OCB significantly influences employees’ performance. This is in line with Al-Mahasneh (2015) which establish that it positively influences employees’ performance in Greater Oman Municipality. High individual level OCB yield greater significant increases in job performance ratings. Moreover, this research which argued there is a direct positive relationship between the OCB of the employee who directs interact with the customer and the perception towards service quality performances.It influences the perception of the customer regarding the service quality performances. Simililarly, Dyah et.al (2016); establish that OCB positively influenced job performance. It has a positive effect on the supervisor's evaluation of the individual performance, both directly and indirectly, through the impact was base on the supervisor's fondness of an individual This means that the perception of employees has a positive and significant influence to on performance. OCB affects the volume and quality of work, the relationship between co-workers as the dependent variables as well as between staffs and their superintendent. It may also be due to more work-related reasons such as the manager’s belief that it plays a significant role in the organization’s overall success, or its perception as a form of employee commitment due to its voluntary nature (Muhkit et al., 2018).
Transformationalleadershipstyle was originally coined by Burns (1978) in his theory of transformationalleadership that was advanced and refined by distinguished researchers like Bass (1985) and Avolio (1988) label transformational leader as far- sighted, and able to accomplish change through grander assurance of his commands. Transformational leaders inculcate satisfaction among followers, which stimulates the individuals to perform extra role behaviors (Jung and Yoon, 2012). The literature review reveals that numerous revisions have been undertaken regarding the connection between transformationalleadership and OCB (Bass, 1985; Burns, 1978; Cavazotte et al., 2012; Irshad and Hashmi, 2014; Lian and Tui, 2012; Ahmed, 2012). However, there are very few studies which assess the relationship between transformationalleadership and OCB using mediation model. The current study proposes EI as mediator. Also, a very few research work has been done with regards to these variables in the education sector of Pakistan (Irshad and Hashmi, 2014; Ahmed, 2012). In constructing a framework connecting transformationalleadership and OCB the authors also sketched on EI literature in order to recommend a mediating variable and its mechanism that has a high potential to benefit explaining a clear linkage between transformationalleadership and OCB. From theoretical perspective, although various studies highlighted several antecedents of OCB but components of EI as antecedents is still lacking. In this regard, it is necessary to identify the theoretical contributions of OCB that connects to EI in workplace settings. However, rare studies so far have empirically confirmed the extent of EI that may have effects on the citizenshipbehavior. Therefore, there exists a significant research gap to identify the nature of relationship existing between emotional intelligence with OCB, particularly in the context of education sector of Pakistan. Theoretical opinions have advocated that EI makes a vital contribution to OCB and other organizational behaviors, but empirical proof of such an impact is deficient (Crossman, 2011).
Numbers of studies have been conducted over the last two decades on the relationship leadership and OCB in many setting such as industries. A study conducted by Malik et al. (2016) that focused on the relationship between leadership styles and OCB in telecom companies in Pakistan. The study found that democratic leadership was positively related to OCB whereas; autocratic leadership had a negative relationship of OCB among telecom employees and laissez- faire had a very weak relationship with OCB. (4) Another study in Pakistan by (Ali & Waqar, 2013) stated that organizationalcitizenshipbehavior of school teachers was significantly related to leadershipstyle. Laissez-faire leadership was found to be the least effective style to elicit organizationalcitizenship behaviour comparing with transformational and transactional leadershipstyle. (13)
In relation to measuring the employees’ performance pf banks, some results of previous researches still have showed such standard or less specific and the result cannot be used universally (as a theory). One of the results of previous studies in the measurement of the relative performance of employees of the bank which is able to accommodate the bank employees’ performance measurement was conducted by Talukdar and Saha (2007). They conducted a performance assessment by dividing the bank into two categories, i.e. banks with local and multinational operational scope. The difference between the two might determine the different scope of measurement toward the employees’ performance. There are several indicators to measure the performance of the local bank employees, which has similarities with the indicator proposed by Certo (1985: 553-554). The similar indicators in measuring the employees’ performance include: constructive ideas with the initiative, drive, enthusiasm, absenteeism with time consciousness, attendance, punctuality, commitment of the employees with a sense of commitment and belonging to the bank (organization), the outer absenteeism presentation and adherence to discipline, dependable desk task accomplishment with job-related accomplishment, acceptability to the customers with response to customers, and reactions / response to supervisor’s instructions.
