Top PDF Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) Subsistence Hunting and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Canadian Arctic

Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) Subsistence Hunting and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Canadian Arctic

Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) Subsistence Hunting and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Canadian Arctic

This paper builds upon a body of scholarship on the role of TEK in adaptation to environmental change. Sev- eral studies conducted with Indigenous peoples in northern regions, including Inuit in the Canadian Arctic, suggest that TEK allows them to account for and deal with a large num- ber of variations in the biophysical environment, including those associated with recent climate change (e.g., Peloquin and Berkes, 2009; Turner and Clifton, 2009; Pearce et al., 2011b; Ford and Pearce, 2012; Nakashima et al., 2012). The relationship between TEK and adaptation to environ- mental change is not unique to subsistence hunting, north- ern regions, or Inuit. It has also been documented among Indigenous peoples in the context of biodiversity conserva- tion and environmental change globally (Gadjil et al., 1993; Berkes et al., 1995); among small-scale farmers in India (Rakshit and Bhowmick, 2012) and Jamaica (Beckford and Barker, 2007); Sami reindeer herders in northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia (Oskal et al., 2009); Indige- nous peoples in the small Pacific island nation of Kiribati (Frankland et al., 2012), the Sahel (Nyong et al., 2007), and central Africa (Berrang-Ford et al., 2012); traditional and local forest users in the context of forest management (Parrotta and Trosper, 2012); and Aboriginal populations in Australia (Lewis, 1989; Gadji et al., 1993; Berkes et al., 1995) (Fig. 1). These claims have been made on the basis of the long histories that Indigenous peoples have of cop- ing with and adapting to environmental changes, elements of which continue to be relevant today.
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Community-based adaptation research in the Canadian Arctic

Community-based adaptation research in the Canadian Arctic

• Maintaining a climate change/adaptation focus: Despite the fact that the Arctic is witnessing the most dramatic climate change globally, commu- nities are not always interested in climate change-focused projects, with more pressing issues often requiring attention. 99 Conse- quently, some workshop participants felt like they were almost pushing adaptation onto com- munities in their work. There was acknowledge- ment that maintaining an adaptation focus can be challenging given the participatory nature of CBA projects, in which communities can steer attention to other issues that may be more pressing at the current time (e.g., Ref 100). The tensions of having adaptation as the entry point for projects raise questions over whether climate change is actually a contrived framing. Indeed, there is an absence of discussion in the literature on how an adaptation framing is developed and maintained in projects — where it is typically assumed that communities are inter- ested and are willing to play a major role in leading adaptation projects. Many workshop participants, based on their own experiences, doubted this was always the case, believing the lack of critical discussion to re fl ect the common assumption that community-initiated and -led projects are ‘ better, ’ and without which good participatory research cannot occur. Locally initiated and led projects are certainly an important dimension of CBA, but close and effective participation may also occur where researchers themselves initiate an adaptation project, providing engagement is done in a col- laborative and ethically sound manner. Particu- larly for creeping and slow-onset hazards like climate change, where there are weak incentives for institutions and individuals to mobilize given the uncertain long-term nature of the problem, some outside initiation is often essential. 5,32,101,102
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Community collaboration and climate change research in the Canadian Arctic

Community collaboration and climate change research in the Canadian Arctic

Igloolik study, elders and hunters expressed their interest in having the documented sea-ice terminology, features and conditions more accessible in an educational format for use in the communities. This has been acted upon, in the development of follow-up research that is part of an International Polar Year project, the Inuit Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project, to render previously documented materials more accessible and interactive in an online educational atlas framework, for use in the curriculum of Nunavut schools. In addition, communities expressed an interest in learning about what climatic changes are being experienced by other communities and in other Arctic regions, and about what adaptation strategies are being used to cope with these changes. Another Interna- tional Polar Year project, Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Arctic Regions (CAVIAR), is building upon existing community–environment research and community–research relationships to conduct vulnerabil- ity studies with communities across the circumpolar Arctic, to better understand how Arctic communities are affected by environmental changes, and to help inform adaptive strategies and policies. The communities involved in the case studies have remained actively involved in one or more of these projects, and it was the foundation of the earlier relationship-building, commu- nication and results dissemination that enabled these collaborations to continue.
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Report on Adaptation to Climate Change Activities in Arctic Canada

