Top PDF Trade-offs between Economic Benefits and Ecosystem Services Value under Three Cropland Protection Scenarios

Trade-offs between Economic Benefits and Ecosystem Services Value under Three Cropland Protection Scenarios

Trade-offs between Economic Benefits and Ecosystem Services Value under Three Cropland Protection Scenarios

Abstract: Over the past few decades urbanization and population growth have been the main trend all over the world, which brings the increase of economic benefits (EB) and the decrease of cropland. Cropland protection policies play an important role in the urbanization progress. In this study, we assess the trade-offs between EB and ecosystem services value (ESV) under three cropland protection policy scenarios using the LAND System Cellular Automata for Potential Effects (LANDSCAPE) model. The empirical results reveal that trade-offs between EB and ESV in urbanizing areas are dynamic, and that they considerably vary under different cropland protection policy scenarios. Especially, the results identify certain “turning points” for each policy scenario at which a small to moderate growth in EB would result in greater ESV losses. Among the three scenarios, we found that the cropland protection policy has the most adverse effect on trade-offs between EB and ESV and the results in the business as usual scenario have the least effect on the trade-offs. Furthermore, the results show that a strict balance between requisition and compensation of cropland is an inappropriate policy option in areas where built-up areas are increasing rapidly from the perspective of mitigating conflict between EB and ESV and the numbers of cropland protection that restrained by land use planning policy of Wuhan is a better choice.
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Trade-Offs between Economic Benefits and Ecosystem Services Value under Three Cropland Protection Scenarios for Wuhan City in China

Trade-Offs between Economic Benefits and Ecosystem Services Value under Three Cropland Protection Scenarios for Wuhan City in China

Abstract: Over the past few decades urbanization and population growth have been the main trend all over the world, which brings the increase of economic benefits (EB) and the decrease of cropland. Cropland protection policies play an important role in the urbanization progress. In this study, we assess the trade-offs between EB and ecosystem services value (ESV) under three cropland protection policy scenarios using the LAND System Cellular Automata for Potential Effects (LANDSCAPE) model. The empirical results reveal that trade-offs between EB and ESV in urbanizing areas are dynamic, and that they considerably vary under different cropland protection policy scenarios. Especially, the results identify certain “turning points” for each policy scenario at which a small to moderate growth in EB would result in greater ESV losses. Among the three scenarios, we found that the cropland protection policy has the most adverse effect on trade-offs between EB and ESV and the results in the business as usual scenario have the least effect on the trade-offs. Furthermore, the results show that a strict balance between requisition and compensation of cropland is an inappropriate policy option in areas where built-up areas are increasing rapidly from the perspective of mitigating conflict between EB and ESV and the numbers of cropland protection that restrained by land use planning policy of Wuhan is a better choice.
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Capturing Ecosystem Services, Stakeholders' Preferences and Trade-Offs in Coastal Aquaculture Decisions : A Bayesian Belief Network Application

Capturing Ecosystem Services, Stakeholders' Preferences and Trade-Offs in Coastal Aquaculture Decisions : A Bayesian Belief Network Application

Aquaculture activities are embedded in complex social-ecological systems. However, aquaculture development decisions have tended to be driven by revenue generation, failing to account for interactions with the environment and the full value of the benefits derived from services provided by local ecosystems. Trade-offs resulting from changes in ecosystem services provision and associated impacts on livelihoods are also often overlooked. This paper proposes an innovative application of Bayesian belief networks - influence diagrams - as a decision support system for mediating trade-offs arising from the development of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Senior experts were consulted (n = 12) and primary farm data on the economics of shrimp farming (n = 20) were collected alongside secondary information on ecosystem services, in order to construct and populate the network. Trade-offs were quantitatively assessed through the generation of a probabilistic impact matrix. This matrix captures nonlinearity and uncertainty and describes the relative performance and impacts of shrimp farming management scenarios on local livelihoods. It also incorporates export revenues and provision and value of ecosystem services such as coastal protection and biodiversity. This research shows that Bayesian belief modeling can support complex decision-making on pathways for sustainable coastal aquaculture development and thus contributes to the debate on the role of aquaculture in social-ecological resilience and economic development.
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The future of ecosystem services: Global and national scenarios.

The future of ecosystem services: Global and national scenarios.

