The analysis concerns aggregate levels of risk and vulnerability, that is, analysis about large groups of children which are, on average, likely to be associated with lower child wellbeing or worse outcomes in later life. It does not enable any assessment of the specific problems faced by specific individuals. We do not say that each child or young person in each of these groups is vulnerable to immediate harm or would appreciate being described as such. The needs of an individual child will depend on the combination of circumstances they face and the assets and resources available to them. There will be children included in these groups that experience little disadvantage compared to their peers and may go on to have good outcomes in later life. Likewise, many other children not included in our framework can experience disadvantages and problems in life.
2. We rescale our PC-level predictions so that lie between the relevant minima and maxima (conditional on the same IDACI decile) calculated in step 1. For example, a parliamentary constituency that has highest predicted rate of an outcome measure conditional on being in IDACI decile 3, is assigned the highest LA-prediction among LAs in IDACI decile 3. For PCs that lie within the interior of their IDACI decile-specific range – i.e. neither minima nor maxima – the new prediction is imputed through linear interpolation.
A key issue highlighted in the Children’s Commissioner’s Spending on Children in England: 2000 to 2020 IFS report and in the visits to local authorities was the rising financial pressures on the high needs budget to support children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND). This was seen as a result of the rise in pupil numbers at more expensive specialist provision as well as the cost to councils of children with SEND in mainstream schools due to what was widely perceived as a general underfunding of educational support. Other causes referred to by local authorities were the cost of the statutory extension of Education, Health and Care Plans (EHCPs) to 25 years as well as the overall squeeze on local authority budgets limiting their flexibility to respond to unexpectedly high levels of need. Councils identified the lack of funding for home-school transport for SEND children as an additional problem. Figure 14 shows that just under three quarters of children supported with their SEND needs were receiving SEN support (averaged at 8,600 annually). Figure 15 shows that this group received a tenth of SEND spend, at an average of under £5 million annually). On the other hand, the 1% of SEND children who were supported by EHCP specialist provision (an average of 110 children annually) received support accounting for 17% of the cost of supporting SEND, at an average of £8 million annually.
Different microeconomic surveys find a similar pattern, though it may be changing slightly over time, suggesting a financial deepening process (see figure 3; see also figure A1 in the appendix). Moreover, households’ behavior in terms of their ability to pay back debts may vary considerably depending on their debt and income levels. This is an important reason to consider household heterogeneity when analyzing household financial vulnerability.
OMG Women in Ag Event –On September 10, 2019, the 6th Annual Osage, Maries & Gasconade (OMG) Counties Women in Ag Event was held at the White Mule Winery with the theme of “Locally Grown.” The committee for this event included staff from FSA, NRCS, SWCD, and Extension from all three counties. Sponsorship funds were received from many different sources. There were 265 registered attendees. The meal that was prepared by the White Mule Winery was outstanding. Our speakers were Brenda Van Booven with Tunnel Vision, Susan Mills-Gray with Preserving the Harvest, and Sharon Oetting – Life on the Farm. The 2020 event is was cancelled due to COVID-19.
ric patients with medically unexplained recurrent abdominal pain by retrospec- tive chart review and conducted tele- phone interviews with these patients when they were young adults. They found that, compared with a control group of patients without such history, those with recurrent abdominal pain in childhood were signi ﬁ cantly more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for both lifetime and current anxiety disorders in adulthood. A decade later, this study remains the pri- mary source of data on psychiatric out- comes into adulthood for pediatric patients with FAP. The small sample size, however, prohibited reliable evaluation of speci ﬁ c psychiatric diagnoses. Moreover, the study did not evaluate whether risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood dif- fered as a function of the persistence of abdominal pain. Thus, it is not known whether individuals with pediatric-onset FAP that resolves have rates of psychiat- ric disorders in adulthood comparable to those of individuals with no history of FAP; increased risk for psychiatric dis- orders might only characterize pediatric
alluvium and terrace aquifers, nine were classified as very highly vulnerable, and one (the Gerty) as highly vulnerable. The DRASTIC indices for all other alluvium and terrace deposits are not displayed on the vulnerability map, but are assumed to range from 125-155, with a high to very high vulnerability. Most bedrock basins are overlain in part by alluvium and terrace deposits. Where overlain by these deposits, the vulnerability rating for the alluvium and terrace deposits should be used.