In contrast transactional leadership centred on leader-follower exchanges. Followers perform according to the will and ers and leaders positively reward the efforts. The primary goal of transactional leadership is to promote stability in the organization by creating a give- and – take type of exchange between managers and employers. Specific performance objectives are determined and communicated to employees. Constructive feedback is offered in terms of progress toward or away from rewards. Rewards are based upon meeting certain criteria. Mistakes are either actively or passively observed by managers and dealt with accordingly (Martins 2004:45). Its fundamental assumption is that subordinates work in order to receive compensation. Boseman (2008) believes that all managers could be classified by leadershipstyle according to their propensity for transactions nsformation of subordinates. Transformational leaders engaged with followers and sought new ways of working so as to achieve more for both themselves and followers than they would ordinarily. Transactional leaders engaged with followers as part of an exchange process that involved tangible rewards for superior performance
of OCB, altruism and conscientiousness are the two that have a significant relationship with OCB. Bukhari et al. (2014) argued that OCB has a positive relationship with unit performance of an organization and hence by further studying it, researchers would find ways to increase the unit performance. Bukhari et al.’s (2014) findings indicated that their results, based on participants in the banking sector in Pakistan, were the same as what earlier researchers had discovered with their participants coming from a Western culture. Geographical, cultural, and environmental factors do not affect OCB. Bukhari et al. (2014) suggested that there were limitations to their study for example sample size, employees not having enough knowledge about OCB, and that other antecedents should be included in future studies. Bukhari et al. noted that with these limitations researchers might obtain different results from their results. Researchers are encouraged to conduct further research in this area. It is with this in mind that this research topic came up to further research OCB in a multicultural environment and not a single-cultural
Expanding competition, globalization of organizations and business and the rapid change in market and innovations has empowered the telecommunication sector organizations to consider various ways and systems to increase focused edge in the market place. The present study aimed to compare the organizational effectiveness, leadershipstyle, organizationalcitizenshipbehavior and organizational culture of BSNL and Vodafone Idea Ltd. of Haryana State. An attempt was also made to determine the relationship among organizational effectiveness and its determinants and to study the impact of independent variables i.e. leadershipstyle, organizationalcitizenshipbehavior and organizational culture on the dependent variable organizational effectiveness of both the organizations. Descriptive survey method was utilized for the purpose of investigation. A sample of 600 employees (300 each) from BSNL and Vodafone organizations of Haryana State were drawn purposive sampling technique. Organizational Effectiveness Scale by Santosh Dhar & Upinder Dhar (2010), Multi Factor Leadership Questionnaire by S. N. Dubey (2000), Organizational Culture Profile by Udai Pareek (2002) and OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior Scale by Sangeeta Jain & Vishal Sharma (2009) were used for the collection of data. t-test, Pearson‟s Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis were applied for analyzing the obtained data. The findings of the study revealed a significant difference in organizational effectiveness, leadershipstyle and organizationalcitizenshipbehavior of BSNL and Vodafone Idea Ltd. However, there was found sno significant difference in the organizational culture of BSNL and Vodafone Idea Ltd. Organizational effectiveness of both the telecommunication organizations showed the highest positive correlation with the leadershipstyle followed by organizationalcitizenshipbehavior and organizational culture. Leadershipstyle came out be the determinant factor of Organizational Effectiveness and 8.1 % of variance in the Organizational Effectiveness was explained by LeadershipStyle of Telecommunication organizations.
