Top PDF Tillage and Irrigation Requirements of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L ) at Hamelmalo, Anseba Region of Eritrea

Tillage and Irrigation Requirements of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L ) at Hamelmalo, Anseba Region of Eritrea

Tillage and Irrigation Requirements of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L ) at Hamelmalo, Anseba Region of Eritrea

No-till system has been advocated for more than 3 decades as effective option to combat land degradation, increase rainwater conservation and raise yields in semiarid regions like that of Eritrea [12] [20]-[23]. Rock- strom et al. [24] observed that minimum tillage increased water productivity and crop yields due to better water harvesting and improved fertilizer use from applications along the ripped and sub-soiled planting lines. Im- proved field water harvesting through bunding, levelling and mulching under no-till system has also shown to reduce soil erosion, increase biomass production and soil organic matter [2] [25]-[29]. Slower organic matter mineralization in reduced-till than conventional-till systems and consequent nutrient releases was important for resource-constrained farmers of Hamelmalo who suffer most from the consequences of poor soil fertility and soil degradation [3] [30]. Limited field experiments to evaluate tillage requirement of crops to date have been conducted in Eritrea. Ministry of Agriculture initiated research on conservation agriculture in collaboration with FAO [31]. The results were highly encouraging. Another experiment on no-till system with sorghum and groundnut was initiated in 2008 at Hamelmalo Agricultural College in collaboration with Australia. Results sub- stantiated the potential of reduced and no-till systems in resources conservation and raising crop yields. How- ever, as suggested by Giller et al. [30], conservation tillage practices must be evaluated to quantify benefits and role of different competing uses of crop residue and other inputs to raise crop yields and arrest soil degradation under local ecological and socio-economic conditions. Reports also indicated decreased yields with conservation tillage, increased labour requirements when herbicides were not used, increased labour burden to women and lack of mulch due to poor productivity and priority given to feeding of livestock with crop residues [30]. Effort to raise crop yields through optimization of tillage and supplementary irrigation requirements have shown po- tential in resolving many social and soil conservation issues [2] [3].
Show more

12 Read more

Effect of Moisture Conservation Methods and Plant Density on the Productivity of Two Maize (Zea mays L ) Varieties under Semi Arid Tropics of Hamelmalo, Eritrea

Effect of Moisture Conservation Methods and Plant Density on the Productivity of Two Maize (Zea mays L ) Varieties under Semi Arid Tropics of Hamelmalo, Eritrea

Maize ( Zea mays L.), also locally known as efun in Eritrea, ranks third after sorghum and pearl millet among summer food grains and fifth among all food grains after sorghum, pear millet, wheat and barley in both area and production. The productivity of this crop in Africa in general and Eritrea in particular is much lower than its average productivity (4472 kg/ha) in the world. The low productivity of maize in Eritrea is attributed to the lack of quality seeds of high yielding varieties, moisture stress due to low and erratic rainfall, high tempera- ture, low soil fertility, competition by weeds, inappropriate tillage and sowing system, lack of nutrient supplying capacity of the soil and timely non availability of the fertilizer to the farmers [1]. In addition to these, the degraded land with limited soil moisture availability at critical stages of crop growth is other major constraints of low productivity. Among these moisture stresses due to low and erratic rainfall, lack of appropriate methods of soil moisture conservation, lack of adaptable varieties to moisture stress and their optimum population density are the dominant in reducing its average productivity. In Eritrea, maize is pro- duced in very marginal areas like highland and thus the production is not suffi- cient to meet the aggressive demand by the consumers.
Show more

13 Read more

Effect of Puddling and Compaction on Water Requirements of Rice at Hamelmalo, Eritrea

Effect of Puddling and Compaction on Water Requirements of Rice at Hamelmalo, Eritrea