Regulatory compliance often is a driver of vulnerability management program in both private corporations and government agencies. To be compliant to regulations, corporations will need tools to automate the process of vulnerability discovery and management so that they can address the regulated security controls. Under the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA), the U.S. federal agencies have to be compliant to various security controls for operation and management. In addition, the Federal Desktop Core Configuration (FDCC) has extensive requirements for federal agencies in terms of desktop and laptop PCs that run on Microsoft Windows. The National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) has developed SCAP (the Security Content Automation Protocol) 6 to standardize the
Existing climate variability already has a significant impact on agriculture. Extreme weather events have resulted in average losses of EUR 176 million per year during 2000-2007. This represents 0.6% of national GDP, or 9.3% of the GVA generated by the agricultural, forestry and fisheries sector. Looking at the future effect on maize alone, the lost revenue due to climate change would be EUR 6-16 million in 2050 and EUR 31-43 million in 2100. This corresponds to 0.8-5.7% of all revenue from arable crop sales in Croatia in 2005. Most of this damage is due to water shortage during critical times, as well as flooding and hail-storms which also cause damage. Particular years, such as 2003 and 2007, suffered huge economic damage that is difficult to recover. While some Government-supported insurance programmes and a new ir- rigation programme exist, current vulnerability to climate variability remains – particularly related to drought.
Networks surround us. In the real world, networks with non-trivial topology have a broad variety of utilizations. These real-world utilizations can be exemplified as: The In- ternet, world trade Web, metabolic networks, electricity networks, supply chain networks, road networks, etc. With the introduction of small-world networks and complex networks’ scale-free properties in the literature, trying to understand the principles of organization of complex networks has attracted considerable interest within half a decade. Complex networks have a multidisciplinary research and application domain. Within this domain, there are also branches of different sciences such as social sciences and information as well as basic sciences. The staple topic that is used to get the measure of stability and robustness of complex networks is that of vulnerability. The total resistance of a network’s underlying graph can be defined as the vulnerability of that network. While obtaining an underlying graph of a network, main components are the nodes and the links. The links connect two nodes that mutually send information. Both the node and link vulnerability of complex networks can be examined; that is, it is possible to discuss how the network is affected by removing any combination of nodes and links from the network.
While our initial evaluation demonstrate the promise of a context - aware approach to vulnerability scanning, it does highlight several limitations which form the foundation for future work in this area. First, we are not providing the patch for the detected vulnerable URL. To overcome this, we are planning to generate the patches and providing solutions in future.
set to 0 and tumor values to 1. The setup is the same as for fine kidney segmenta- tion step. Nevertheless, there are test time augmentations (TTA) performed on the validation and testing sets. I use 12 augmentations, that are combinations of 90-degree rotations and flips on all dimensions. From the output of the model, I calculate all the connected components and name them candidates to be a tumor on the given kidney. From the model I also now the probability map (output before converting to logits). So the next step is to calculate the mean probability for each candidate and select only the one, that have probabilities higher than 0.8. This number is empirical and more research on this part is needed.
The risk or hazard or biophysical approaches to vulnerability were concerned with the ‘likelihood of injury’ and damage caused as the core concern (Burton, Kates & White 1978). Subsequently, scholars posited that vulnerability is not confined to only the devastations caused by disaster to the physical environment, but also the impact on the social, economic, and political environments (Morrow & Phillips 1999; United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction [UNISDR] 2004). Moreover, the activities of people in view of their varying age, gender and ethnicity characteristics are equally significant (Juntunen 2005). The pressure-and-release model assessed vulnerability in terms of a politico-ecological (Hewitt 1983) or politico-economic framework (Bohle et al. 1994). Later, the focus shifted to mitigation and control of disaster through coping measures (Birkmann 2006; Turner et al. 2003), and then to adaptation of resilience measures, which is considered the opposite side of vulnerability (Holling 1996; Timmerman 1981). Finally, a comprehensive view of vulnerability, taking into account exposure, susceptibility, socio-economic conditions and resilience measures of households, was considered more appropriate in understanding disaster impact (Birkmann 2006; Cardona 1999, 2001; Cardona & Barbat 2000; Cardona & Hurtado 2000; Carreno, Cardona & Barbat 2005). However, adaptation and resilience measures of livelihood may not be effective in coping with disaster without assessing and identifying vulnerability of people’s existing socio-economic reality (Lavell 1999; UNISDR 2004) and without taking into account the effect of disaster in the time and space framework. A disaster has far-reaching effects on both the tangible and intangible assets of households who live in its active zone. It disrupts people’s livelihood structure, destroys their property, savings and employment infrastructure and, more importantly, dismantles their much-valued social network. Reconstruction of habitat and livelihood structure of the affected households is already government’s foremost concern after floods, which is not only determined by flood intensity and its concomitant harms but, more importantly, by the ability of flood victims to recover from the disaster. In adverse conditions, the coping measures adapted by affected households are referred to as sustainable livelihood framework (Department for International Development [DFID] 1999).