In recent years, researchers have done a lot of leadership theory, transformationalleadershipstyle research (Bass & Jung, 1999; Judge & Bono, 2000). Transformationalleadershipstyle means leaders through the charismatic leadership and leadership charisma, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration (Bass, 1999), so that employees maximize their potential to achieve the highest level of performance (Bass & Avolio, 1990). Li Chaoping and Shi Kan (2005) study found that in the China cultural background, transformationalleadership includes four dimensions of motivation, charismatic leadership, vision of personalized care and virtue. The vision of incentive refers to employees described next, let the staff know the prospects of the organization, for the staff to indicate the goals and direction of development, explaining the work significance. Charisma refers to the leaders of business ability, open-minded, strong responsibility and sense of innovation, work very dedicated, can use their own high standards of work etc.. The two dimensions and the Bass theory of motivation and leadership charisma connotation consistent vision. Compared with the personalized care in Bass theory, Chinese TransformationalLeadership in personalized care broader implications, in addition to emphasizing on employees’ work and personal development concern, also stressed on the families of employees and concerns of life. Most Chinese cultural characteristics of Chinese style of transformationalleadership is a virtue, referring to the leaders of the spirit of dedication, sacrifice, match words with deeds, set an example, embodies the virtue of traditional Chinese culture. The theory of intelligent Bass in excitation in the context of Chinese organizations in part attributable to the charismatic leadership, the other part is attributed to the personalized care. This is because China’s organization employees to get the leader’s intellectual stimulation perception as the charismatic leadership or personalized care.
leadershipstyle allows organizational managers to influence and predict employees’ behaviours in the organization along with the involvement o f the extra role o f activities (Bass and Bass, 2009; Biswas, 2010; Cho and Dansereau, 2010). In this case, transformationalleadership support the special treatment o f the organization’s employees through the idealization influence, motivational inspirations, stimulation o f intelligence, and consideration individually (Bass, 1985; W ang et al., 2005; Biswas, 2010; Han et al., 2016; Berkovich, 2016). These four main positive influences o f transformationalleadership allow interaction with subordinates to involve extra activities which helps to succeed on competitive advantages’ (Bass and Bass, 2009). Accordingly, leaders o f organizations are encouraged to deliver appropriate workplace behaviours and polices that promote greater autonomy, organizationalperformance and OCB among subordinates (Katou, 2015). It is one of the most important responsibilities o f organizational leaders to guide followers towards achieving organizational purposes by communicating their organizations’ missions, visions, strategies and goals (Biswas, 2010; Jha, 2014; Han et al., 2016). That will consequently improve the positive behavioural outcomes o f employees toward the organization (Daly et al., 2014; Han et al., 2016). Therefore, the onus is on decision organizational management to consider the role o f transformationalleadershipstyle in developing organizational effectiveness and overall employees’ OCB (Jha, 2014; Han et al., 2016).
Using an explanatory method, this quantitative research was aimed to test and expla in the impacts of transformationalleadershipstyle, organizational environ ment and organizational culture on e mployees’ performance at STKIP Muhammadiyah Sorong, West Papua Province o f Indonesia. A mong variab les of the data taken fro m 140 respondents, the statistical analysis for hypotheses testing was used by applying Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results show that five out of six hypotheses of the direct impacts among variables in accordance with the proble ms and objectives of the study had significant impacts and one did not have significant impacts. The impact of transformationalleadershipstyle on e mployees’ perfo rmance had a positive insignificant impact with P = 0.812 > 0.05 and coeffic ient value of 0.027 which showed that transformationalleadershipstyle did not affect the value of e mployees’ performance. This research a lso found that the variable o f transformat ional leadershipstyle did not have significant impact on e mp loyees’ performance since transformationalleadershipstyle did not guarantee improve ment of e mp loyees’ performance. Based on the fact analyzed, e mployees’ performance would improve more due to the impacts of environmental motivation in organizational environment and organizational culture that create tranquility and comfort for employees at work.
