Tongue coating refers to the back of tongue body
spread a layer of moss-like, under normal circumstances and run a thin white. Moss-like composition of this very complex, the present study is generally believed that it fell off the tongue by the mucosa keratinized epithelial cells, saliva, bacteria. Food debris and exudation of white blood cells and other components.
A dry black coating (usually with cracks) may indicate excessive Heat burning body fluids. A moist black coating and a pale tongue body may indicate Yang Deficiency, Internal Excess Cold, with or without the presence of Dampness. Both Gray and Black tongue coating can indicate extreme Cold (wet tongue) or extreme Heat (dry tongue).
2. The heart is associated with sweat in fluids
It means that sweat is the fluid of the heart, indicating the close connection between sweat and the heart. Sweat, a fluid excreted from the sweat pore after the activation of yang qi, is discussed in Su Wen (Plain Conversation, 素问) that “yang acting on yin produces sweat.” The secretion of sweat relies on the control of skin striae by defensive qi. If it is open, there will be sweat, and if not, there will be no sweat. Since sweat is transformed from body fluid, which shares the same origin with blood, there is a say- ing that “blood and sweat shares the same origin.” And because blood is controlled by the heart, it is said that “sweat is the fluid of the heart.” 3. The heart is associated with the vessel in body constituents
Figure 2. Appreciative inquiry 4-D process for SabahTCM
Discovery phase in this project was the planning on the project. Data collection and verification were done in this phase. The analysis of existing software was also done to complement the database. Qualitative approach is primarily exploratory research which is used to uncover the trends in thoughts and opinions which dive deeper into the problems . Meanwhile the quantitative approach adopts experimental and computational method. Here, the data of TCM were collected from multiple sources. The sources of the data were the online reference, articles in the magazine, and the printed version of manual books that are published by various organizations. After collecting the data, all the data were referred to the expert, either the Herbalist, Traditional Chinese Pharmacist, Traditional Chinese Physician, or those who have experiences and skills in using the TCM. The way to validate the data was through questionnaires and interviews. For the dream phase, the flows of the system were the outcome. The storyboard and all the diagrams were done here. For the design phase in this project, the user interface showed the results, the data was integrated into the database, while multiple version of languages was added into the system. In addition, a forum was developed. For the destiny phase in this project, the evaluation was taken. The methodology of the evaluation was using the meCUE questionnaire which was to evaluate the key aspects of the user’s experience.
Saliva samples were collected from 9:00 – 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 – 4:00 p.m., respectively. After rinsing the mouth with clean water, the subjects sat quietly for 3 minutes keeping the saliva in their mouth naturally, and then spat the saliva into a vial (non-irritant saliva) per minute. Saliva was collected for 10 minutes and the SFR was cal- culated (shown in 4.2.1). If the total amount of saliva over 10 minutes was less than 3 mL, the collection dur- ation was prolonged until 3 mL of saliva had been col- lected, and the total time was recorded for calculation of the SFR. The collected samples were stored at − 20°C until analysis.