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is among the oldest and widely grown food crops in the world [1]. It is cultivated on about 144 m ha each year and is food for about half the world population [2]. Rice demand in sub-Sahara region is growing at a rate of 6% per annum, but average yields have been stagnant around 1.4 t·ha −1 as against >4 t·ha −1 in Asia and >6 t·ha −1 in China [3]-[5]. Low yields in sub-Sahara are credited to arid to semiarid conditions, but evapotranspiration of rice under different climate and length of growing periods ranges from 450 - 700 mm [6], which is almost equal to sorghum and pearl millet (450 - 650 mm) and lesser than maize (500 - 850 mm), cotton (700 - 1300 mm) and sugarcane (1500 - 2500 mm) grown in some pockets in western Eritrea. Unfortu- nately rice is a semiaquatic plant requiring soil water regime from field capacity to shallow submergence in which considerable water necessarily percolates beyond root zone [7]-[10]. Rice is also cultivated where flood water may be several meters deep and, in the extreme, as an upland cereal [11] [12]. Irrigation intervals ranged from 3 - 8 days for optimum rice yields under limited water supply conditions in different soils and climates [7] [13] [14]. Similarly percolation rates in different soils and management conditions ranged from 1 - 25 mm·d −1 [8] [10]. In Laos, 112-day crop required 1389 mm water, of which 7.3, 2.4 and 2.7 mm·d −1 were percolation, trans- piration and evaporation, respectively [15]. In general rice may require 1000 - 1500 mm water on heavy soils for a short duration variety, 1500 - 2000 mm on medium soils for medium duration variety during monsoon or early spring season and 2000 - 2500 mm on light soils for long duration variety during summer season [16]. Average water requirements of New Rice for Africa (NERICA) under deficit irrigation conditions were about 800 mm for 115 - 120 days crop yielding 2 - 4 t·ha −1 [17] [18].
Show more

11 Read more

ANTIOXIDATIVE RESPONSE IN RABI SORGHUM UNDER MOISTURE STRESS

ANTIOXIDATIVE RESPONSE IN RABI SORGHUM UNDER MOISTURE STRESS

ivated on an area of about 5.90 million ha with the production of 5.39 million tonnes. The productivity of sorghum in India (963 kg ha -1 ) is much less than the (Rakshit et. al., 2014). Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, jarat, Tamilnadu and Madhya Pradesh are the major sorghum growing states.

13 Read more

Effects of reduced and traditional tillage on soil properties and diversity of diatoms under winter wheat

Effects of reduced and traditional tillage on soil properties and diversity of diatoms under winter wheat

of WY in the very dry years 2015 and 2016 showed no sig- nificant differences. Comparison of the results in Tables 1 and 5, shows an interesting relationship between wheat grain yield and the deviation from the long-term average annual rainfall. In 2015, greater wheat grain yield under RT than under TT (Table 5) corresponds with the largest deviation from long-term – annual sum rainfall (279.8 mm, Table 1). In contrast, for the years 2013 and 2014 (smaller wheat grain yields under RT than under TT) correspond with the smallest deviations from the long-term – annual sum rainfall of 56.6 and 107.6 mm, respectively. Arvidsson et al. (2013) reported similar results where crop yields were 3-5% smaller under non-inversion tillage than under tra- ditional tillage and emphasized the importance of weather conditions during the growing season for WY.
Show more

7 Read more

Impact of erosion and tillage on the productivity and quality of selected semiarid soils of Iran

Impact of erosion and tillage on the productivity and quality of selected semiarid soils of Iran

and FC are all lower in the farmland than in the grassland. Higher bulk density (Bd) and calcium carbonate contents occurred in cultivated land than the grasslands. Organic matter content under arable lands tends to be lower than under non-arable lands confirming that erosion and soil degradation are higher in cultivated lands than grassland (Szilassi et al., 2006). The results also indicate that cultivation decreases soil nutrient levels, as has been noted by many authors (Wang et al., 2001). Soil tillage usually induces a reduction in aggregates size (Czy¿ and Dexter, 2008, 2009), which leads to change in pore sizes and their connectivity and, con- sequently, affects soils hydraulic conductivity (Strudley et al., 2008). As it is observed in Table 1, the saturated hydraulic conductivity content is higher in the foot slope regardless of the same amount of clay in up and down slope. In fact, K s de- pends on different factors including clay and sand amount, Bd, pore size, particles size distribution, OM and CCE. Although, some of these factors eg clay content are almost constant in different parts of the slope, the results show that the sand percentage increases from up to foot slope. What is more, the amount of CCE has a decreasing trend from upper part of slope to down slope. So, being higher, K s in the foot slope can be affected by sand and CCE content. Though
Show more

7 Read more

Influence of soil tillage and erosion on the dispersion of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in agricultural soils

Influence of soil tillage and erosion on the dispersion of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in agricultural soils

tainable agricultural systems in South America and USA are fundamentally based on a technological package that combi- nes no-till and glyphosate in the cultivation of maize (Aparicio et al., 2013; Cerdeira and Duke, 2006; Christoffoleti et al., 2008.) The no-tillage system (direct drill) is becoming more and more important also in the Austrian agricultural prac- tice, tending to substitute the plough. This leads to a conside- rable growth of weeds within the NT-plots (about 80-100% of weed cover), which would seriously impede the germi- nation of maize plants; therefore, Roundp Max® is used.
Show more