There are a lot of different serious challenges that are faced by the service sector of Pakistan. These challenges are due to enormous market competition. The turnover ratio of employee’s that leaves service sectors are increasing day by day. The employees who joined these areas are facing many problems like lack of motivation on high performance, ambiguity in assigned task, employees are not performing well. This research highlighted the most important part if organizations are providing all facilities that not enough but leader style and behavior is especially essential in improving the performance of its employees. The subordinates who are working under such leaders are more motivated toward their target as compared to the managers. Their OCB strengthens their performance at the workplace under the supervision of the leaders. The followers are willingly achieving their goal because they have expectations of high reward on good performance. Basically, the performance is composed of construct of unity, production effectiveness, scheduling, and target setting and also include information management. Leaders of organization must formulate suitable decisions by compromise and utilize a group’s participative way of leadership.
OCB is an employee's response to their employment relationship (Van Dyne & Ang, 1996). Social exchange theory is the foundation of OCB. It explains that if supervisors give social gifts (such as praise, confidence to subordinates' abilities, and privileges) to their subordinates, they will feel obliged to reciprocate, such as in the form of greater effort to the organization (Organ, 1974) and by engaging in behavior that beyond the requirements of their work (Van Dyne & Ang, 1996). Podsakoff et al. (2009) explain that OCB is a sign of employees' commitment to the organization. Individuals who are committed to the organization will engage in behaviors that show their personal sacrifice for the benefit of the organization and their attachment to the organization (Williams & Anderson, 1991). In the concept of social exchange, individual's replying can also be organizational commitment (Organ, 1974), because they get benefits from their organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991). O’Reilly III & Chatman (1986) state that individuals who have a membership that shares values and goals will instinctively want to behave in ways that benefit their organization by doing OCB, as a form of their reciprocate. Even though their expectations (e.g. expected rewards) have not been fulfilled, individuals who have emotional attachments to the organization will continue to maintain their involvement in the organization (Williams & Anderson, 1991). Therefore, commitment is an important determinant of OCB when employee performance is less recognized in the formal reward system in the organization (Williams & Anderson, 1991). In the OCB concept, individuals perform this behavior voluntarily, although reward is not formally given.
organizational commitment, organizationalperformanceOrganizational Politics: An extensive bank of OCB given the disappointed results to the researchers. information is been generated by the researchers in recent However, when the multifactor questionnaire was used by days about organizational politics and its relationship , a high correlation was found between with the organizational commitment, OCB and transformationalleadershipstyle, organizationalperformance of an organization. Most of the studies have performance and citizenshipbehavior. This relationship of focused the employee’s perception about the transformationalleadership and performance was much organizational politics, defined by [20, 15] as “behavior higher as the relationship of transactional leadership and intentionally designed to maximize self-interests and performance. Later on researchers found a varied therefore gainsay the collective organizational relationship between transactional leadership, desired outcomes or the interests of other individuals”. organizational commitment and OCB. Furthermore some of [40, 45] discusses the organizational politics as the the researchers have found negative relationship between unconstructive process and argued, “If I told you, transactional leadershipstyle and performance [31-36]. you were a very political person; you would take it According to , employees decide to perform tasks either as an insult or at best as a mixed blessing”. out of recognition with the leader or with the organization. When people are asked about the organizational politics, This relationship results in the employee’s basic they start listing those activities, which were not agreement with the norms to which they are mandatory to according to their interest or not perceived positively perform. According to Bass transformationalleadership by them [9, 11]. Many other studies that develop the same can create recognition with the internationalization of concept found that the employees perceived workplace pleasing values, as opposed to the imperfect aim of politics as self-serving behavior to achieve benefits, transactional leadership to create an obedient workforce. advantages and self-interests at the expense of others A study was conducted by  in the public and sometimes opposing to the interest of the whole organizations about the leadership styles, innovation and organization [8, 17, 46-50]. This behavior was often related efficiency of the organizations and concluded that with exploitation, subversiveness, offense and illegal transformations leadership enable employees of an ways of using power to achieve one’s objectives beyond organization to work with efficiently and it also brings their authorities .