Report on Adaptation to Climate Change Activities in Arctic Canada

Knowledge of the pathogen fauna in wildlife and the role of pathogens in the health of wildlife populations is an important component of informed wildlife management. Equally important is knowledge of the zoonotic agents and associated risks for people harvesting, handling, and consuming wildlife. This project will address the effects of climate change on the diversity, geographic distribution, epidemiology, and effects of the micro and macro parasites in important ungulate species in Canada´s western Arctic and subarctic. The bulk of the work will focus on caribou in the western Canadian Arctic and subarctic, and will also look at muskoxen, moose, Dall´s sheep, wood bison and white-tailed deer. The project team will work with local stakeholders, including harvesters, co-management boards, and outfitter groups, to develop recommendations for specific research targeted at anticipating and monitoring the response of these host-pathogen systems to climate change.
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Adaptation to climate change in Bangladesh

Adaptation to climate change in Bangladesh

Empirical evidence recognizes that vulnerable communities in many developing countries are not passive victims (Adger, Huq, Brown, Conway, & Hulme, 2003). Pastoralists in the West African Sahel have adapted to cope with rainfall decreases of 25–33% (Cross & Barker, 1991; Mortimore & Adams, 2001), while resilience in the face of changing climate has been documented for smallholder farmers in many African countries (Barbier, Yacouba, Karambiri, Zorome, & Some, 2009; Mertz, Mbow, Reenberg, & Diouf, 2009; Roncoli, Ingram, & Kirshen, 2001) and in indigenous hunting communities in the Canadian Arctic (Berkes & Jolly, 2002). However, there is still limited information concerning farmers’ preferred adaptation strategies. Moreover, since the Fifth IPCC report published in 2014, the framing of adaptation has moved further to the social and economic drivers of vulnerability and people’s ability to respond. Several barriers to adaptation have been identified. Yet, there is still disagreement about what developing countries should do to protect themselves (Millner & Dietz, 2015).
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Makah Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Resource Assessment: A preliminary framework to utilize traditional knowledge in climate change planning

Makah Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Resource Assessment: A preliminary framework to utilize traditional knowledge in climate change planning

Augustine, Skye, and Philip Dearden. 2014. Changing paradigms in marine and coastal conservation: A case study of clam gardens in the Southern Gulf Islands, Canada. The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe Canadien 58(3): 305–314. https://doi:10.1111/cag.12084. Ball, David, Rosie Clayburn, Roberta Cordero, Briece Edwards, Valerie Grussing, Janine Ledford, Robert McConnell, Rebekah Mon- ette, Robert Steelquist, Eirik Thorsgard, and Jon Townsend. 2017. Characterizing Tribal Cultural Landscapes, Volume II: Tribal Case Studies. OCS Study BOEM 2017-001. Camarillo, CA: US Depart- ment of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Bennett, T.M. Bull, Nancy G. Maynard, Patricia Cochran, Robert Gough, Kathy Lynn, Julie Maldonado, Garrit Voggesser, and Susan Wotkyns. 2014. Indigenous peoples, land, and resources. In Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. Jerry Melillo, Terese Richmond, and Gary Yohe, eds. Washington, DC: US Global Change Research Program, 297–317. https://doi:10.7930/J09G5JR1.On.
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The Role of Local Knowledge in Sustaining Ecotourism Livelihood as an Adaptation to Climate Change

The Role of Local Knowledge in Sustaining Ecotourism Livelihood as an Adaptation to Climate Change

Some scholars question the nature of ecotourism and impact assessment approaches used in studies. As discussed in section 2.2, studies have viewed ecotourism as having different components such as; natural setting, conservation, sustainability, culture, benefits to locals and education (Björk, 2000; Fennell, 2001). Studies have focused on different components, creating a limited and narrow focus on the local community-ecotourism interplay as well as the methodological considerations. Some scholars have argued for reconceptualizing ecotourism as a form of sustainable livelihood in local communities, a perspective that is holistic (see Ashley, 2000; Scoones, 2009; Tao & Wall, 2009). They argue that households in these communities engage in multiple livelihood activities using different assets, to reducing risk and secure their livelihoods. In such communities, ecotourism development is integrated into the livelihood system and presents opportunities for livelihood diversification (Tao & Wall, 2009), particularly in the context where there is observed livelihood insecurity as a results of threatening factors. A case in point is the livelihood dynamics as a result of climate change. The livelihood perspective presents a framework for studying and gaining a holistic view of such livelihood dynamics, instead of the reductionist view underpinning these studies. They lack the holistic and complex interplay of factors, including climate change, shaping livelihood outcomes (Ashley, 2000). Also, methodological shift informed by interpretivist views is advocated in tourism literature. For instance, emphasizing a holistic view rather than the reductionist perspective of current tourism research, Jennings (2007), advocates for understanding complexity of meaning making. This shift has become necessary because of the disregard of questions of meaning and understanding associated with the positivist and post positivist paradigms (Goodson & Phillimore, 2004).
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A Review of the Climate Change Impacts’ Rates of Change in the Arctic

