In India and Brazil, respondents told us they were constantly concerned about risks relating to talent retention. Difficulties in retaining key people had a higher risk mitigation than difficulties in recruiting, except in the US—where retaining key people was not mitigated as highly as it was in the other geographies and retention was not mitigated at all. The ‘total cost of the workforce’ risk was regarded as high in Western Europe, but was also noted as number three on this region’s list of top 10 mitigated risks. As in the previous section looking at geographies’ identification of risks, connection and compliance were not generally in the top 10 for mitigation— with only India including a risk from both these categories within its top 10 mitigation risk. When we look further at whether or not countries use the ‘total cost of workforce metric’, there is a significant span across geographies— with almost 80 percent of Indian companies using this metric but less than 50 percent of US companies using it.
While working on a unit of knowledge, the students can be involved in collaborative activities. The class is divided into several groups each working on a subtopic. While the group work is in process, the teacher moves from one group to another to listen and to give assistance when needed. The result of the discussion is presented to the whole class. When one group is presenting the other groups are supposed to pay attention and take notes. Question time is provided after each presentation. This is followed by the teacher’s affirmation or clarification for unclear items. It is usually applied when the students are learning the four syntactic structures: structure of modification, predication, coordination and complementation. Each group will take one type of syntactic structure to discuss and present to the whole class.
The accomplice relays information from an authentic tag remote from the reader to the attacker who is close to the reader, thus the attacker gains the advantage of virtual presence of the tag. The attacker may also modify these communications. The simple radio-relay attack cannot be prevented by purely cryptographic means; countermeasure to this attack is based on limiting the acceptable propagation time between challenge and response. It is common risk to all contactless systems. Limiting the distance over which such a relay can be effective is the subject of distance bounding protocols, relying on the timing accuracy to which a transponder response to a random challenge can be measured [22,23]. In practice low bandwidths and noisy multi-path signal environments make this somewhat more difficult.
The used two pool model (labile and nonlabile P) is an oversimpli ﬁ cation, and many di ﬀ erent adsorbed, precipitated and organic forms are more likely to occur. The separation of the labile pool into weak and strong binding sites has been proposed, nevertheless with the available data this is over parametrization. 23 The majority of the P associated with the soil solid phase is nonlabile during the 24 h of the DGT deployment. 6 In this binary model approach, K d should account for the easily desorbable and readily soluble forms of inorganic P, assuming that no signi ﬁ cant contributions of organic P mineralization would take place in this short period. Although in our study we did not have an accurate estimation of this labile pool, the actual K d can be estimated by regression of a time series of DGT measurements. 24 This analysis would help to elucidate the real resupply potential of the soils and which extractant re ﬂ ects more accurately the absolute values of the labile P forms therein. The estimation of Pi K d using
Every couple like to enjoy their early married life with full pleasure in sexual activities. By nature, the unprotected sexual intercourse may results in the conception. Majority of the couples planned for the pregnancy accordingly. Conception is said to be successful when the zygote penetrates the endometrium and developed in a healthy genome. For the production of healthy genome, a physical, psychological, hormonal, spiritual normalcy of the couple is a need 2 .Also a proper time of sexual intercourse and healthy surrounding are unavoidable. 
To reduce the risk of knowledge loss in many organizations there are programs designed for phased or flexible retirement aiming at retaining older workers in various forms and creating a necessary time for assessing their critical knowledge. That knowledge can be captured and integrated into some knowledge bases, or a good part of it can be transferred to other workers through sharing or mentoring processes. Mentoring is an old process by which knowledge from a more knowledgeable individual is passed progressively toward a less knowledgeable one. It is well-known the mentoring done by Aristotle for the young Alexander. Today, mentoring evolved into coaching, which becomes in business a kind of micromanagement helping small business managers and entrepreneurs to learn and grow in their enterprises. Mentoring is based on the willingness of older or more experienced people to teach younger ones, transferring to them not only cognitive knowledge but also emotional and spiritual knowledge. According to Hatton-Yeo and Telfer (2010, p.6), “A key element that differentiates mentoring from other forms of learning and support is that it is specifically designed to benefit all participants. Research consistently finds that mentors report having benefited as much from the process as those they have been mentoring”.