transformationalleadership as a group-level construct which was moderated by dual organizational change that represent organization-level resources. Furthermore, he identified two organizational change-related situational variables-radical change and incremental change and examined their effects on group innovative behavior. Researchers concluded in research that group innovative behavior was positively related to transformationalleadership and the relationship between them was moderated by radical change, the incremental change was not there, the other relationship was also found among the both changes that radical and incremental changes have positive relationship with group innovative behavior and the researchers believed in many studies that in manufacturing companies transformationalleadershipstyle is very effective because it guides the employees towards new product development, more profitability, and improved performance by using the exploratory leadership. Further it is stated that keeping in view the impact of both exploitative and exploratory innovation on organizationalperformance, some recommendations are made that senior management in an organization should pay more attention to innovation of human resource in their plans and strategies so that more performance may be achieved from them. It is further recommended in the recent study that the managers must pay attention to the innovation in manufacturing or production companies to improve performance (Pejman Ebrahimi, Seyedeh Marzieh Moosavi, Ebrahim Chirani, (2016).
administrator. The authority of the leaders must immediately be improved, so all the leaders will have self-confidence in implementing the TransformationalLeadership. Second is the positive perception of the employees about the rule of TransformationalLeadership must be maintained and it should motivate the employees to work more creatively. CEO is suggested to touch the employees personally in maintaining this changing momentum. Training, Motivating, and developing the employees should actually be implemented in accepting the TransformationalLeadershipstyle. Third is supplier Integration must be maintained by abandoning tender strategy and accepting alliance strategy as a way to get material supply that is in accordance to the specification, decreasing the spoilage bread, and developing new product which are needed in competing against competitors. Fourth is customer Integration must be maintained by accommodating the customers’ wants to get the type of bread which suits the characteristics of customers, and making the customers become the embassies of the company in understanding what the market wants, and seeking for an opportunity in a very tight business rivalry.
employees are not easily fooled. In a study in China, Li and Wu (2015) investigated the relationship between transformationalleadership and prosocial voice. Prosocial voice is a form of OCB; by making suggestions for improvements, it promotes organizational growth and innovation (Li & Wu, 2015). In a Chinese study, 167 auto-manufacturing workers demonstrated different levels of prosocial behavior based on their perception of the motive of the leader. Two types of motives were determined: altruistic motive, which Li and Wu (2015) defined as “leaders that truly care about their needs and growth” (p. 118), and instrumental motive, which the researchers defined as “ behaviors driven by self-interests … the leaders engage in transformational behaviors only because they want to create a favorable image” (p. 118). Workers who perceive their supervisors as having an altruistic motive were more likely to have a prosocial voice than workers who
In regard of OrganizationalCitizenshipBehavior, Organ (1988) defined OCB as behaviors that are “discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promote the effective functioning of the organization” (p. 4). He identified five dimensions of OCB: (1) altruism -- employees help coworker with job relevant duties and tasks, (2) courtesy – being polite, considerate of others, and treat them with respect, (3) conscientiousness – when employee goes beyond normal requirements or expectations (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman & Fetter 1990)., (4) sportsmanship employees have a positive attitude and are willing to tolerate less than ideal circumstances without complaining, and (5) civic virtue -- participating in the governance of the organization. Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1994) in more recent conceptualizations of OCB combined both altruism and courtesy and into new dimension termed it “helping” (Yen & Niehoff, 2004). Over time, a number of theories of leadership have been proposed. There are number of main theories such as traits theory, behavioral theories, situational theories, and transformational/transactional theory. There has been empirical research that demonstrate the relationship between different types of leadership behaviors and OCB such as servant leadership and OCB (Walumbwa, Hartnell, & Oke, 2010), transformationalleadership and OCB (Cho & Dansereau, 2010 Organ, 1988; Podsakoff et al., 1990), charismatic leadership (Deluga 1995; Sosik 2005),and authentic leadership (Stewart Wherry, 2012). In addition, number of studies indicated that leadership member exchange (LMX) had positive impact on OCB (Asgari, Silong, Ahmed, & Abu Samah 2008). As mentioned earlier, the lack of studies that examine the leadership practices and OCB developed the following hypothesis:
