Top PDF Translational Chinese Medicine: A Way for Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Translational Chinese Medicine: A Way for Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Translational Chinese Medicine: A Way for Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine

TCM, which is the quintessence of the Chinese cultural heritage, has made an everlasting contribution to the sur- vival, propagation and prosperity of all ethnic groups in China, thereby enhancing the fertility and prosperity of the nation. In 2008, the Ministry of Science and Techno- logy jointed together by other fifteen Ministries, include- ing Ministry of Health, State Administration of Traditio- nal Chinese Medicine, and State Food and Drug Admini- stration, etc, collectively issued the “Outline of Tradi- tional Chinese Medicine Innovation and Development Plan (2006-2020)”. The outline explicitly pointed out that inheritance, innovation, modernization, and internation- alization of TCM would be the four basic tasks for a con- siderable period of time. Thereby, combination and inte- gration of classic heritage of TCM with innovations of life science would be the necessary avenue to develop TCM. The essence of the avenue is to translate the ancient kn- owledge of Chinese medicine into clinical effectiveness. Therefore, we propose a new research model translatio- nal Chinese medicine, to utilize global scientific and tech- nological resources, to provide evidence and to facilitate Chinese medicine globalization.
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The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

For the future development of TCM, raw materials must be produced in a sustainable way. Cultivation under good agricultural practice (GAP) should be the goal [78,79]. The scientific principles of daodi should be also considered – Daodi medicinal materials are those produced and assem- bled in specific geographic regions with designated natural conditions and ecological environment, with particular attention to cultivation technique, harvesting and process- ing, and thus regarded as superior in quality and effects as compared to materials of the same species obtained from other regions [80]. The identity and pharmaceutical quality of herbal medicinal products must be controlled in Europe and China according to the pharmacopoeia standards [81]. Due to the complex chemical composition of TCM drugs and many sources of variations that could lead to batch- to-batch inconsistency, classical quality control measures such as those applied to purified chemical drugs are often not suited to ensure quality of TCM materials and products. Sometimes DNA based methods may be needed for unambiguous authentication [82], but do not yield any information on the qualitative and quantitative chemical profiles. In order to focus not only on single quality marker compounds, more holistic concepts need to be developed such as metabolic fingerprinting [83,84]. Incorporating state-of-the-art analytical methodologies, including liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS), for chemical characterisation and chemical fingerprinting, differential cellular gene expression for bioresponse fingerprinting and animal pharmacology for in-vivo valid- ation, PhytomicsQC, a proprietary comprehensive platform for quality control of botanical drugs was developed to ensure batch-to-batch consistency of a standardised TCM formula PHY906 W [85]. The FP7 GP-TCM Consortium have recognised authentication and quality control of re- search materials used in clinical, animal and in-vitro studies as an area that needs urgent improvement and have developed a checklist and good practice guidelines [67,86]. Funding bodies, journals, academia and commer- cial suppliers must collaborate closely to address this fun- damental issue. Post-harvest treatment and processing (paozhi) are common features in Chinese herbal medicine. In order to provide plant material of consistent quality, these processes need to be scientifically investigated and standard operating procedures and specific endpoints need to be defined and implemented [87].
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Development of models for classification of action between heat-clearing herbs and blood-activating stasis-resolving herbs based on theory of traditional Chinese medicine

Development of models for classification of action between heat-clearing herbs and blood-activating stasis-resolving herbs based on theory of traditional Chinese medicine

The strategy of studying the relationship between TCM-HP and action have changed over the past decades. TCM-HP can not only be limited to a single property, but also need to be considered as a whole [6]. An Apri- ori algorithm was employed for producing association rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy [7]. However, the confirmed 120 result- ing rules were dispersed and single property research could hardly characterize the whole effects of TCM. Hence the four fundamental characters, five fundamental tastes, and meridians need to be as a whole. Only in this way could we reveal the relationship between action and herbal property [8]. Multidimensional property of TCM is inherent basis of multiple action and is a collection of many herbal properties that determine the characteristics for efficiency of TCM [6]. Subsequently, property combi- nation patterns for TCM [9–11] were proposed to reveal the relationship of TCM-HP and action from a holistic view of TCM.
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The Foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine

The Foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine

The practice of Chi Kung (Qigong) is to regulate and con- trol the Chi within the body. Chi Kung practice involves the manipulation and balance of the Chi within the practi- tioner’s body. According to Taoism, the regulation of Chi is carried out through the three interconnected components: the Mind, the Body and the Spirit. For the Taoist, the training of the mind and the body is through meditation, contemplation and physical exercises. It sometimes also includes the ingestion of Chinese herbs to regulate one’s Chi within the body. The development of Traditional Chinese Medicine has added more detailed to the Chi within the human body. In this system, Chi travels through the body along twelve main meridian channels and nu- merous smaller branches and tributaries. These main me- ridians also correspond to twelve main organs: the lung, large intestines, stomach, spleen, heart, small intestine, urinary bladder, kidney, liver, gallbladder, pericardium, and the ‘‘triple warmer,’’ which represents the entire torso region. The amount and flow of Chi is affected by one’s emotional state which is ultimately related to the Mind, the Body and the Spirit. To put it simply, most Chi Kung practitioners use this concept of the proper Chi flow through those meridians as a basic premise.
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Progress on Research for the Treatment of HIV/AIDS with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

Progress on Research for the Treatment of HIV/AIDS with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

are lacking, development of a vaccine has great difficul- ties and existing anti-viral treatments cannot fundamen- tally destroy the virus. There may be, therefore, a poten- tial role of TCM in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. After years of clinical applications, it should be possible to develop effective drugs from the numerous existing na- tural traditional medicines for the treatment of HIV/ AIDS. On this basis, research on natural medicines that suppress HIV/AIDS is currently being carried out all over the world. In particular, Professor Lv, Professor Wang and colleagues of the China Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences, Professor Luo of Kunming Institute of Botany, and other scholars have been performing re- search in this area for the past 20 years [15].
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Traditional Chinese medicine physicians’ insights into inter professional tensions between traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine: a critical perspective

Traditional Chinese medicine physicians’ insights into inter professional tensions between traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine: a critical perspective

In contrast, TCM is built on a holistic ideology that focuses on balance within a person and between the person and the environment (Hu, 2016). This holistic worldview is similar to many other traditional practices worldwide (Airhihenbuwa, 1995). TCM holds that good health originates from optimal interconnections among a person’s physical, spiritual, and mental states. For instance, TCM works around five organs –heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney, all of which are connected by Qi and blood. It is crucial to keep all interconnected structures functioning harmoniously. The theory of yin and yang is deeply rooted in the TCM system and used to direct clinical diagnosis and treatment. The emphasis on harmony between the universe and a person’s internal system distinguishes TCM from biomedicine’s focus on external reality. However, the different ways of knowing and reasoning have also led to a perception that TCM is based on a mythology of nature and is not scientific (Schreiber, 2005).
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The History, Present Situation and Prospect of Chinese Medicine Cosmetology

The History, Present Situation and Prospect of Chinese Medicine Cosmetology

Chinese medicine beauty should establish real skin needs Chinese cosmetic brand based on the development of ancient Chinese medicine traditional beauty health culture, and establish a co[r]

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Bibliometrics Research on Immune of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Bibliometrics Research on Immune of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine was widely used to prevent and treat human or animal diseases in China. In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or traditional Chinese veterinary medicine (TCVM), strengthening the body resistance is one of the basic principles of preventing and treating diseases [1]. With the progress of society, people pay more attention to human sub-health [2-4] and the development of proprietary Chinese medicine for human or animal use. Chinese medicine has rich experience in the prevention and treatment of the disease, especially in the immunity of traditional Chinese medicine. There are many reports have shown that immunity is related to disease [5-7], such as
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Phenomenological Mechanism of Inspection in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Phenomenological Mechanism of Inspection in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Taking a spontaneous sweat patient with deficiency as an example, this paper makes a phenomenological reduction of the thinking process of the moment of inspection in TCM, and the pure phenomenological deduction is carried out by descriptive means (Deng, 2018). Giving the above explanation, we find that the inspection of TCM combines the subjective thinking and previous experience of the CMP, which is totally different from the completely objective description of the patient in western medicine. The doctor has intentional intuition, which means that the abilities of integrating existing information with time conscious- ness in doctors, as well as the comprehensive giving of past experience under passive association, are reflected together in the instant of inspection. This ex- actly explains why TCM is more like an empirical medicine, with special empha- sis on the importance of “following a teacher”. The method and conclusion in this paper can also provide a new way of thinking about some pending issues in TCM from the perspective of phenomenological philosophy.
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Review in traditional chinese medicine for stroke therapy