The Policy Reform scenario envisions the emergence of strong political will for taking harmonised and rapid action to ensure a successful transition to a more equitable and environmentally resilient future. Rather than a projection into the future, the PR scenario is a normative scenario constructed as a backcast from the future. It is designed to achieve a set of future sustainability goals. The analytical task is to identify plausible development pathways for reaching that end-point. Thus, the PR scenario explores the requirements for simultaneously achieving social and environmental sustainability goals under high economic growth conditions similar to those of Market Forces.
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The Economic, Social and Ecological Value of Ecosystem Services: A Literature Review

The Economic, Social and Ecological Value of Ecosystem Services: A Literature Review

1.1 What are ecosystem goods and services? Ecosystems and the biological diversity contained within them provide a stream of goods and services, the continued delivery of which remains essential to our economic prosperity and other aspects of our welfare. In a broad sense, ecosystem services refer to the range of conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that they contain, help sustain and fulfil human life (Daily, 1997). These services regulate the production of ecosystem goods, the natural products harvested or used by humans such as wild fruit and nuts, forage, timber, game, natural fibres, medicines and so on. More importantly, particularly for those in less developed economies, ecosystem services support life by regulating essential processes, such as purification of air and water, pollination of crops, nutrient cycling, decomposition of wastes, and generation and renewal of soils, as well as by moderating environmental conditions by stabilising climate, reducing the risk of extreme weather events, mitigating droughts and floods, and protecting soils from erosion.
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Drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

Drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

Meyfroidt, Patrick ; Schierhorn, Florian ; Prishchepov, Alexander V ; Müller, Daniel ; Kuemmerle, Tobias Abstract Further cropland expansion might be unavoidable to satisfy the growing demand for land-based products and ecosystem services. A crucial issue is thus to assess the trade-offs between social and ecological impacts and the benefits of converting additional land to cropland. In the former Soviet Union countries, where the transition from state-command to market-driven economies resulted in widespread agricultural land abandonment, cropland expansion may incur relatively low costs, especially compared with tropical regions. Our objectives were to quantify the drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland to assess the potentially available cropland in European Russia, western Siberia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan—the region where the vast majority of post-Soviet cropland abandonment took place. Using spatial panel regressions, we characterized the socio-economic determinants of cropland abandonment and recultivation. We then used recent maps of changes ...
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Trade-offs between growth, storage and defense in plants under carbon limitation

Trade-offs between growth, storage and defense in plants under carbon limitation

Whether and to what extent the build-up of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) storage pools and secondary metabolites (SM) occur at the expense of growth is poorly understood but of critical importance for understanding and predicting how plants respond to changing environmental conditions. The carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (CNBH, Bryant et al., 1983) and growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH, Herms & Mattson, 1992) both suggest that any moderate stress that limits growth more than photosynthesis may result in accumulation of NSC and SM, assuming that growth receives carbon allocation priority over growth and SM. Empirical evidence supporting this view has until now been very limited. By changing carbon availability and then assessing carbon allocation into functional fluxes (respiration and volatile monoterpenes) and biomass partitioning (total biomass, NSC and SM as well as phytohormonal changes, my thesis provides new insights into allocation trade-offs and their underlying mechanisms.
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Trade-offs in the value capture of architectural firms

Trade-offs in the value capture of architectural firms

VALUE DIMENSIONS VALUE CAPTURE GOALS EXAMPLES OF VALUE GIVEN BY ARCHITECT RESPONDENTS Professional value Reputation Prestige : ‘The big advantage is that you have prestige in the market [r]

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When we cannot have it all: Ecosystem services trade-offs in the context of spatial planning

When we cannot have it all: Ecosystem services trade-offs in the context of spatial planning

The components of the proposed analytical trade-off framework (Fig. 1) can be considered as a useful checklist to start to assess real-world ES trade-offs. It can help to identify crucial aspects to analyse and address the trade-off, and can provide clues on how to manage and solve ES-trade-offs. However, in many cases, it is likely that more in-depth analysis of one of the components will be required, demanding more social, ecological and/or economic research. Social aspects that are not specifically addressed with the framework, but which could provide useful insights for a trade-off analysis, include: stakeholders’ perceptions, attitudes and values (Iniesta-Arandia et al. 2014), social capital as a factor to address ES trade-offs (Barnes-Mauthe et al. 2016), stakeholder relationships (Berbés-Blázquez et al 2016, Cáceres et al 2016), ecosystem services co-production (Palomo et al., 2016), inequality in relation to access to resources and information, institutions and political economy. From the economic perspective, it can be useful to dig deeper into the notion of ‘opportunity cost’ and land-use as a driver of land-use change and trade-offs (Quintas-Soriano et al. 2016). Many trade-offs ultimately stem from biophysical limits in the capacity to provide the diversity or quantity of ES. To achieve comprehensive problem solving, it is therefore also important to link with the supply side of the trade-offs: e.g. supply-demand ES analysis (Mouchet et al. 2014, Baró et al. 2015), ES supply compatibilities, viable stocks, sustainable use levels, and impacts on biodiversity (Rusch et al. 2017). Finally, trade-offs can also have biophysical and socio-economic impacts outside the focussed socio-ecological system. For assessing such effects, the teleconnection and telecoupling concepts are useful analytical frames (Othoniel et al. 2016).
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The Trade-off Between Unemployment Benefits and Employment Protection