Recent studies have revealed that OCB's research in management- related fields such as strategic management and leadership is increasing dramatically (OCB research shows that miniaturization and rights respond to economic pressures and for human resource management, etc. (May-Chiun Lo et al., 2009). Literature reveals that OCB has contributed positively to Organizational outcomes such as service quality (Bhal, 2006; Lo, Ramayah & Jerome, 2006) ,(Bettencourt & Brown, 1997; Bell & Mengue, 2002 ), Organization Commitment (Podsakoff, Mckenzie & Bommer, 1996), Labor Involvement (Dimitriades, 2007), leader–member exchange (Bhal, 2006; Lo, Ramayah & Jerome, 2006). Organ (1988) stated that the act of job performance beyond the stated job requirement views by the OCB as the extra–role behavior. A change in the definition of OCB means that it is difficult to describe the dimension or to specify its cause. Many different functions result from the OCB driver and predictor. This research has been categorized into two main themes that help analyze and promote citizenship action (Somech and Drach-Zahavy, 2004).
The transformationalleadershipstyle consists of having five sub dimensions which are - idealized influence attributed, intellectual simulation, idealized influence behavior, inspirational motivation and individualized consideration (Tharnpas& Boon-itt, 2015). Another study conducted by Ojokuku et al. (2012) investigated the relation between styles of leadership and organizationalperformance and found that leadershipbehavior dimensions significantly affect the organizationalperformance. The study recommended that both transformational and democratic leadership styles should be adopted in order to perform well in a global competitive environment. Limsila and Ogunlana (2008) found from their study that work-performance, transformationalleadership and organizational commitment of followers were positively correlated with each other. The results suggested that transformational leaders have high chances to gain acceptance and commitment from followers as compared to transactional and laissez- faire styles of leadership. The research conducted by (Gumusluoglu and Ilsev (2007) explains the relationship of transformationalleadership dimensions on organizational innovation variables, and concluded that the dimensions of transformationalleadership play an important role at organizational level which motivates their followers by empowering them which results into organizationalperformance.
transformational leaders and followers involved in a high- quality relationship marked by, for example, trust and Leader-Member Exchange (a VERSION of); . Thus, this research uses a wide database to test and distinguish the two mechanisms are theoretically derived from the relationship between transformationalleadership and behavior of OCB. Transformationalleadershipstyle has the ability to improve the performance of subordinates in either behavior in the role as well as extra role. Transformationalleadership also voiced moral values of its employees to raise awareness on the issue of ethics to bring about change in the culture of the organization . Transformationalleadership correlates positively with OCB. This indicates that when a leader who possesses and applies a transformationalleadership in the Organization, then it can trigger the OCB on the higher employees , . Apart from the characteristics of leaders, organizations certainly recognize that every employee has a different cultural background. This is a task for the leader of a global organization in confronting a cultural composition in a work division and values of the employees who change dramatically . Apart from the characteristics of leaders, organizations certainly recognize that every employee has a cultural background or different cultures. This is a task for the leader of a global organization in the face of a composition of culture in a division of labour and values of employees dramatically changed . Organizational culture is present in the Organization as the capabilities of the individual in a widely understood, have confidence with capabilities, have an interest in dealing with new experiences as well as being able to customize the behavior of the both verbally and non verbal with multicultural