Clinical practice is based on the idea that pathology follows etiology, and therapeutics follows pathology. If we can differentiate etiology in substance abuse, then we imply that there must be resulting differences in pathology, and that even a patient population as superficially homogene- ous on first observation as a substance abusing population should benefit from differentiation in therapeutics. Current clinical practice in the acupuncture detoxification field is heavily based on the use of the same or nearly same protocol for most or all patients presenting to a clinic for treatment of substance abuse related symptomatology. This protocol, consisting of the auricular points Shenmen, Sympathetic, Liver, Kidney and Lung 2 (the lower auricular Lung point) is designed to calm the shen, treat the Liver and Kidney, and treat the vagus nerve (via Lung 2). This is an important point prescription for three reasons. First, the point pre-
Figure 2 illustrates the data in Table 10, where the x- axis represents the 63 symptoms and the y-axis repre- sents the 10 syndromes. Red rectangles represent high RAD values, and the blue ones represent low RAD values. From Figure 2, the correlations between symp- toms and syndromes were determined. As shown in Fig- ure 2, the symptoms of palpitation, chest distress, short breath, weakness, soreness, and weakness of waist and knees were related to most of the syndromes. At the same time, chills and some other symptoms showed strong connections to some syndromes, such as heart- kidney yang deficiency and yang asthenia. Table 11 lists the symptoms and syndromes with high and low RAD values. In Table 11, chills showed a low relation to most of the syndromes except for heart-yang insufficiency and heart-kidney yang deficiency, indicating that chills were closely related to the latter syndromes. CM theory [12,13] holds that weakness of yang and qi and lack of warmth may cause chills. The high RAD values of night sweats to insufficiency of heart-yin did confirm the CM theory that yang cannot be restricted by yin asthenia, and then deficiency fire will be an internal disturbance and cause night sweats [12,13]. Constipation and insuffi- ciency of heart blood showed a strong connection. Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor points out that “people over 40 years old may lose half of the yin qi “ , and CM theory [12,13] holds that insufficiency of the heart blood causes body fluid deficiency, which in turn causes insufficient lubrication of the colon, leading to constipation. The strong connections between nocturnal frequent micturi- tion and heart-kidney yang deficiency can be explained by the lack of yang in the heart and kidney which resulted in a decrease of the controlling and qi transfor- mation functions, bladder retention failure, and then nocturnal frequent micturition.
10. Sanjiao Channel of the Hand-Shaoyang
The sanjiao channel of the Hand-Shaoyang originates from the tip of the ring finger (Guanchong, S.J. 1) (1). It travels upward between the fourth and fifth metacarpal bones and along the dorsal side of the wrist and the lateral side of the forearm be- tween the radius and ulna, it passes through the olecranon (2). Then it runs along the lateral aspect of the upper arm and reaches the shoulder region (3) where it travels across and behind the gall bladder channel of the Foot-Shaoyang. Crossing over the shoulder, it enters the supraclavicular fossa (4) and spreads in the chest to connect with the pericardium (5). It then proceeds through the diaphragm (6) down the abdomen, and communi- cates with the upper, middle, and lower jiao forming a part of the sanjiao channel system.
The basic assumptions of the Yin-Yang theory are: 1) Opposition of the yin and yang- everything in nature has two opposing aspects known as yin and yang that control each other; 2) Interdependency of yin and yang- neither concept can exist in isolation; 3) The inter- consuming-supporting relationship of yin and yang; 4) The inter-transforming relationship of yin and yang- ”inter-consuming-supporting relationship is a process of quantitative change,…the inter-transformation of yin and yang is a process of qualitative change”; 5) Infinite divisibility of yin and yang- “there are relative degrees of both yin and yang, as each can amplified into three subdivisions: Greater Yin (Taiyin), Lesser Yin (Shaoyin), Declining Yin (Jueyin), and respectively Greater Yang (Taiyang), Extreme Yang (Yangming), and Scanty Yang (Shaoyang). [11, 14]
The MPP Group notes that in the United States of America, the U.S. Department of Education recognizes the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine2 (ACAOM) as the accrediting agency for acupuncture and TCM programs. This organization was frequently mentioned in presentations to the MPP Group. In reviewing the ACAOM January 2005 handbook, the MPP Group notes that accredited educational institutions must offer a minimum of 1905 hours of training for acupuncturists and 2625 hours for TCM practitioners with additional certificates as appropriate. In addition to length, the training must include a clinical component as well as a method to demonstrate its students have obtained professional competence. Also, distance training is prohibited and entry into TCM programs require applicants to have 900 hours of baccalaureate-level preparatory work at an accredited educational institution as a pre-requisite for entry. The MPP Group also heard that not all states recognize ACAOM-accredited schools, including those with well-established regulatory systems for TCM and acupuncture. Accreditation of TCM educational institutions in some U.S. states is more stringent than the ACAOM. In particular, California, the state most often mentioned by participants, requires educational institutions to have degree-granting authority and a program of 3000 hours in addition to an entry requirement of 900 hours of baccalaureate-level preparatory work at an accredited educational institution. Successful completion of a written examination of professional competencies, such as patient assessment, provision of acupuncture treatment, herbal treatments, and knowledge of public health and safety, is required prior to licensing. The examination is rigorous, with the most recent examination in January 2005 having a success rate of fewer than 50 per cent 3 .