Highly demanding business environment makes it imperative for the organizations to build competence in the form of superior intellectual capital. It is agreed by almost all CEOs of big companies that it is the human resource - a talented one - that can provide them competitiveness in the long run. So it is the duty of the HR department to nurture a brigade of talented workforce, which can win them the war in the business field. The talent has to be spotted, carefully nurtured and most importantly preserved. As organizations continue to pursue high performance and improved results through TM practices, they are taking a holisticapproach to talent management—from attracting and selecting wisely, to retaining and developing leaders, to placing employees in positions of greatest impact. The mandate is clear: for organizations to succeed in today’s rapidly changing and increasingly competitive marketplace, intense focus must be applied to aligning human capital with corporate strategy and objectives. It starts with recruiting and retaining talented people and continues by sustaining the knowledge and competencies across the entire workforce. With rapidly changing skill sets and job requirements, this becomes an increasingly difficult challenge for organizations. Meeting this organizational supply and demand requires the right “Talent DNA” and supporting technology solutions. By implementing an effective talent management strategy, including integrated data, processes, and analytics, organizations can help ensure that the right people are in the right place at the right time, as well as organizational readiness for the future. Right person for the right job - is the new mantra.
has failed to fully consider the role Corporate Governance can play as part of a multi-faceted approach. The chapter intends to highlight the current issues around two key debates post the Global Financial Crisis. Risk based regulation and arguments of Financial Institutions being ‘Too Big To Fail’, to show that whilst financial regulation does help there are limitations in its effectiveness to mitigate against a culture of short-term gains to the detriment of credit quality and prudence. Within the financial sector risks are a major issue due to the structure of the sector, as the financial system within the UK is dominated by a small number of large, highly leveraged institutions any failures can have significant macroeconomic consequences. Risk based prudential regulation was the main form of regulation used by the FSA during the financial crisis. The chapter attempts to analyse the reasoning and viability of risk based regulation, and in particular systemic risk as a catalyst for cultural reform. Systemic Risk and its relationship to the concept of ‘Too Big To Fail’ has been the fundamental debate following the crisis. What the chapter will show is that whilst regulation can resolve macro prudential issues such as systemic risk, it fails to mitigate against the culture of excessive risk taking. The only way this can be achieved is by taking a holisticapproach to apply corporate governance mechanisms, alongside prudential regulation to drive cultural change within banks and thereby reduce institutional and systemic risk at the same time.
The researcher later came back on a second mission to Sri Lanka, managing the initiation of a capacity development project together with the Road Develop- ment Authority (RDA), for the purpose of strengthening the then over-used ca- pacity for post-disaster reconstruction of bridges. However, this time the focus of the work was put on the inland district of Kurunegala and in Colombo. During both periods in Sri Lanka many housing reconstruction programmes were visit- ed. Most of the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies’ (IFRC) programmes functioned well, providing viable housing to tsu- nami affected families. Other organisations did not however always include an element of more comprehensive analyses to guide their programming, which in several cases resulted in interesting but rather unfortunate outcomes. Two of these ill-planned examples constitute the case studies in Sri Lanka. New and well- constructed houses were erected in both cases, but one of these newly established communities was not equipped with a sewage and waste water system. The cor- rect number of houses was built according to plan, but it would obviously have been insanitary to live there without large additional investments.