Merinkangas, et al., 2003; Lepine, 2002; Nock, Hwang, Samson, & Kessler, 2010; Olatunji, Ciselr, & Tolin, 2007; Waghorn, Chant, White, & Whiteford, 2005). Although less prevalent in children (e.g., Costello, Foley, & Angold, 2006; Merikangas, He, Burstein, Swanson, Avenevoli, Cui, et al., 2010; Rapee, Schniering, & Hudson, 2009), early onset leads to a more chronic and severe course (Essau, Conradt, & Peterman, 2002; Garber, Kriss, Koch, & Lindholm, 1998; Roza, Holstra, van der Ende, & Verhulst, 2003; Weems, 2008), interferes with academic and social achievements (Asendorpf, Denissen, & van Aken, 2008; Ashcraft, 2002; Cole, 1990; Crozier & Hostettler, 2003; Owens, Stevenson, Norgate, & Hadwin, 2008), and is associated with the development of other mental health problems (Lewinsohn, Holm-Denoma, Small, Seeley, & Joiner, 2008; Roza et al, 2003). Early identification and intervention provide an opportunity to reduce the impact of these disorders, but require a clear understanding of vulnerability.
Abstract- A failure to make security a priority while developing software invites intruders to perform malicious activities like money laundering, social engineering attack and loss of other important business information. Computer systems such as Servers, Workstations and even mobiles are vulnerable to attack from many avenues. A single severe vulnerability that allows intruders to get root access to the system is probably more crucial than several low severe vulnerabilities. A successful recognition of vulnerability plays an important role in lowering down the risk of attacks. For years, researchers and other institutions are working for the betterment of vulnerability scoring systems. Numerous security measures and tools are available which makes the software much harder for intruders. Meanwhile security breaches and risk is also rising, which doesn‘t stop with the development of security techniques. Once vulnerability is detected, it is important to release a patch at the earliest before it makes any damage. Scoring systems like CVSS is used to produce numerical score of vulnerability reflecting its severity level. On the basis of evaluated score security team could assess the security situation of the system including host and network. CVSS uses three metric groups (Base, Temporal and Environmental) to calculate the severity of vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose a mechanism IVSEV (Improved Vulnerability scoring system with ‗Environment representative‘ and ‗Vulnerability type‘) for the better assessment of vulnerabilities. The proposed IVSEV adds two new features ER ―Environment Representative‖ & VT ―Vulnerability type‖ into conventional CVSS-v2 base score equation.
The analysis of vulnerability in networks generally in- volves some questions about how the underlying graph is connected. One is naturally interested in studying the types of disruption in the network that maybe caused by failures of certain links or nodes. In terms of a graph, the concept of connectedness is used in different forms to study many of the measures of vulnerability. When cer- tain vertices or edges of a connected graph are deleted, one wants to know whether the remaining graph is still connected, and if so, what its vertex - or edge - connec- tivity is. If on the other hand, the graph is disconnected, the determination of the number of its components or their orders is useful. Our purpose here is to describe and analyses the current status of the vulnerability mea- sures, identify its more interesting variants, and suggest a most suitable measure of vulnerability.
Therefore, if multiple applications use the same SSL/TLS implementation, some may be vulnerable while others may not, depending on whether or not a countermeasure has been enabled. Note that this script detects the vulnerability in the SSLv3/TLSv1 protocol implemented in the server. It does not detect the BEAST attack where it exploits the vulnerability at HTTPS client-side (i.e., Internet browser). The detection at server-side does not necessarily mean your server is vulnerable to the BEAST attack because the attack exploits the vulnerability at client-side, and both SSL/TLS clients and servers can independently employ the split record countermeasure.
Today in the field of information technology people can get any information by just single click on web applications. Web application plays very important role. Many organizations are mapping their business from a room to the world with the help of these web apps. Each web apps consist of three tier architecture in which database is third tier. As use of web apps increases day by day many kind of attacks also increases on them. Some attacks are SQL INJECTION, BANNER GRABBING, QUERY STRING & UNION. There have been proposed vulnerability scanners but none of them are able to detect these attacks completely. Apart from that i propose an approach to find possibility of vulnerability on web apps and generate report based on it.
Besides, SI continuously conducts household surveys in the ITS, both to identify newcomers and to determine shelter and WASH vulnerabilities prior to Solidarités International intervention, coming up thus with a multi-sectorial (livelihood, WASH, Shelter, NFI) overview of the needs of the refugee population living in ITS. Then, depending on the needs identified through the HH survey, SI provides the assistance required in terms of NFI, WASH and Shelter. This report is thus based on needs identified prior to SI’s intervention.