Top PDF Trends and connections across the Antarctic cryosphere

Trends and connections across the Antarctic cryosphere

Trends and connections across the Antarctic cryosphere

370 Figure 2. Average trend in the elevation and thickness of Antarctic grounded ice and ice shelves, respectively, determined between 1992 and 2017 North of 81.5°S (dashed grey circle), and between 2010 and 2017 elsewhere. Also shown is the depth of 146 and estimated ocean

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Brief communication: Increasing shortwave absorption over the Arctic Ocean is not balanced by trends in the Antarctic

Brief communication: Increasing shortwave absorption over the Arctic Ocean is not balanced by trends in the Antarctic

Changes in the Arctic and Antarctic cryosphere have been continuously monitored by different satellite programs since the 1970s. Arctic sea ice is becoming thinner (Haas et al., 2008) and younger (Maslanik et al., 2007) coupled with a de- cline in its extent (Serreze et al., 2007; Stroeve et al., 2012). This leads to a decrease in area-average sunlight reflection and thus to higher energy absorption in the Arctic Ocean (Perovich et al., 2011; Nicolaus et al., 2012). While some areas in Antarctica have also experienced a reduction of the sea ice cover, a modest overall gain of sea ice area has been observed in the Southern Hemisphere (Cavalieri et al., 1997; Stammerjohn et al., 2012), though there is some uncertainty in the magnitude of the trend (Eisenman et al., 2014). How these opposing trends relate to each other on a global scale is governed by a multitude of factors, such as the different latitudinal position of the ice cover and constraints by land masses, significant differences in the physical properties of the ice surface, and different forcing mechanisms from lower
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Differences in anatomical connections across distinct areas in the rodent prefrontal cortex

Differences in anatomical connections across distinct areas in the rodent prefrontal cortex

The location data within sensory-motor cortex following anterior and posterior PFC injections is shown in figures 11 and 12 respectively and the graphs include the data produced from dual injections. Again, the anterograde and retrograde labelling shows locational differences in sensory-motor cortex for both anterior and posterior injections, and like the temporal cortex results, note the difference in positions of anterograde efferents and retrograde afferents in the anterior-posterior axis following single anterior PFC injections (Figure 11ii – injections denoted Aa, Ba and Da). Dual injections also produced differences in the terminal locations for FG and FR. As was the case for the temporal cortex labelling, the difference in anterograde and retrograde labelling following injections into posterior PFC was less marked in the anterior-posterior axis (Figure 12ii) – this was observed following both single and dual injections. The distribution of anterograde efferents in the dorsoventral axis of sensory-motor cortex showed no obvious trends in terms of topology following anterior PFC injections (Fig11i), however the posterior single injections of FG tracer resulted in an apparent topological arrangement of retrograde terminals, with increasingly ventrally located cell bodies occurring between injection sites MO and AI (Fig 12i). The distribution within the mediolateral axis following anterior injections produced no clear arrangement for anterograde efferents or retrograde afferents following anterior (Fig 11iii) or posterior PFC injections (Fig 12iii).
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Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet across the mid-Pleistocene transition – implications for Oldest Ice

Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet across the mid-Pleistocene transition – implications for Oldest Ice

tentially implicate strong climate feedback mechanisms due to the formation of an ocean gateway between the Weddell, Ross and Amundsen Sea (Sutter et al., 2016) affecting cli- mate dynamics across the MPT. This transition is not simu- lated in B1 and calls for a more crucial analysis outside the scope of this publication, e.g. incorporating a fully coupled ESM with a dynamical ice-sheet component. Accordingly, the climate state in B1 does not allow a waxing and wan- ing of the WAIS for pre-MPT interglacial conditions. We note that other modelling studies either focussing on warmer Pliocene stages (DeConto and Pollard, 2016) or regional sen- sitivity studies (Mengel and Levermann, 2014) show large- scale retreat of the grounding line into the Wilkes and Au- rora subglacial basins; therefore a potential reorganisation of the EAIS across the MPT cannot be excluded using all model experiments. The end of the MPT is marked by a pronounced glacial state at MIS22 akin to the Last Glacial Maximum re- flecting a strong growth of the AIS at the end of the MPT. This result is robust across all ensemble members for both branch B1 and B2. It is interesting to note that the glacia- tions in the MPT interval become progressively stronger and reach a full late Quaternary glaciation state in MIS22. 3.1.3 Post-MPT Antarctic Ice Sheet evolution
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Impacts of marine instability across the East Antarctic Ice Sheet on Southern Ocean dynamics

Impacts of marine instability across the East Antarctic Ice Sheet on Southern Ocean dynamics