Review in traditional chinese medicine for stroke therapy

View from Western Medicine, the mechanisms of stroke have been regarded as many complex processes, including decay of energy, acidosis, loss of cell ion homeostasis, increased intracellular calcium levels, excitotoxicity, free radical mediated toxicity, cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), activation of glial cells, and infiltration of leukocytes. During a few minutes of cerebral ischemia, blood flow severe decrease result in the core of brain tissue injured and subsequently undergoes necrotic cell death. 6 This necrotic core is surrounded by a zone of less severely affected tissue which is turned functionally inactive by ischemia but remains metabolically active. Necrosis is morphologically characterized by the swell of initial cellular and organelle, subsequent disruption of nuclear, organelle, and plasma membranes, and disintegration of nuclear structure and cytoplasmic organelles with extrusion of cell contents into the extra cellular space. The region bordering the infarct core, called as the ischemic penumbra, comprises as much as half of the total lesion volume during the initial stages of ischemia, and represents the region in which there is an opportunity for salvage via post-stroke therapy. 7
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Western constitutional medicine: a primer

Western constitutional medicine: a primer

The World has seen during the centuries the rise of many types of alternative medicines, which are now called traditional complementary and alternative medicines (TCAM). In the East, the most notorious are traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Unani, traditional Japanese medicine (TJM), Ayurveda, etc. On the other hand, Western Constitutional Medicine (WCM) is the one tradition that stands out for its use across the millennia. Also called Greek-Roman medicine, this was the foundation of Western medicine and has concepts that are still today the basis of all non-Western (Eastern) medicines: biotypology. But these distinct traditions are actually very similar among themselves, each with its own history and tradition. While much has been divulged about Eastern medicines, very little is acknowledged regarding WCM as, in the last 80 years, it has been almost completely forgotten. Herewith is an attempt to show the manifest similarities between these two major traditions of ancient medicine. Their resemblances (the concept of constitution and its use) highlight specific diagnostic and treatment modalities which are in common, although with peculiarities. The healing interventions heralded by these systems are based on nutritional (i.e., what they should tendentially eat and drink) and physical therapies depending on their constitution with the use of natural and herbal products.
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Use frequency of traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan

Use frequency of traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan

such as the balance of Qi-blood, the regulation of body constitution and the mixture of herbs and food, have been part of Chinese culture and life style. Other ancient cul- tures in the world have similar experiences with their tra- ditional medicine [40-42]. In addition, Chinese people believe that Western medicine may react faster to the tar- get but also causes more adverse side effects, while TCM reacts slowly but is subtle and safe [16,43,44]. Further- more, the insurance coverage for TCM visits might also play a significant role [31]. Lee et al. reported that TCM outpatient use rate increased 1.75-fold from 1983 to 1988 because of the opening of labour insurance coverage in Taiwan [14]. These factors might all account for the high utilization of TCM.
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Effect of Radix Stemonae concentrated decoction on the lung tissue pathology and inflammatory mediators in COPD rats

Effect of Radix Stemonae concentrated decoction on the lung tissue pathology and inflammatory mediators in COPD rats

Stemonae Radix is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used as an antitussive and insecticidal remedy, which is derived from Stemona tuberosa Lour, S. japonica and and S. sessilifolia [11]. It has been widely used for the treatment of respiratory diseases in China for thousands of years. Earlier studies have shown that Stemonae Radix can release coughs [12], remove phlegm [13] and has antihelminthic, antibacterial, antituberculous and antifungal activity [14, 15]. Alkaloids are the major effective ingredients in Radix Stemonae, which includes stemoninine, stemoninoa- mide, bisdehydrostemoninine, neotuberostemonine, neoste- nine, tuberostemonine and tuberostemonine H. Liao et al. [16] found in an in vitro experiment on guinea pigs that the extract of Stemona radix had a relaxation effect on airway smooth muscle and the relaxation effect is realized by inter- acting with musearinic receptors and dihydropyridine bind- ing point. Besides, the pharmacokinetics study of multiple components absorbed in rat plasma after oral administra- tion of Stemonae radix showed that croomine and tuberos- temonine would be potential bioactive components for the treatment of chronic or acute cough in rat model [17, 18].
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The Use of Chinese Herbal Products for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

The Use of Chinese Herbal Products for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

27. T. Kumagai; M¨uller, C. I.; Desmond, J. C.; Imai, Y.; Heberb, D.; Koeffler, H. P. Scutellaria baicalensis, a herbal medicine: anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity against acute lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines. Leuk Res 2007, 31, 523-530, doi:10.1016/j.leukres.2006.08.019.

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Role of herbs in endodontics

Role of herbs in endodontics

According to WHO, Herbal medicine is defined as plant derived material or preparation which contains raw or ingredients from one or more plants with therapeutic values. These drugs of plant origin are used to treat diseases and to attain or maintain a condition of improved health Recent trend in the usage of biologic natural plants is seen because of the cytotoxic reactions, allergic potential, toxicity, unacceptable taste, etc. of the most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and irrigants used and their inability to eliminate tra et al., 2009). In dentistry, herbal medicine has been used as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative agents, astringents, edema- reducing, soothing and healing accelerating agents (Badole et
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Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?

Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?

Traditional medicine (TM) is a comprehensive term used to refer both to systems such as traditional Chinese medi- cine, Indian ayurveda and Arabic unani medicine, and to various forms of indigenous medicine. In countries where the dominant health care system is based on allopathic medicine, or where TM has not been incorporated into the national health care system, TM is often termed "comple- mentary", "alternative" or "non-conventional" medicine [1]. The links between TM and biodiversity are exempli- fied by a long tradition of healing powers associated with the earth's natural systems, whether this entails medicinal plants and animal species, the ambient salubrious air, spring water or the natural scenery. The pharmacopoeia of folk seties as well as professional medical systems like Chinese, Ayurvedic, Unani and biomedicine contain thousands of medicines made from leaves, herbs, roots, bark, animal, mineral substances and other materials found in nature [2,3].
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Within Day Energy Balance and the Relationship to Injury Rates in Pre Professional Ballet Dancers

Within Day Energy Balance and the Relationship to Injury Rates in Pre Professional Ballet Dancers

Ayurveda is a practice that originated thousands of years ago in India. This is the life (ayur in Sanskrit) science (veda in Sanskrit) that accompanies the practice of yoga. This practice utilizes food, herbs, massage, physical activity and more to balance the individual body based on its specific constitution. There are three types of constitutional life forces or doshas that combine in different ratios to make up each person’s constitution: vata (air, ether), pitta (fire and water), and kapha (water and earth). Ayurveda emphasizes lifestyle choices that enhance health (6, 7). Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) originated in China thousands of years ago and has developed into the system used today. Practitioners treat a variety of conditions with herbs, acupuncture and other treatments. This system is designed to balance the yin and yang
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Comparative effectiveness research on patients with acute ischemic stroke using Markov decision processes

Comparative effectiveness research on patients with acute ischemic stroke using Markov decision processes

Treatment strategies were carried out at the request of the physician in charge of the patient under the same theory of TCM [27]. Patients with a TCM diagnosis belonging to the Yin pattern were treated by “Yi Qi Wen Yang “ treatments, and those with a TCM diagnosis belonging to the Yang pattern received “ Qing Re Xi Feng “ treatments. Herbal medicine was prescribed according to the current symptoms of the patient. If the patient was constipated, TCM treatments to relax the bowels were used. Aspirin or Clopidogrel was taken orally by each patient within 48 hours of hospital admis- sion, except those who were allergic to or genuinely intolerant of these agents. Anticoagulant agents, includ- ing unfractionated heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), or warfarin were used if the patient had any of the following conditions: atrial fibrillation, serious artery angiostenosis, or advancing stroke. Any treatment might be changed at any time if the physician thought it necessary.
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Classification of interventions in traditional Chinese medicine

Classification of interventions in traditional Chinese medicine

We collected and screened information on TCM intervention classifications from the libraries in Shanghai University of TCM and the University of Nottingham. Our pilot studies on this subject suggested that the main classifications were developed and distributed by large medical health organizations and institutes, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the NLM, and the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences; therefore, we retrieved the latest progress news and documents from the relevant websites for these organizations. We used the term „acupuncture‟ as a search word, and listed and compared all results returned by the classifications or thesauruses to evaluate the TCM terms and structure included in each system.
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Original Article Flora regulation of BuzhongYiqi decoction in patients with food allergies after surgery for anal fistula

Original Article Flora regulation of BuzhongYiqi decoction in patients with food allergies after surgery for anal fistula

After BYD treatment, the proportion of Fus- obacteria and Cyanobacteria reduced (P<0.05), but that of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria increased (P<0.05). Proteobacteria is dominant in the gut of neonates and infants, but rare in the gut of adults [36]. Mirpuri et al [37] found that the γ-Proteobacteria-specific IgA response could induce the switch of gut flora from neona- tal form to adult form. It is expected that this may induce the development and improvement of gut immunity. Administration of Bacteroides Fragilis in germ-free mice may avoid the occur- rence of IBD [38]. Bacteroidetes in the gut may use fibers to synthesize polysaccharide and regulate the secretion of IL-10 in T cells [39] (IL- 10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine). In addition, Bacteroidetes may increase the activ- ity of macrophages and T cells, inhibit the acti- vation of pro-inflammatory pathways in Th17 cells. Thus, Bacteroidetes have been regarded as anti-inflammatory bacteria. The increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria may improve
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