The required functions can be modelled into three distinct subsystems: registration subsystem, search subsystem and edit subsystem. A TCM-RIS database is designed to maintain all the relevant TCM information. The three subsystems communicate with the database to perform various functions. Figure 2 illustrates a simplified functional framework of the TCM-RIS system. Each function in the system model is further developed into ASP modules [12,13]. The TCM database consists of various tables and SQL statements which update and synchronize the tables periodically.
The treatment approach here is quite different to the strongtype, because strong bloodstagnationremoving herbs can be too strong; these types of patients require gentle bloodnourishing herbs to enhance the flow of blood, balanced by herbs to ensure that the digestion works well enough to 1) absorb the herbs themselves, and 2) begin to restore blood supply through properlydigested food. If the digestion is judged too weak for decocted herbs, pills may be used initially to build its strength.
Anatomically speaking, the liver is part of the digestive system. The liver performs over 500 different functions and plays a part in almost all the bodily functions. The liver is also responsible for such complicated and important biochemical reactions as synthesis, division, transformation and storage of protein, sugars (carbohydrates), fatty acids, vitamins, and hormones. It can also degrade various toxins that enter the body that may otherwise be harmful. For this reason, it is often nicknamed the body’s “chemical factory”. The liver is essential since it is responsible for many of the processes that the body needs to survive. There is currently no way to compensate for the long term absence of liver function, althoug commonly seen in the individuals of modern society. As such, liver diseases are equally common and not only pose a very significant health risk but also represent a large part of those who are ill. There are over 100 known forms of liver disease that affect individuals of all ages. In Canada, 1 in every 10 people suffers from some form of liver or biliary tract disease. (Cirrhosis of the Liver, 2007) 1 Any liver disease left untreated has the potential to result in cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). Each year, over 1000 Canadians die from liver cirrhosis. (Cirrhosis of the Liver, 2007) 1 Hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D and E can cause acute and chronic infection and inflammation of the liver leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. These viruses constitute a major global health risk. About 2 billion people around the world have been infected with the Hepatitis B virus. Among those that have been infected, approximately 350 million people have become chronically infected. Around 170 million people have become chronically infected with hepatitis C. An estimated 600,000 people die each year due to acute and chronic hepatitis B infection and more than 350 000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases each year. 2 In order to overcome the continued spread of liver diseases, prevention of the disease beforehand is a better, more effective course of action than treatment after the fact. In addition to a proactive approach such as an annual blood test to assess the condition of the liver, a liver-supportive and chemical-free diet is essential to keep this vital organ strong and healthy. Traditional ChineseMedicine (TCM) has had significant success in the treatment as
themselves. External Qigong is performed by "Qigong masters" who claim to cure a wide variety of diseases with energy released from their fingertips. However, scientific investigators of Qigong masters in China have found no evidence of paranormal powers and some evidence of deception. They found, for example, that a patient lying on a table about eight feet from a Qigong master moved rhythmically or thrashed about as the master moved his hands. But when she was placed so that she could no longer see him, her movements were unrelated to his . Falun gong , which China recently banned, is a Qigong varient claimed to be "a powerful mechanism for healing, stress relief and health improvements."