The Trade-off Between Unemployment Benefits and Employment Protection

protection. Both EPL and UB protect workers against uninsurable labor market risk. When severance payments and notice periods in case of dismissals are chosen optimally to maximize welfare of risk-adverse agents, then there is no role for unemployment in- surance (Pissarides, 2001). These two institutions have also important design features in common. An experience-rated unemployment insurance scheme involves the same type (and possibly the same amount) of transfers from the employer to the employee than a severance pay or a statutory notice period in the event of a dismissal. The only difference is that in this case EPL would be paid in one installment, while UBs are generally provided throughout the unemployment spell, at least up to a maximum duration. The reform of the French unemployment benefit system recently advocated by Blanchard and Tirole (2003) exploits this substitutability between EPL and UBs: it involves an increase in the degree of experience-rating of the UB system, which confines EPL to a one-off monetary compensation for the job loss.
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Agriculture Expansion in Franklin County Massachusetts: Analysis of Trade-Off Scenarios Between Agriculture Production and Ecosystem Services

Agriculture Expansion in Franklin County Massachusetts: Analysis of Trade-Off Scenarios Between Agriculture Production and Ecosystem Services

Estimating the social cost from additional nutrient runoff from non-point sources requires a complex analysis that is beyond the scope of this project. Several variables needed to calculate the social costs estimates were not available at the time of this analysis, including the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the 5 watersheds included in this study. I also did not take into account the specific WWT capacity and associated costs from improving these estimates. I would also have had to develop a far more comprehensive model capable of replicating the impacts of biological processes affecting nutrient cycling. The InVEST Nutrient Retention model 3.1.1 used in this study is not capable of estimating these complexities. For these reasons we chose to adopt the Chesapeake Bay estimates because they reflect a landscape with a heavy agriculture footprint and its correlated nutrient export and the costs to society. The costs of nutrient export in this analysis are not intended be accurate appraisals for Franklin County, but rather a relative comparison of the social costs from forgone ecosystem services.
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Using optimal land-use scenarios to assess trade-offs between conservation, development, and social values

Using optimal land-use scenarios to assess trade-offs between conservation, development, and social values

Development of land resources can contribute to increased economic productivity but can also negatively affect the extent and condition of native vegetation, jeopardize the persis- tence of native species, reduce water quality, and erode ecosystem services. Spatial plan- ning must therefore balance outcomes for conservation, development, and social goals. One approach to evaluating these trade-offs is scenario planning. In this paper we demon- strate methods for incorporating stakeholder preferences into scenario planning through both defining scenario objectives and evaluating the scenarios that emerge. In this way, we aim to develop spatial plans capable of informing actual land-use decisions. We used a novel approach to scenario planning that couples optimal land-use design and social evalu- ation of environmental outcomes. Four land-use scenarios combined differences in total clearing levels (10% and 20%) in our study region, the Daly Catchment Australia, with the presence or absence of spatial precincts to concentrate irrigated agriculture. We used the systematic conservation planning tool Marxan with Zones to optimally plan for multiple land- uses that met objectives for both conservation and development. We assessed the perfor- mance of the scenarios in terms of the number of objectives met and the degree to which existing land-use policies were compromised (e.g., whether clearing limits in existing guide- lines were exceeded or not). We also assessed the land-use scenarios using expected stakeholder satisfaction with changes in the catchment to explore how the scenarios per- formed against social preferences. There were a small fraction of conservation objectives with high conservation targets (100%) that could not be met due to current land uses; all other conservation and development objectives were met in all scenarios. Most scenarios adhered to the existing clearing guidelines with only marginal exceedances of limits, indicat- ing that the scenario objectives were compatible with existing policy. We found that two key stakeholder groups, agricultural and Indigenous residents, had divergent satisfaction levels with the amount of clearing and agricultural development. Based on the range of benefits and potential adverse impacts of each scenario, we suggest that the 10% clearing scenar- ios are most aligned with stakeholder preferences and best balance preferences across a11111
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Environmental, Economic and Social Trade-offs