A Review of the Climate Change Impacts’ Rates of Change in the Arctic

The changes in temperature have caused changes in the pressure over the Arctic Region. [24] suggested that there will be a decrease in 1–2 mb of sea level pressure in the Arctic region where these projected decreases of pressure are in the autumn and winter. Studies on the Arctic Oscillation have also shown anomalies in the pressure of the Arctic region. Arctic Oscillation is a cli- matic index which indicates atmospheric circulation over the Arctic, taking considerations of various factors in- cluding pressure and vorticity, among several others [26]. The Arctic Oscillation index has been found to be gain- ing a positive shift since the 1980s and especially in the 1990s, indicating increasingly lower sea-level pressure. These values have been found to be distributed symmet- rically over the pole while higher pressures are evident over the North Atlantic and North Pacific during the winter and over Siberia and Europe during the summers. Normally the Arctic Oscillation index value would be shifting between positive and negative values, but some research studies suggest that GHG warming is the culprit for locking the Arctic Oscillation index value to a posi- tive position [6]. In addition, it is also suggested that the temperature changes in association with the Arctic Os- cillation is large enough to effect the polar circulation. The changes in Arctic Oscillation, especially on the av- erage sea level pressure, have allowed increase in pre- cipitation, including increase cyclonic activities. [25] discussed models for projecting climate change scenarios for global impact studies and projected that during win- ters there would be increases in precipitation in middle and high northern latitudes. In addition, there would also be large precipitation increases in the northwest of North America. [24] suggested that polar low pressure systems would be more common, causing an increase in mixed phase precipitation, while warmer temperatures may contribute towards enhanced hydrological cycles over the arctic, increasing the stratification of the upper ocean. It had been projected that precipitation during 2030–2060 are generally higher that present by 1 cm per month. The changes in the Arctic Oscillation would allow the Arctic region to become wetter and in combination with warm- ing of the Arctic atmosphere, freezing mist and drizzle generation would increase. In addition, current trends in the Arctic Oscillation Index indicate a greater tendency for cyclonic activity and the poleward-propagating ex- tratropical cyclones will have fewer tendencies to decay. [6] suggest that, under the condition of 1% CO 2 concen-
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How To Adapt To Climate Change In The Arctic

How To Adapt To Climate Change In The Arctic

Past episodes of caribou die-off, due to adverse environmental conditions, indicate their potential sensitivity to climate change. Of critical importance to caribou survival in winter is the accessibility of forage beneath the winter snow pack (Gunn 1993). A deep snowpack can limit foraging and cold snaps, following wet snow or icing on the ground surface, can create a layer of thick impenetrable ice (Weladji and Oystein 2003). Miller and Gunn (2003), for instance, documented a 97% decrease in caribou numbers from 1994 to 1995/6 in the Canadian High Arctic, associated with an unusually hard icy snow pack during early winter (September– November) which created unfavourable foraging conditions. Hunters in Arctic Bay and Igloolik documented similar events to have occurred histor- ically (Akumalik 2004; Ulayuruluk 2004). Climate models indicate that these unfavourable conditions will be more common in the future, with increased frequency of winter freeze–thaw cycles and freezing rain affecting the structure and quality of the snowpack to the detriment of caribou (Walsh and Chapman 2007). It would be particularly problem- atic if such unfavourable years were to occur back to back or within a few years of each other, causing potentially irreversible caribou decline (Miller and Gunn 2003).
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Adaptation for Climate Change

Adaptation for Climate Change

Currently, 70% of our water comes from surface freshwater, and about 30% from groundwater. The key part of any supply is the quantity and quality of the source. Water quality in Irish rivers has improved in recent years, but increasing pressure on sources heightens the risk of pollution, and we will need bank-side storage reservoirs to allow pollution ‘incidents’ to pass inlet pipes and ensure clean raw water. The issues for adaptation are: Where will the significant water resources be located? How can the resources be quantified and protected sustainably? How can we effectively educate users about demand and re-use? How can we prepare a strategy to reduce uncertainty? In a resilient system, every town or city would be able to draw on more than one source, but the Irish networks are not interconnected (for example, Dublin is not connected to Waterford). In Dublin, supply and demand is already finely balanced, and with reservoirs holding at most three day’s supply, the region needs additional storage capacity.
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CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION BUILDING RESILIENCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE: INVESTING IN ADAPTATION

