means high base flows during summer- autumn, reduced base flows during winter- spring and loss of the natural seasonal pattern in the Coal River below the Craigbourne Dam (Davies 2002). The Coal River runs through forest, grassland, agricultural land supplying water for irrigation and contributing to the economy of the region. Human activities have affected the Coal River system in various ways, for instance, through agricultural development, deforestation, urbanisation on river banks, urban drainage, pollution, and sewerage discharge, and flow regulation (dam and channelization).
Water temperature is important as it determines the living organisms that will live in that water body and also determines the levels of chemical reaction in the water body. High temperatures cause minerals in parent rocks of the river to dissolve rapidly as compared to water with low temperatures leading to high electric conductivity in the water (Yen and Rohasliney, 2013). It is also influenced by the climatic conditions of the local area therefore may vary from one place to another (Abowei, 2009). However, Langer (2001) notes that anthropogenic activity such as moving vehicles, oil spills and dredging associated with mining and sand harvesting influences water temperature by increasing it. Research conducted by CEPA (2016) noted that warm water has the capability of holding less dissolved oxygen compared to cooler water which may not be enough for the survival of some aquatic living organisms. Further, it continues to explain that Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is essential for the survival of aquatic life and a drop in its amount ultimately means some aquatic organisms will die off. Therefore, increasing the water temperature in the river through human activity associated with sand harvesting poses a threat to the survival of aquatic life.
Haiyan Li, L. L., Mingyi Li and Xiaoran Zhang. (2013). Effects of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and flow rate on phosphorus release processes at the sediment and water interface in storm sewer. Analytical methods in chemistry, 2013, 7. Helen P. Jarvie, A. N. S., Paul J. A. Withers, J. Thad Scott, Brian E. Haggard, and
Water is the most abundant natural resource on earth. It is a precious component which is essential for survival of all living organisms. It is necessary not only for human beings but also for plants, animals, industries and developmental activities.Rivers are the important source of surface water. They provide magnificent habitat and nourishment for many living organisms. They are also useful for irrigation, navigation, hydroelectric power generation and industrial activities.India is blessed with a network of rivers which play a vital role in the lives of the Indians. Regrettably most of the rivers in the country are polluted due to urbanization, increased human population, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff, and discharge of untreated sewage and throwing of rubbish directly into the rivers.Untreated sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural run-off containing fertilizers and pesticides, when discharged into river, affects the native organisms and therefore disturb the river ecosystem. Consumption of water and fishes caught from contaminated river leads to various health effects. Swimming in the polluted river causes skin rashes.Rubbish floating in the river makes them to look unpleasant. Pollution of water gives rise to offensive smell. Accumulation of solid wastes causes flooding of rivers. It is important to understand the factors responsible for pollution. Periodical assessment of waterquality of rivers are necessary to maintain river ecosystem and also sustainable development of the country.The main objective of the study is to assess the waterquality of Adyar River. This will help to develop riverwaterquality management policies and prevention of water pollution based on the combined efforts of local government, farmers and students.
• Field parameters (dissolved oxygen concentration, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, salinity and water temperature) were collected only once at each site visit but were reported (duplicated) for each instance where a replicate sample was collected for analysis by the laboratory. In order to not mistake these data for true replicate measurements, UNH removed them from the dataset. Overall, 90 (12 for each parameter) reported values were removed from the dataset.
Table 1 and Table 2 show the relevant chemical properties of the soils sampled from location A ( Parit Ngamarto) and B ( Bekok River). The fresh soil pH throughout the soil profile for both samples except the 45-60 cm and more than 60 cm depth of location A is less than 3.50. The pH became even lower after the soils were air-dried, presumably due to the oxidation of some pyrite still present in the soil (Shamshuddin et al., 2004a). The pyrite oxidation in acid sulfate soils produces high amounts of acidity resulting in further drop of pH value. The highest drop in soil pH after air-drying was in the > 60 cm depth at location A and in 15 – 30 cm depth at location B. The pH drop values were 1.18 and 0.17, respectively. This is consistent with the high amount of water-soluble sulfate in each soil depth with values of 3817.11 mg/kg and 1844.61 mg/kg, respectively. Sulfate is produced when pyrite undergoes oxidation when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions. These results are in agreement with the results obtained by Shamshuddin et al. (2004a). The amount of exchangeable Al throughout the soil profile is very high for both locations A and B. The values ranged from 9.48 cmol c /kg to 14.01 cmol c /kg for location A and 9.79 cmol c /kg to
This study assesses the influence of waterquality on fish occurrences in Sungai Pahang, Maran District, Pahang, Malaysia. Waterquality and fish samplings were conducted at seven sampling sites in the district for 13 consecutive months. We used canonical correspondence analyses ( CCA ) to determine the influence of waterquality on monthly fish species occurrences. The ranges of waterquality parameters were quite high considering the measurements were made during rainy and dry seasons throughout the year. A total of 2,075 individual fish was captured which comprised of 22 different families and 65 species. Family Cyprinidae recorded the highest number of fish species of the area (27 species; 41.5%), followed by Bagridae (five species; 7.69%) and Pangasiidae (five species; 7.69%). Three fish species categorized as endangered, including Balantiocheilos melanopterus, Probarbus jullieni and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were also collected. The collected fish species were divided into three groups (A to C), which was clearly separated in the CCA ordination diagram. The most important waterquality variables for the fish occurrences in this river were pH, followed by temperature, conductivity, alkalinity and phosphate. Data analysis indicates that the occurrence of fishes were influenced by a combination of waterquality parameters, but not associated with sampling month. The results present a new data from a study of fish assemblage and their habitat condition which may be important in fisheries activity and fish conservation of the river in the future.
physicochemical parameters .............................................................................................. 169 Table 6.7: Summary of hierarchical cluster analysis ......................................................... 171 Table 6.8: KMO and Bartlett's Test for chemical parameters ........................................... 172 Table 6.9: Rotated Component Matrix of the principal component analysis of heavy metals loadings in soils of Gebeng industrial area .................................................. 173 Table 7.1: Waterquality measurement at monitoring station along Tunggak River on dry season (March-August) .......................................................................................... 179 Table 7.2: Waterquality measurement at monitoring station along Tunggak River on wet season (September-February) ................................................................................ 179 Table 7.3: Calibrated parameters for the Tunggak River .................................................. 180 Table 7.4: Root mean squared errors (RSME) between the predicted vs. observed values of waterquality parameters .................................................................................... 184 Table 7.5: Results of sensitivity analysis for the data of Tunggak River .......................... 185 Table 7.6: Different waterquality control strategies to protect the waterquality