Environmental, Economic and Social Trade-offs

environmental, social and economic aspects. Thus, future-oriented management means: We have to leave our children and grandchildren an intact ecological, social and economic system. The one cannot be achieved without the other!“ (German Council for Sustainable Development 2010).

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HESS Opinions: Socio economic and ecological trade offs of flood management – benefits of a transdisciplinary approach

HESS Opinions: Socio economic and ecological trade offs of flood management – benefits of a transdisciplinary approach

among politicians, yet they can have great benefits to the ma- jority of people. Alternatively, levees can be set back from the rivers, creating linear floodplains that support wetlands and backwater aquatic habitats. On a larger scale, restored floodplains can be created in large areas that not only would contain floodwaters, providing relief for downstream levee systems but also would be farmed when not flooded (most years); these farmed floodplains would mainly feature pas- ture and annual crops such as rice and other cereals (Suddeth Grimm and Lund, 2016). Farmed floodplains can also serve as a seasonal habitat for waterfowl and migratory fishes (Op- perman et al., 2017). Such actions, referred to as green in- frastructure, can have major benefits not only for people but also for the natural world, as diverse managed floodplains be- come integrated into flood management systems. However, green infrastructure options can typically only be realized along floodplains that are not yet heavily urbanized. Thus, following the precautionary principle, conservation of the few remaining intact floodplain systems should have greatest priority. The more a floodplain system has been degraded, the more important it becomes to prioritize conservation of the few remaining functionally intact patches. Pristine river floodplains are highly dynamic landscapes, and their biota are adapted per se to a certain degree of ecological distur- bance. This makes river floodplains relatively easy to re- store – at least in temperate regions – despite the enormous costs that these restoration measures create through the de- construction of fixed channels, levees and dams.
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Management trade‐offs on ecosystem services in apple orchards across Europe: Direct and indirect effects of organic production

Management trade‐offs on ecosystem services in apple orchards across Europe: Direct and indirect effects of organic production

One basic trade- off between ecosystem services and agricul- ture emerges when management that aims to increase crop yield by stimulating plant growth (e.g., by adding nutrients and water, or by removing competing weeds) also indirectly reduce production by affecting the ecosystem services of pest control and pollination (Power, 2010). Trade- offs also occur in management aimed to af- fect diversity- related services or disservices (positive and negative effects from biodiversity, respectively), when actions to promote beneficial arthropods also benefit pest species, or when actions to reduce pest species also negatively affect beneficial species (Saunders, Peisley, Rader, & Luck, 2016; Tscharntke et al., 2016). For instance, several studies suggest that flower strips, which are commonly planted to benefit pollinators and natural enemies (Lichtenberg et al., 2017; Wratten, Gillespie, Decourtye, Mader, & Desneux, 2012), may not only affect the potential for pest control but also pest densities and crop damage (Tscharntke et al., 2016). Other studies suggest that flower strips to enhance natural ene- mies are most efficient when placed inside orchards (Saunders & Luck, 2018), but these strips may then compete with apple trees for nutrients and water (Granatstein & Sánchez, 2009). Similarly, pesti- cides may negatively affect natural enemies and pollinators, leading to reduced biocontrol (Dib et al., 2016; Fountain & Harris, 2015) and pollination services (Pisa et al., 2015; Stanley et al., 2015). Because apple production is often limited by pest damage and pol- lination, alternative pest control measures without negative effects on natural enemies and pollinators are preferable. Natural enemies and pollinators are generally promoted by retaining sheltering hab- itats within or next to the production areas or by providing nectar and pollen resources in the form of planted or conserved flowering plants present in alleyways, margins, and hedgerows (Campbell, Wilby, Sutton, & Wackers, 2017; Miñarro & Prida, 2013).
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Introduction: The Dynamics and Value of Ecosystem Services: Integrating Economic and Ecological Perspectives

Introduction: The Dynamics and Value of Ecosystem Services: Integrating Economic and Ecological Perspectives