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION BUILDING RESILIENCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE: INVESTING IN ADAPTATION

Climate change affects the generation, transmission and consumption of energy. Climatic conditions determine the amount of water flowing through hydropower stations, and the availability of cooling water on which thermal power generation depends. Shifts in temperatures also influence peak energy demand, which can put a strain on transmission networks. To reduce vulnerability to climate change, the EBRD supports projects that build resilience into the energy sector by:

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Adaptation to climate change

Adaptation to climate change

Through the supply chain, climate vulnerability in one sector, such as agriculture, will spill over into others, such as food processing and textiles (Mideksa 2010). Similarly, the adaptation measures taken in one sector may have repercussions for other sectors. Flood-prone farmers may move to urban areas, depressing wages in cities and the price of land in the rural areas they leave behind. Other economic agents will respond by reducing their labour supply and/or taking advantage of lower land prices, until the economy is again in equilibrium (Banerjee 2007). While economy-wide effects are captured implicitly in econometric studies (see section 2.2 above) analysing them explicitly means applying system-wide models – computable general equilibrium models, macroeconomic models and input / output analysis. Researchers also turn to system-wide models to obtain, within a consistent framework, an estimate of the combined effects of adaptation to multiple climate risks at once (e.g., Ciscar et al. 2011; Robinson et al. 2012; Eboli et al. 2010).
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Differential adaptation strategies to climate change in African cropland by agro-ecological zones

Differential adaptation strategies to climate change in African cropland by agro-ecological zones

the deserts, high elevation dry savannah, or high elevation semi-arid farms choose maize. Fruits and vegetables with maize or without maize are chosen very often by the farms in the humid forests regardless of the elevation of the farms. Wheat is the choice for many farms in high elevation or dry places including deserts. Millet is the choice of crop when the farm is located in dry places such as high elevation dry savannah, lowland dry savannah, or mid elevation semi- arid AEZs. Ground nut and maize combination is chosen most often in mid elevation moist savannah. Ground nut and millet combination is chosen most often in lowland dry savannah. Tables 1, 2, and 3 clearly suggest that both irrigation and crop choice vary with AEZs 7 . To test whether there is a statistical relationship between these choices and climate, we run in Table 4 a binary choice model of whether to choose irrigation or not over climate variables and controls. Control variables in Table 3 include a set of soils, water availability, and household characteristics. The choice of irrigation clearly depends on dominant soil types. When soil Arenasols is dominant in the district, farmers tend to choose rainfed agriculture. On the other hand, when the soil is Cambisols or Planasols, they irrigate more often. Large farms are more likely to irrigate, so are farms with electricity. Irrigation requires a substantial capital investment in many cases and electricity as well. Farms in high elevation tend to irrigate less often. The amount of water flowing into the districts does not affect the choice. The variables of most concern to us are climate variables. The model is specified as a quadratic function of summer and winter temperature and precipitation. All four seasons were not relevant for modeling irrigation choice. Many climate variables are significant, though weakly, indicating that irrigation decision depends on the climate where the farm is located 8 . The Likelihood Ratio test indicates the overall model is very significant.
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Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation A Literature Review of the Canadian Agriculture Sector. July, 2011

Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation A Literature Review of the Canadian Agriculture Sector. July, 2011

In a report released in 2010, Ontario’s Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation developed a series of 59 recommendations that would see adaptation measures implemented throughout various government departments, including recommendations geared toward the agricultural sector. The Government of Canada is addressing climate change and adaption by outlining climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies over the next 3 – 5 years, which will result in direct and indirect impacts upon agriculture sector. While few communities across Canada have begun to strategize for future climate change impacts, six communities are leading the way with specific adaptation pilot projects. Internationally, examples of polices and strategies include the National Adaptation Strategy developed by eight EU Member States, outline agriculture adaptation policies and framework for a broad region.
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Incorporating ecological requirement into multipurpose reservoir operating rule curves for adaptation to climate change

Incorporating ecological requirement into multipurpose reservoir operating rule curves for adaptation to climate change