8 Read more

Effect of Tillage Depth and Pattern on Growth and Yield of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) under Rain-fed

Effect of Tillage Depth and Pattern on Growth and Yield of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) under Rain-fed

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out under rainy season (2010/11),at two locations (Khorelabeid and Kaba) in Sheikan locality, North Kordofan State, Sudan to investigate the effects of the tillage on growth and yield of grain sorghum(Sorghum bicolor L.Moench).The tillage practices treatments consist of no tillage,tillage at depth 15 and 25 cm and two tillage patterns namely:headland and continuous patterns,using chisel plough.Treatments were randomly arranged in a randomized complete block design (RBCD) with three replications. The results showed that tillage treatments had significant effect on most of the parameters measured in this study.In this respect, it was observed that increased tillage depth increased plant height, length of internode.Length of flag leaf, panicle length, number of seeds per panicle,panicle seed weight, grain yield (Kg/ha) and harvest index.The tillage depth of 25cm with head land pattern had the highest number of grains per panicle, panicle grain weight and grain yield (t/ha), while the no tillage treatment had a lesser grain yield and yield ’ s components.
Show more

6 Read more

Rice Production Prospects in Eritrea

Rice Production Prospects in Eritrea

Rice is not cultivated in Eritrea because of its high water requirements and arid to semiarid condi- tions. However, most agricultural watersheds in Eritrea are associated with >80% non-agricul- tural lands, which produce significant runoff that can be diverted for use by rice crop. Experiments were conducted at Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Eritrea, using four NERICA rice varieties viz. N1, N4, N10 and N11 under rainfed (Io) and limited supplementary irrigations (I) in 3 replications. Results showed that plants were taller under limited irrigations than rainfed. Among the 4 varie- ties, N11 was most affected by water stress in which plant height was 0.72 m under rainfed and 0.89 m under limited irrigations. Effective tillers were highest (6) in N11 under limited irrigations and lowest (2) in N10 under rainfed. Panicles were shorter (0.20 m) in N10 and longer (0.23 - 0.24 m) in N1 and N11. Irrigations delayed maturity by 6 - 15 days. Water use by N11 was higher both under limited irrigations (987 mm) and rainfed (477 mm) and lower by N10 under rainfed (457 mm). Root growth in all the varieties was better under irrigations (I) than rainfed (Io). Roots were limited to 0.7 m depth under rainfed (Io) but grew down to 0.8 m in N1, N4 and N11 under limited irrigations (I). Roots in N10 were limited to 0.5 m depth under Io and 0.7 m under I. More than 63% roots in N10 were in 0 - 0.1 m layer under rainfed as against less than 55% under limited irri- gations. In lower layers, roots under Io were more in N4 than others, which is a beneficial trait for better performance under semiarid environments. Roots in N11 were better and uniformly dis- tributed in lower layers under irrigated conditions. Rooting patterns and grain yields showed that N11 was most responsive to irrigations but susceptible to water stress and N4 was best under rainfed followed by N10. N4 was next to N11 under irrigated conditions.
Show more

6 Read more

Genetic Variation among Sorghum  (Sorghum bicolor L  Moench) Landraces from Eritrea under Post Flowering  Drought Stress Conditions

Genetic Variation among Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) Landraces from Eritrea under Post Flowering Drought Stress Conditions

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) grown under rain-fed conditions is usually affected by drought stress at different stages, resulting in reduced yield. The assessment of variation in mor- pho-physiological traits contributing towards drought tolerance at these stages is of vital impor- tance. This study was conducted using a split plot design with three replications to evaluate 25 sorghum accessions at post flowering stage under well watered and drought stress conditions at Hamelmalo Agricultural College. The data of 14 different morpho-physiological traits were sub- jected to analysis of variance, estimation of genetic variability and heritability and principal com- ponent analysis. We analyzed variance for seedling vigor, number of leaves, leaf area, stay-green, peduncle exsertion, panicle length and width, plant height, days to flowering and maturity, grain yield, biomass and harvest index under drought stress and irrigated conditions. The results showed that genotypic differences were significant at P < 0.05 - < 0.001. High magnitude of phe- notypic and genotypic coefficient of variations for plant height, harvest index and biomass as well as high heritability for days to flowering, panicle length, days to maturity and over all agronomic score were recorded. Principal component (PC) analysis showed that the first 4 PCs had Eigen value >1 explaining 74.6% of the total variation with grain yield, biomass, stay-green, leaf area, peduncle exsertion and days to flowering and maturity being the most important characters in PC1 and PC2. This research demonstrated high diversity for the characters studied. Moreover, the result showed that drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes, though others were tole- rant to drought. Accessions EG 885, EG 469, EG 481, EG 849, Hamelmalo, EG 836 and EG 711 were
Show more