The oppositional or social constructivist view regarding student success and failure is an individualist approach to dealing with student risk. It often includes the streaming of at-risk students either into separate school systems (technical colleges or vocational schools for the students “good with their hands”), “separate but equal” courses for students at-risk within an academic school (the Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL) introduced in 2003 is an example of this), selective specialist schools in News South Wales and elite private schools. It is widely described in the literature as the move for more effective schooling reflecting a (re)distributive view of social justice (Gale, 2000; Gale & Densmore, 2000; Mills & Gale, 2002). Education goals are largely academic for the personal edification and individual enrichment of students, achieved by individual advancement and competitive assessment, through hierarchical subject disciplines that especially privilege and benefit society’s elites. Connell (1993) describes the logic of this approach as ‘you don’t try to bring the poor to the same table as the rich because the table itself is not level, and the poor can’t get a fair feed at it’ (Connell, 1993, 51-52). While this often produces more dignified and interesting classrooms (Zyngier, 2005), it does not necessarily raise substantive (and critical) student inquiry that questions the acceptance of official knowledge (Apple, 1996; for students other than the middle class. Connell concludes that ‘at its best, this could produce an educational ethos which built on working-class experience and ideas about learning’ (Connell, 1993, 51).
Ausubel distinguishes between rote learning, where new information is uncritically accumulated in the memory and meaningful learning, where new ideas are analytically evaluated and integrated into what the student already knows (Novak, 2002). Viewed in this way, learn- ing cannot be meaningful if ideas are encountered only one at a time. E. M. Forster said that ‘Only what is seen sideways sinks deep’ (For- ster & Gardner, 1985), and it would seem that tackling multiple cur- riculum areas simultaneously gives students the opportunity to examine familiar and unfamiliar material from various angles, poten- tially leading to new insights. Bell (1993, p. 7) advocates that mathe- matics teaching should be designed so that, ‘the pupils’ main lesson experience should be of genuine and substantial mathematical activi- ties, which bring into play general mathematical strategies such as abstracting, representing, symbolizing, generalizing, proving, and for- mulating new questions’. In a related way, Sfard (1998) contrasts metaphors of acquisition and of participation, the latter being a more active and persistent process involving deeper engagement with subject content and with other people in the learning process. All of this is the very antithesis to a reductive approach.
researcher and the social world influence each other and findings are influenced by values and perspectives ‘thus making it impossible to conduct objective, value free research although the researcher can declare and be transparent about his or her assumptions’ (Snape and Spencer 2003, p. 17). For this thesis, the researcher’s previous experiences of working in a role which involved EL, allowed her to get closer to the participants and create a rapport with them such that they were encouraged to give a richer description of their experiences as holiday representatives' and of the emotions they experienced. Working in hospitality and tourism meant that the researcher of this current study was already aware of how EL occurs from the perspective of the employees and what does its performance entail. This was perhaps one of the reasons why she decided to extend the focus on this research area. She understood what EL meant for the employees and how organisations view this only as a customer service tool. At the same time, the researcher always believed in the crucial importance of employees in the service sector. She has always been an advocate for employees’ rights. These values and the understanding of EL played an important role in the current research as the investigator wanted to get a bigger and a more accurate picture of what it really means in the context of the holiday representatives. In line with the interpretivist epistemology ‘interpretivists recognise that their interpretations of research materials and data, and thus their own values and beliefs, play an important role in the research process’ (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2016, p.141). Therefore, researchers’ personal values are believed to have influenced the data collection/interviewing process only and taken an empathetic approach to interviewing because of the understanding of the researched topic.
Time appeared to significantly affect dentists’ interactions with the patients. All the dentists perceived that the time that is assigned for consultation or treatment (10-15 minutes) within the NHS is insufficient. They explained how it can be difficult to establish a good and trustful relationship with the patients, as this can be time-consuming and may require more than one session. When explicitly asked about applicability of a PCC model they admitted that it can be applied only to limited extent as there is simply not enough time:
1. The pragmatics-based approach, which implies evaluation of different interpretations of the data, has been proven to be relevant for the CE implementation methodology (simultaneity of the processes assessment, and identification of intervention areas for CE implementation has been addressed). It has been proven that the assessment results are interpretation dependent and, therefore, the application of traditional methodologies may lead to failure or serious challenges of projects. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that application of a pragmatics- based approach might significantly improve the potential for the successful implementation of CE, which leads towards validation of the primary research thesis of the relevance of the pragmatics- based approach for CE implementation methodology.