We focus on three idealised scenarios, each of which represents a hypothetical collapse of the Wilkes Basin: WILKES, WEST and EAST. The locations of meltwater in- put within these experiments are shown in Fig. 2. In all of the experiments, a freshwater flux of 0.048 Sv is applied for 900 years. This is based on the estimate of Mengel and Lev- ermann (2014), and is equivalent to an increase of ∼ 3.8 m in global sea level. While the precise mechanisms that may trigger instability across the extensive Wilkes Basin remain a subject of debate (Mengel and Levermann, 2014; Golledge et al., 2015; Pollard et al., 2015), such a rapid and substantial addition to global sea level in future is hypothetically pos- sible. The meltwater that is added to the ocean is assumed to have the same temperature as the ambient seawater, and thus there is no heat flux associated with the meltwater input. Once the freshwater flux has been applied, the experiments are then integrated for a further 600 years to allow the climate system to recover.
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TMG 4 (2018): Seals--Making and Marking Connections Across the Medieval World

TMG 4 (2018): Seals--Making and Marking Connections Across the Medieval World

28 Although Buddhists in China had begun to use seals in rites of exorcism and various forms of spiritual enhancement at least 300 years earlier, when the irst scriptur[r]

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Trends in teacher education across Europe: an initial analysis

Trends in teacher education across Europe: an initial analysis

This paper identifies three of the broad trends in teacher education across Europe, with some inevitably limited attempts to consider the resulting issues. This work is at an early stage of development so the reader may find some of the ideas presented here to be broad and general; it is a deliberate decision to present the work at this stage, even though I am aware of the considerable complexities underlying broad trends in policy and practice, particularly when these are transnational. I briefly outline these complexities at the beginning of this paper and intend to return to explore them further in later work. Other decisions made are around the focus and structure of the paper with the overall focus being on pre-service or Initial Teacher Education (ITE) rather than Continuous Professional Development (CPD) for serving teachers. This decision does not imply, of course, that pre-service is always more important than CPD; while pre-service programmes act as the foundation stones for teacher development, good CPD opportunities provide the continuity and progression of learning across the career- course, which are essential for career satisfaction and development. The chosen focus here then rather reflects pragmatic choices around what is possible in a presentation of this length. The paper, like the presentation on which it is based, first considers the background factors in policy analysis before moving to identify and discuss the trends in European teacher
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Making Exhibitions, Brokering Meaning: Designing new connections across communities of practice

Making Exhibitions, Brokering Meaning: Designing new connections across communities of practice

interpretation enabled those committed to the temple’s preservation and protection “to see what is not readily seeable” (Delivered 9 November 2004). Increasingly, interpretation practices developed in the museum and at heritage sites through the joint enterprise of curators and designers for the benefit of audiences are being applied in academic and theoretical archaeology for purposes of scholarly analysis and hypothesis framing. Brokering boundaries of knowledge and practice to discover the nexus of differences and connections in a project takes time and effort, but as Wenger stresses it is the only way to get to the heart of the matter. The examples in this paper saw prototype design work challenge contributors to engage with each other’s ways of thinking, pushing information visualisation into new territory where differences in intentions and perspectives were initially too abstract and easy to ignore.
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How do emerging multinationals configure political connections across institutional contexts?

How do emerging multinationals configure political connections across institutional contexts?

8 derive three main benefits from ties with home and host governments. First, the home country government controls critical resources in the competitive environment. Emerging economies are characterized by imperfect domestic factor markets, where the government has discretion over distributing bank loans, subsidies and favorable regulations, particularly in relation to FDI (Buckley et al., 2007; Luo, Xue, and Han, 2010). Research shows that political connections in terms of home government ownership grant easier access to financial aid, preferential incentives, administrative assistance and potential bailout, in support of domestic firms’ international expansion (Cui and Jiang, 2012). In the event of conflict with the host country, these firms are also well-placed to mobilize the home government to protect their overseas investments (Duanmu, 2014). Second, host country political elites confer political legitimacy on foreign firms. The lack of legitimacy is considered a major source of
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Making Exhibitions, Brokering Meaning: Designing new connections across communities of practice