15 Read more

Effect of wastewater irrigation of sweet sorghum on soil and plant

Effect of wastewater irrigation of sweet sorghum on soil and plant

The results of soil analysis before planting and at the end of growing season for sweet sorghum irrigated with three water qualities are shown in Table1. Ap- plication of waste waters increased soil pH. It was 7.6 before planning sweet sorghum. At the end of growing season, soil pH decreased to 7.4 and 8.0 using municipal water and waste wasters as irriga- tion sources, respectively. According to FAO water qualitative standard [17], it was lower than the critical limit (8.5) for agriculture application. Soil pH was in- creased by application of waste waters [18]. At the end of growing season, the amount of N, NO 3 , P and
Show more

8 Read more

Effect of Different Manure on Growth and Biochemical Characteristic of Sorghum Vulgare Moench

Effect of Different Manure on Growth and Biochemical Characteristic of Sorghum Vulgare Moench

Organic manure is an excellent fertilizer containing, high level plant growth in the farm yard manure. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and micro-nutrients for healthy growth of plants. used for the biogas plant of FYM. Poultry manure supply macro and elements not contained in the organic manure. Potassium is required in least amount by many crops and it is important for maintain the osmotic potential and rigidity of plant cells; hence it plays a vital role in water relations in the plant.Several workers have reported the use at several organic materials especially cow dunk, poultry dropping refuse and biohumus as soil amendment substrates, suitable for increasing crop production. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the effect of different manures on growth and biochemical characteristics of Sorghum vulgare Moench. Hence, the present study was carried out with the following objectives:
Show more

6 Read more

Vol 42, No 2 (2012)

Vol 42, No 2 (2012)

These results are in agreement with previous findings where tillage practices and various fertilizing treatments significantly affected yield and yield quality (Thiagalingam et al., 1991, Costa et al., 2002, Mundo et al., 2005, Khan et al., 2009). However, long-term studies under different soil, climatic conditions and socio-economic conditions still need to be conducted to substantiate the observations made in the reported study.

6 Read more

Effect of Tillage and Mulch on Growth and Performance of Maize in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Effect of Tillage and Mulch on Growth and Performance of Maize in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

weight of 1000grams and yield (t/ha) were obtained in no- tillage systems. These results are in agreements with that of Videnovil et al., (2011) who observed higher maize yield in conventional tillage plots in comparison with that of the no-tillage plots in comparison with that of the no- tillage plots in the chenozen soil type in Cemunpolje, Serbia. This is particularly due to the fact that no-tillage environments are more likely to exhibit no-uniform germination, emergence and early growth and development which cause great plant to variability for multiple morpho-physiological traits that are associated with yield reduction (Livet al., 2004; Tokattidis et al., 2004)
Show more

8 Read more

Long term rice based cropping system effects on near surface soil compaction

Long term rice based cropping system effects on near surface soil compaction

Irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) production is as- sociated with frequent cycling between anaero- bic and aerobic conditions, which can lead to a greater rate of soil organic matter (SOM) decom- position, thus potentially increasing soil bulk de- nsity (BD) over time. A study was conducted in the Mississippi River Delta region of eastern Ark- ansas, USA to evaluate the long-term effects of rice-based crop rotations, tillage [conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT)], soil fertility re- gime (optimal and sub-optimal), and soil depth (0-10 and 10-20 cm) after 10 years of consistent management on near-surface soil compaction, as measured by BD. Soil BD was greater under NT than CT in the top 10 cm, but was similar between NT and CT in the 10- to 20-cm depth interval. Soil BD differed among common rice- based cropping systems with corn, soybean, and winter wheat, but few consistent trends were evident. It appears that, even after 10 years of continuous CT or NT rice production on a silt- loam soil, substantially increased near-surface soil BD has not occurred to the point where soil compaction would be a likely culprit respon- sible for a reduced early season stand estab- lishment or crop yield differences among rice- based copping systems.
Show more

8 Read more

Seasonal Occurrence of Zooplankons at the Pond of Botataung Pagoda, Botataung Township, Yangon Region, Myanmar

Seasonal Occurrence of Zooplankons at the Pond of Botataung Pagoda, Botataung Township, Yangon Region, Myanmar