Sutton and Costanza (this volume) estimated both marketed (GNP) and non-marketed (ecosys- tem service) production values at 1-km resolution globally (correcting for the scale effects found by Konarska et al. (this volume). These unique high resolution global maps are then summed to provide a subtotal of economic production (SEP) and the spatial distribution of this index is ana- lyzed. Maps of SEP per capita and the percent of SEP from ecosystem services production (%ESP) by country are also developed, and they reveal some interesting patterns. SEP is a closer approx- imation to the true wealth of nations than GNP alone, and the rankings of national wealth using this index are significantly different. The %ESP index is also compared with the 2001 Environ- mental Sustainability Index (not correlated) and the Ecological Deficit derived from ecological footprint analyses (correlated) and the relative
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Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive

Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive

The major objective of our analyses was to assess how species range shifts and variation in species richness due to climate change could produce changes in the provi- s[r]

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Links and trade-offs between fisheries and environmental protection in relation to the sustainable development goals in Thailand

Links and trade-offs between fisheries and environmental protection in relation to the sustainable development goals in Thailand

* Correspondence: Tiptiwa.Sampantamit@UGent.be; Tel.: +32-484175881 Received: 8 December 2019; Accepted: 27 January 2020; Published: 2 February 2020    Abstract: The fisheries sector significantly contributes to global food security, nutrition, and livelihood of people. Its importance for economic benefits, healthy diets, and nutrition, and achieving sustainable food systems is highlighted by several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), i.e., SDG 1 (No Poverty), SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), and SDG 14 (Life Below Water). However, due to unprecedented population levels, the contribution of the fisheries sector to fulfills these roles is challenging, particularly given additional concerns regarding environmental well-being and sustainability. From this perspective, this study aims to identify the links and trade-offs between the development of this sector and the environmental sustainability in Thailand via a critical analysis of their trends, current ecological impacts, and more importantly, their contributions to several individual SDGs. A time-series of Thailand’s fisheries production from 1995 to 2015 indicates a recent reduction from around 3.0 million tons in 1995 to 1.5 million tons in 2015 of wild fish and shellfish from marine and freshwater habitats. The maximum sustainable yield of these species has been exceeded. Conversely, Thailand’s aquaculture production has continued to grow over the last decade, resulting in a reduction of mangrove forest area, wild fish stocks, and water quality. While capture fisheries and aquaculture production significantly contribute to several SDG targets, there are potential trade-offs between their development and the achievement of SDGs within the planet dimension, i.e., SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production), SDG 13 (Climate Action), SDG 14, and SDG 15 (Life on Land). On the one hand, the mitigation of overfishing will be beneficial for the targets of SDG 14, leading to more sustainable resource management. On the other hand, it might cause a decrease in the volume of marine catches and economic and social profits. We conclude that the SDGs can serve as a framework for both policymakers and industrial workers to monitor and compromise on regulations that will optimize productivity in the context of sustainable development.
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Ecosystem services of collectively managed urban gardens : exploring factors affecting synergies and trade offs at the site level

Ecosystem services of collectively managed urban gardens : exploring factors affecting synergies and trade offs at the site level

Ecosystem service production from collectively managed urban gardens Social-ecological benefits arising from CMUGs have been described in terms of ecosystem service provision, with micro[r]

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Source location privacy in wireless sensor networks under practical scenarios : routing protocols, parameterisations and trade offs

Source location privacy in wireless sensor networks under practical scenarios : routing protocols, parameterisations and trade offs

The processing unit is composed of simple 32/64-bit microprocessors which have limited computational capabilities (typically between 8 and 25 MHz) and memory space (typically between 4 and 10 kB for RAM). The transceiver (or radio interface) allows the sensor node to send and receive messages at a low data rate (between 70 and 250 kB/s) usually in the 2.4 GHz unlicensed industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) radio band of the radio spectrum. Choosing between one band or another depends on the application scenario. Communications in higher frequency bands have a longer range but find it difficult to overcome obstacles. Lastly, the power unit provides energy to all the other components to ensure they operate well. The power unit usually uses two AA batteries (i.e., 3V) as an energy supply, thus it is regarded as the most limiting component in sensor nodes as they cannot be replaced or recharged (without other powers that recycle energy) once the network has been deployed. In addition, sensor nodes may be equipped with other optional components depending on the practical scenarios, such as localisation systems (e.g., GPS chips), power scavengers (e.g., solar panels) and external flash memories.
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