Making Exhibitions, Brokering Meaning: Designing new connections across communities of practice

interpretation enabled those committed to the temple’s preservation and protection “to see what is not readily seeable” (Delivered 9 November 2004). Increasingly, interpretation practices developed in the museum and at heritage sites through the joint enterprise of curators and designers for the benefit of audiences are being applied in academic and theoretical archaeology for purposes of scholarly analysis and hypothesis framing. Brokering boundaries of knowledge and practice to discover the nexus of differences and connections in a project takes time and effort, but as Wenger stresses it is the only way to get to the heart of the matter. The examples in this paper saw prototype design work challenge contributors to engage with each other’s ways of thinking, pushing information visualisation into new territory where differences in intentions and perspectives were initially too abstract and easy to ignore.
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Oversight, influence and Mesopotamian connections to Armenia across the Sasanian and early Islamic periods

Oversight, influence and Mesopotamian connections to Armenia across the Sasanian and early Islamic periods

Recognizing the gap between imagined Armenia and actual Armenia is helpful when thinking about Armenian interaction with Sasanian Iran. For whilst the Armenian historical compositions often portray Armenia as fundamentally separate from Sasanian Iran – Christian not Zoroastrian, with its own princely families, aristocratic traditions and forms of cultural expression – we should always bear in mind that all but the western fringe of historic Armenia had been under Parthian and then Sasanian hegemony for centuries and had been thoroughly immersed in Iranian social and cultural traditions. In a seminal series of articles, Professor Nina Garsoïan unearthed multiple connections
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Climate trends at Macquarie Island and expectations of future climate change in the sub Antarctic

Climate trends at Macquarie Island and expectations of future climate change in the sub Antarctic

trend across the sub-Antarctic over all seasons. However, precipitation changes were both regionally and seasonally more complex than suggested by Fyfe (2003), with a reduction in sub-Antarctic precipitation limited to more northern latitudes during

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District digest : Economic trends across the region

District digest : Economic trends across the region

State and local tax revenue collections are directly relat- ed to economic activity. When the economy picks up, firms boost output and hire more workers. When job growth is sustained, those workers are confident enough to increase purchases of goods, services, and new homes. With 43 of the 50 states imposing individual income taxes and all states levying sales taxes in some form, governments see increased revenues from those sources. They will also see increases in real estate transfer taxes and property taxes as housing activity and home prices increase. When the economy contracts, these trends reverse.
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Regional Disparities Across Indian States: Are the Trends Reversing?

Regional Disparities Across Indian States: Are the Trends Reversing?

The underlying reasons for including some states while rejecting others in the study samples relate to population size and economic might. Some states, for example Delhi, have exaggeratedly high SDPPC (State Domestic Product Per Capita) figures for a relatively small population. For example, Delhi’s SDPPC is well over three times the average for the 16 selected states, while its population (at 16 million) would constitute less than 25% of the average calculated for our 16 state sample. Clearly Delhi is not representative of a typical Indian state and would be an outlier; and as such an observation would certainly bias results, we prefer to exclude Delhi and states characterized by similarly unrepresentative features. In some cases, the less populous states lack SDPPC observations, making it impossible to include them. However, from a statistical standpoint, their low populations and similar non-representative characteristics, make it more palatable to exclude them. It is worth highlighting the impressive disparity in population figures across regions; take the population of Uttar Pradesh at nearly 200 million, and Lakshadweep’s mere 64,000 inhabitants (Planning Commission (2012)). Although it would be attractive to undertake analysis for all 28 states and the seven union territories; but given the data restraints and methodological concerns, it is preferable to harmonise the sample and eliminate the states that could compromise results.
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Retail Sales Trends Across Nebraska Counties and Localities

Retail Sales Trends Across Nebraska Counties and Localities

For the 17 towns of 2,500 to 4,999, a fairly consistent trade pattern is evident since 1990. They are basically capturing the trade of their population equivalent plus 10 percent. However, given that the median pull factor for this class is less than 1.0, this is evidence that the modest trade capture is not being distributed evenly across these towns. As seen in Appendix Table 3, the town pull factors vary widely from .75 in Central City and Falls City to 1.90 in Valentine. In several instances, they represent area trade center towns in the more rural areas of the state, and maintain robust, albeit smaller, retail functions. Should consumer transportation costs increase sharply in the future, these smaller centers may experience some resurgence in retailing activity.
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The Himalayan Cryosphere: Appraisal of Climate Glacier Inter linkages