Abstract:- The present study conducted on the seasonal occurrence of zooplankton at the pond of Botataung pagoda, Botataung Township, Yangon Region was conducted during June, 2017 to May, 2018. Samples of zooplanktons were taken at five sampling sites around the pond. A total of 20 zooplankton species belonging to 14 genera and eight families. Phylum Rotifera (15species) and Order Cyclopoida (5 species) for all study sites were recorded. The highest number of species was recorded in Site 3 followed by Site 4 and 5. Population densities were highest in wet season at different study sites.
Show more

5 Read more

Long Term Effects of Alternative Residue Management Practices on Soil Water Retention in a Wheat Soybean, Double Crop System in Eastern Arkansas

Long Term Effects of Alternative Residue Management Practices on Soil Water Retention in a Wheat Soybean, Double Crop System in Eastern Arkansas

Increases in SOM have been associated with increased infiltration, greater hydraulic conductivity, and in- creased water retention [5]. Therefore, management practices such as tillage and nitrogen (N) fertilization that may affect the accumulation of SOM may also affect soil water retention characteristics. In a previous study of alternative residue management practice effects on near-surface soil properties in a wheat-soybean, double-crop production system on a silt-loam soil in eastern Arkansas, Amuri et al. [6] reported increasing soil carbon (C) and SOM over time in the top 10 cm across all treatment combinations over the course of six years and seven complete wheat-soybean cropping cycles following conversion to alternative management practices, where trends were likely due to the increase in crop residue returned to the soil as a result of converting from mono- culture soybean to a wheat-soybean double-crop system. Smith et al. [7] reported that the abundance of wa- ter-stable aggregates was significantly affected by tillage, irrigation, and N-fertilization treatments. Nitrogen fer- tilization promotes wheat biomass, which may eventually contribute to an increase in SOM and soil aggregation. Therefore, N fertilization, and other management practices that promote SOM and soil aggregation, may affect the relationship between soil water potential and the soil water content, hence soil water retention. For example, Bowman and Halvorson [8] reported significant increases in soil organic C (SOC), and therefore SOM, in the top 5 cm under increased N-fertilization management. Similarly, SOC and SOM increased at a greater rate under a high (134 kg∙N∙ha −1 ∙yr −1 ) than under low N-rate (<90 kg ∙N∙ha −1 ∙yr −1 ) treatments in a wheat-containing rotation managed consistently for 10 yr near Akron, Colorado [9].
Show more

11 Read more

Shallow storage irrigation for sorghum production in north-west Queensland

Shallow storage irrigation for sorghum production in north-west Queensland

(Gebruder Borntrager: Berlin). Effects of drought on the development and yield of grain sorghum. Streamflow In catchment modelling. In 'Prediction In Catchment Hydrolo[r]

242 Read more

Impact of cover crops and tillage on porosity of podzolic soil

Impact of cover crops and tillage on porosity of podzolic soil

The total porosity of the soil in the years 2010-2011 averaged 39.2% and changed during the vegetation period, with the highest values observed in June and the smallest in April (Table 2). Immediately after winter, before spring cultivation, it averaged 37.7% in the 0-20 cm layer of the soil. Irrespective of the cover crop plant species used, the biomass of cover crops increased the porosity of the arable layer of the soil in April. A significant increase in the total porosity of the soil, compared to the Control, was observed in the case of mustard and phacelia cover crops (38.8%). Similar to the experiments of Kêsik et al. (2007), the bio- mass of rye and vetch did not influence the total porosity of the soil, compared to conventional tillage without cover crops. This insignificant effect of vetch can also be explained by the small volume of biomass left in the field by this cover crop. In the experiments of Mulumba and Lal (2008) the total porosity increased with increase of mulch amount. Among the compared soil cultivation methods, the largest porosity in spring was observed in the case of pre-winter use of stubble grubber cultivator (Gz) (39.3% on average) and the smallest in uncultivated objects (NTz).
Show more

9 Read more

The Effect of Different Irrigation Systems, Discharge, and Irrigation Intervals on Green Onion Growth and Yields

The Effect of Different Irrigation Systems, Discharge, and Irrigation Intervals on Green Onion Growth and Yields

3.5 L / h discharge and the 4 days Irrigation interval got the highest stem length amounted 78.0 cm compared with the interaction between surface drip irrigation system, 2.5 L / h discharge and 8 days irrigation interval which reached 56.0 cm. The reason may be small number of days between irrigation intervals and the retention of soil moisture in the subsurface irrigation system compared to the evaporation of irrigation water from the soil of the surface drip irrigation system. These results are consistent with the results reached by Ati, (2014).
Show more

8 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...

Related subjects