Operating rule curves have been widely applied to reservoir operation, due to their ease of implementa- tion. However, these curves excluding ecological requirement are generally derived from observed or synthetic flows and have rarely been determined by future flows under climate change. This paper devel- ops an integrated adaptive optimization model (IAOM) for derivation of multipurpose reservoir operating rule curves including ecological operating rule curve under future climate change. Steps in the proposed IAOM include: (1) weather generator module to generate feasible future climate conditions, (2) VIC model as the hydrological simulation module to generate streamflows from those future weather condi- tions, and (3) multipurpose reservoir optimization module to determine the optimal reservoir operations to deal with climate change. China’s Danjiangkou reservoir in Han River basin is selected for a case study. The results demonstrate that the IAOM provides optimal multipurpose reservoir operating rule curves that reflect the hydrologic characteristics of future climate change. Ecological supply water operation will alleviate negative effect of dam on river ecosystem without reducing conservation benefits and flood con- trol standard. Therefore, they can consult with reservoir administrators if it is useful results for operations.
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Climate Change Adaptation Plan

Climate Change Adaptation Plan

inundate water infrastructure, posing significant challenges for managers of freshwater resources and ensuring adequate water supply will be more difficult. All of these climate-change related impacts pose risk to our ability to accomplish our mission, operations, and programs. These risks include, but are not limited to risks to physical assets and real property; operations; human health and safety; physical and mission security; infrastructure and support systems; and external coordination. These impacts could affect both the CNCS headquarters operations, and the operations of its state offices and campuses.
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Funding Climate Change Adaptation

Funding Climate Change Adaptation

Regarding option 2, central government could, at least in theory, rely on existing funding instruments, using annual appropriations to co-fund some of the costs of climate change adaptation. Potentially, it could also fund specific adaptation projects (including managed retreat) directly, rather than funding local authorities to do it. The funding of ‘red- zoned’ properties in Christchurch provides a possible model (Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority, 2016). But such arrangements would be ad hoc and thus unlikely to generate the desired level of consistency, certainty, stability, credibility or long-term durability. Moreover, as the scale of the adaptation challenges increases over coming decades, there are bound to be political pressures – from subnational governments, civil society and affected citizens – for the central government to develop more comprehensive, principled and tailored approaches. Aside from this, there would be limited scope under current fiscal arrangements for specific pre-funding of future adaptation costs, except via more concerted efforts to reduce net Crown debt. Option 3 would involve amending the legislative mandate of EQC and extending the role of the Natural Disaster Fund to include proactive, pre-event adaptation funding. Arguably, this would provide EQC with both a stronger incentive and a greater capacity to reduce post-disaster costs through cost-effective adaptation measures. Assuming that the commission was
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CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES

ƒ In 1995 the GOL joined the global community by ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and has completed its first greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory (2000)

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management for adaptation to climate change

management for adaptation to climate change

The climate change agenda is the most important broad international process of specific relevance to MACC. Currently, there are several international and local organizations involved in climate change and adaptation in Malawi. Notable ones include the UNDP, MEET (Malawi Environmental Endowment Trust), and international NGOs such as Norwegian Church Aid (NCA), DanChurchAid, Oxfam, Action Aid, Concern Universal and World Vision. UNDP is developing the UNDP – Sustainable Land Management (SLM) and Climate Change Adaptation Programme in the Shire River Basin. The programme aims to address Sustainable Land Management and Climate Adaptation through strengthening the adaptive capacity of communities in the Shire Basin. USAID through MEET supports the management of the Nkuwadzi Forestry Reserve in Nkhata Bay District to enhance rural livelihoods and ensure continuous forest cover for carbon conservation, maintenance of biodiversity, protection of watershed and prevention of soil erosion. DFID is supporting the Building Capacity for Climate Change Adaptation in two districts in the southern region of Malawi through LEAD which has as main purpose to ensure that the livelihoods of communities in the target areas are more secure from threats posed by climate change.
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REPRESENTATIONS AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

REPRESENTATIONS AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

Adaptation capacity challenges the very process of development as it seeks to alter the flows of resources, knowledge, or technology; the changes in organizations, institutions and administrative bodies; the so- cial learning processes; and, any form of human, social or political cap- ital ( Eakin & Lemos, 2006; Pelling & High, 2005; Pelling, High, Dearing, & Smith, 2007 ). The case of Playacar highlights the signifi- cance for climate change adaptation of representational strategies. On the one hand, it points to the potential of implementing non-essen- tialist strategies that acknowledge the accelerating environment change occurring in the portrayed tourism destinations. On the other hand, it highlights the importance of paying further attention to the ways in which the relationship between humans and nature are ideal- ized. Idealizations based on a neat separation between the urban lives juxtaposed against the exoticism of pristine beaches will increasingly be rendered unrealistic as global climate change reminds society of the inextricable co-evolution between humans and the environment.
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