The Himalayan Cryosphere: Appraisal of Climate Glacier Inter linkages

(Thompson et al., 2000) while others show an increase (Kaspari et al., 2008). The difference in these records are attributed to differences in moisture trajectories, ice-flow dynamics and inaccuracies in identifying the annual layers (Kaspari et al., 2008). However, most of these studies have been carried out in Tibet (Thompson et al., 2000), very few in Himalayas (Kaspari et al., 2008). Some trends on the seasonal snow cover, specifically for the Indian Himalayan region (IHR) were reported by Kulkarni et al. (2010) using Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS). Snow cover products were generated individually for the 28 sub-basins extending over Indus, Chenab, Ganga and Yamuna basins Satuj basins. These products were used to estimate snow extent at an interval of 10 days from October 2004 to June 2005 using the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) algorithm. The distribution of snow in an individual basin was combined to estimate the overall snow cover for the Western and Central Himalaya. In the winter of 2004 and 2005, for a period between October and mid- December, snow cover was less than 50 percent and increased to 82 % by the end of January. Snow extent remained more than 80% till beginning of April. Then snow ablation and retreat of snow cover continued till end of June and residual snow cover remains was only 37 % (Kulkarni et al., 2010).
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// Business Connections // connections

// Business Connections // connections

Also in this issue, we offer a timesaving suggestion for holiday shopping on page 7 — pick up copies of the SkyLine Commemorative Cookbook. Not only does it make a great gift, but the proceeds go to a great cause. This cookbook was part of our year- long “60 Years of Great Connections” anniversary celebration that comes to a close this month. Thanks to all of you for joining our 2011 celebration, and we look forward to every minute of serving you in 2012.

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Decadal trends in the Antarctic sea ice extent ultimately controlled by ice–ocean feedback

Decadal trends in the Antarctic sea ice extent ultimately controlled by ice–ocean feedback

Brohan et al., 2006). This has the advantage to introduce lim- ited perturbations in the model dynamics (e.g. Dubinkina et al., 2011; Dubinkina and Goosse, 2013) and to provide esti- mates over the 20th century that are as homogenous as pos- sible (Goosse et al., 2009). In comparison, the atmospheric reanalyses often have shifts in the late 1970s associated with the introduction of satellite measurements in the set of assim- ilated data, which leads to spurious long-term trends (Kistler et al., 2001; Fichefet et al., 2003; Marshall, 2003). Never- theless, because of this weak constraint and because of the low resolution of LOVECLIM, we do not expect to simulate the details of the observed trends. Even sea ice–ocean mod- els driven by the best estimates of atmospheric forcing have trouble in reproducing the sea ice variability in the Southern Ocean over the last decades (Fichefet et al., 2003; Zhang, 2007; Massonnet et al., 2011). We are, however, able to sim- ulate a large decrease of the ice concentration in the Belling- shausen Sea and in the western Weddell Sea and an increase in the majority of the other sectors in good agreement with observations (Fig. 10a). The overall trend in ice extent is of − 38 ± 93 × 10 3 km 2 per decade over the period 1979–2009. This implies that the ensemble mean of the simulation with data assimilation underestimates the observed increase. The
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Greater Sage-Grouse Population Trends
Across Wyoming

Greater Sage-Grouse Population Trends Across Wyoming

In addition to range contraction, sage-grouse populations generally have been declining range-wide since the 1920s (Braun 1998). Sage-grouse populations fluctuate over approximately 9- to 10-year cycles (Fedy and Aldridge 2011, Fedy and Doherty 2011), whereby periods of decline are followed by periods of increasing populations and vice versa (Rich 1985); however, subsequent population highs generally are lower than the preceding high level, resulting in an overall downward population trend (Braun 1998). The range-wide breeding population has declined 45–80% since the 1950s with the majority of declines occurring after 1980 (Braun 1998). Others have estimated breeding populations declined approximately 2% annually during 1965–2003 (Connelly et al. 2004). Of note, these studies occurred >13 years ago, and there is some uncertainty regarding more recent population trends. Population declines have resulted in sage-grouse populations in Canada being listed as endangered by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (Aldridge and Brigham 2003) and recently, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) considered listing sage-grouse under the Endan- gered Species Act but ruled sage-grouse were not warranted for protection (USFWS 2015). This ruling was based on unprecedented conservation efforts that were implemented in federal and state management plans written during the previous 5 years targeted at ameliorating population threats identified by the USFWS when they ruled that sage-grouse were warranted for listing in 2010 but precluded because of higher priority species (USFWS 2010).
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Record Ridership Trends. Growth consistent across Country.

Record Ridership Trends. Growth consistent across Country.

Tom Lambert, Houston METRO's interim president and chief executive officer, agrees. "The trends are a reflection of the changes we're making to meet our riders' needs," he said recently in a story from Progressive Railway (Houston METRO reports nine-month ridership increase, August 22, 2013). Houston METRO logged a 3.7 percent gain in ridership over a nine-month period (Oct. ’12 — June ’13). As one of the largest transit systems in America, METRO’s surge in ridership is a positive indicator of what is happening with transit systems across North America.
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