The TCMeSH thesaurus has a tree structure similar to that of the MeSH thesaurus, and the two systems are highly compatible, facilitating the insertion of TCMeSH terms into the MeSH thesaurus for collaborative work. There is already a linking system, named Chinese MeSH (CMeSH), which includes a Chinese translation of the MeSH thesaurus that also incorporates the TCMeSH thesaurus. The CMeSH thesaurus was developed by the Institute of Medical Information, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and supports the indexing and searching of some of the very large Chinese biomedical databases, such as SinoMed 9 and the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System. 10 However, the CMeSH thesaurus is not included in the Chinese Medical Current Contents, China National Knowledge InfrastructureDatabase, China Science and Technology Journal Database, and Wanfang Database, which are also important sources of Chinese literature (Table 2). 11
The histogram features that we will consider are statis- tics based features. The extracting scheme is described as follows: 1) Lip images have been segmented from face images. It can determine the export lip area by removing the background. We can easily distinguish between the background and the lips because their colors are very different. When the background is white, which has the saturation value of 0.0, we can judge the value. In our experiment, a pixel is determined to be in the exit lip re- gion if its saturation value is larger than 0.1. 2) To covert RGB representation of image to HIS, YcbCr, YIQ repre- sentation using different methods in image processing , we transform the Hue value from 0 to 360 degrees into interval from 0 to 1, to make the values in its com- ponents of HSI color space falling into range from 0 to 1. 3) The mean and variance of R, G, B, H, I, S, Y, Cb,
A middle-aged male patient suffered from insomnia, fatigue, coughing with yellow purulent sputum and hoarseness. The physician prescribed four doses of Xiăo Qīng Lóng Tāng (小青龙汤, “Minor Green Dragon Decoction”). After taking the prescribed decoction, the patient experienced blood-stained sputum, which was aggravated after a couple of days, along with bleeding from the mouth. The bleeding stopped after a while but recurred dozens of times. The pulse was wiry, big, scattering and weak, especially in the chi region of the right hand. Since overexertion and contraction of cold mainly contributed to this patient’s condition, formulas containing pungent, sweet and dry-heat medicinals might cause bleeding or even subsequent lung atrophy. The physician then prescribed a formula containing rén shēn (人参, Radix et
Influenced by the idea of natural philosophy and cogni- tive theory of “analogy based classification” and “deduc- tive reasoning”, the basic theory of TCM has natural phi- losophy neuclear under a transcendental robe. The five zang-organs theory is an example in that it includes char- acters of intangibility, formality and ideality. For exam- ple, brain is the most important organ, however, it is incl- uded among the “the oddly Fu organs”. Pancreas and testicles are not even listed in zang-organ system at all. The tongue is supplemented to eyes, ears, mouth, and nose to be the five orifices. The long summer is fabrica- ted to cater the five seasons. The five elements theory is the promodial model to promulgate the “natural law” for zang-organs. The formation of zangfu-organs theory is a process that changes the big notes of general proposition into small coins . This kind of exchange could be fini- shed overnight and the result theory could neither be verified nor be it falsifiable. Therefore, although the the- ory of five elements occupies a lot of space in the text- book, nearly no progression was made over thousands of years . So, some new knowledge, such as crosstalks between signal transduction network, had better to fuse into holism idea of TCM and make it progress with the advance of live science.
Admission Requirements: In addition to the general requirements of the Graduate School 1 , applicants should be:
1. Medical Graduates from an approved programme or university; or
2. Non-medical Graduates with a health care related degree. (i.e. Allied Health Professional Degree programmes, or streams related to Allied Health Professional Training (e.g. Biomedical Engineering with Prosthetic & Orthotic major), Nursing, ChineseMedicine, Podiatry or Dietetics etc.) will be considered on an individual basis; or
and 9 females). The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 38.6 ± 10.7 years (range, 23–58 years), 38.8 ± 16.6 years (range, 20–65 years), and 30.0 ± 18.5 years (range, 9–78 years), respectively. All patients derived from 9 unrelated MEN 2 families and harbored 1 of 6 heterozygous mis- sense mutations; 7 families had MEN2A (p.C634Y [n = 3], p.C634R [n = 2], p.C634F [n = 1], p.C618R [n = 1]), 1 family had FMTC (p.C618Y [n = 1]), and 1 family had MEN2B (p.M918T [n = 1]). Of the 33 MEN2 patients, 32 (97%) were diagnosed with MTC (31) or C-cell hyperpla- sia (1) and 8 (33.3%) were diagnosed with PHEO (Table 1 and Figure 1). None of the 33 MEN2 patients had con- sistently evidence of any co-occurring related MEN2 clin- ical symptoms (pruritic cutaneous lichen amyloidosis or Hirschsprung’s disease), or HPT (serum PTH, Calcium or PTH/calcium rates, and serum phosphate levels ranged in all normal), except one MEN2B patient (F9-II3) had a broad spectrum of pathognomonic nonendocrine abnor- malities: a Marfanoid body habitus, tongue mucosal neur- omas, lips hypertrophy and CNT.