While we acknowledge that talent management can take other forms, our literature review revealed very little on how organizations run talent programmes without deviating from the mainstream approach. Research in the British National Health Service found evidence of a more inclusive approach to talent (Ford, Harding and Stoyanova 2010) and a survey of 900 organizations across five countries found that only 25% included all staff in their talent programmes with the majority focusing on high potential employees, talent pools and senior management succession (Taleo 2009). We are not, therefore, attempting to critique all and every talent programme here, rather to challenge the ethicality of often found elitist and exclusive aspects of talent management and show how CA can critically intervene. Before we look specifically at CA, however, the application of some business ethics frameworks to talent management is considered.
As companies recover from the economic downturn that started in 2007, the fuel for their growth is highly skilled, agile talent. Korn Ferry research shows that companies’ success demands both that they have a sound talent strategy and that it is aligned with their strategic objectives and organizational cultures. (Orr et al 2014). In today’s rapidly shifting environment, enterprises must be able to identify, measure, and predict the effectiveness of current and future talent. Business acumen, especially the ability to create new business models, improves efficiencies, increases profitability, and sustains growth. These also are key attributes for successful leaders in the telecom-comm sector. And agility, the ability to adapt quickly to change, may be more important than technology skills when hiring for digitally maturing organizations (Kane et al. 2014).
Curtailment is an example that serves to illustrate why transforming the energy system is not limited to energy production but requires a holisticapproach that includes production, network, storage, and end-use appliances. Overall, the interplay of various energy vectors and their infrastructure should be optimized in order to secure energy supply while limiting the increase of total energy system costs [12, 15]. We consider this to be critical for the transformation of the energy system. While society increasingly acknowledges the need for action to miti- gate the negative impact of climate change, public choice-based research postulates that individuals pay more attention to their specific economic short-term de- velopment (disposable income, employment, etc.) than to mitigating climate change . Against this back- ground, we use the determined support levels for renew- able gas to derive the indicative additional annual cost (AAC) for gas end-users to enable substituting natural gas by renewable gases. The AAC is calculated as follows (see Table 6 for details about the variables used):
- How to institute a new framework for risk management for pension funds and endowment funds. - What are the key factors to monitor (including data collection, risk reporting and governance). - How to identify and report on the most critical emerging issues and information to oversight boards. - To introduce checklists for practitioners to benchmark the practices of their organizations.
Investment in human capital refers to activities that involve improving the capabilities and competencies of the human capital in organization. In the banking sector, investment in intangible assets relate to investment in banking talent. Talent is defined as individual having the high capabilities and potentials to contribute significantly to organization growth in the future. Thus, talent is seen as a powerful source of growth and profits. In talent management, talent program starts from identifying, recruiting, developing and retaining talented employees of banking sector. A lot of money had been spent on attracting and developing talents in the banking sectors, however, the Malaysian banking industry is, in turn, facing problem of retaining young talented bankers for sustainable growth and profitability. This is due to acute shortage of banking talent and stiff competition within financial services industry locally and abroad.
Main street spine: The main street of the Knowledge city forms the central backbone of the master plan, it acts as a neurological spine that monitors, utilizes and disseminates knowledge throughout the city, while the mixed uses and ground floor retail provide energy and life to the street, developing a rich retail ecosystem, including small independent shops and restaurants that provide employment and expand the number of residents invested in the city. This main spine should also harbor small-scale public spaces from plazas and micro-parks, to street side seating areas in an attempt to integrate local elements, from architectural styles to building materials, to enhance residents’ emotional attachment and commitment to the city, and contribute to ecological and social sustainability. The main street should also have an integrated and rich landscape, with a double width curb free footpath on the sunny side of the street to provide high pedestrian connectivity at the street level and throughout public spaces. Flexible bylaws allowing for temporary uses, such as street fairs, pop-up sales, markets, and other commerce-friendly activities should also be governed in place (Steinberg. 2018). Activating streets helps to orient building facades and commercial activities to encourage more interaction with the public. Both the physical design and regulatory environment in a city can improve public safety. Providing safe, attractive pedestrian and cycling spaces that are not marginalized by car infrastructure encourages residents to spend moretime in the streets and lead to healthy sustainable lifestyles.