This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Thesis/Dissertation Collections at RIT Scholar Works. It has been accepted for inclusion in Theses by an authorized administrator of RIT Scholar Works. For more information, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cole, Kevin A., "Tubularsolarcollectoranalysis and comparison with flatplatecollectors in SDHWapplications" (1981). Thesis.
Solar energy collectors are special kind of heat exchangers that transform solar radiation energy to internal energy of the transport medium. The major component of any solar system is the solarcollector. Of all the solar thermal collectors, the flatplatecollectors though produce lower temperatures, have the advantage of being simpler in design, having lower maintenance and lower cost. To obtain maximum amount of solar energy of minimum cost the flatplatesolar air heaters with thermal storage have been developed. Solar air heater is type of solarcollector which is extensively used in many applications such as residential, industrial and agricultural fields.
Email: email@example.com 1 , firstname.lastname@example.org 2
Abstract- Renewable energy is accepted as a key source for the future, not only for Saudi Arabia, but also for the world. Saudi Arabia has abundant potential for exploiting solar energy, which is renewable, clean, and freely available. The average annual solar radiation falling on the Arabian Peninsula is about 7900 MJ/m2. The utilization of solar energy could cover a significant part of the energy demand in the country. If a major breakthrough is achieved in the field of solar-energy conversion, Saudi Arabia can be a leading producer and exporter of solar energy in the form of electricity. The geographical location of the country, its widespread unused desert land, and year-round clear skies, all make it an excellent place of study for research.Flat-platecollectors are in wide use for domestic household hot-water heating and for space heating, where the demand temperature is low. Many excellent models of flat-platecollectors are available commercially to the solar designer. A real time application of flat-platecollectors is included here because of its use in house-hold heating systems either to supply low-temperature demands or to preheat the heat transfer fluid before entering a field of higher-temperature concentrating, collectors.The emphasis of this work is to develop an understanding of both the attributes of different design features and the performance characteristics of this class of collector (FlatPlate). The results will permit the system designer to evaluate whether flat-platecollectors should be considered in a system design.The assembly is done by combining the frames, the glass cover, the tubes and flow controls and the temperature controls as a single unit fabricated as designed. The position of collector face is due south and it is tilted above the ground surface with reference to its latitude.
Email: email@example.com 1
Abstract- A flat-platecollector is a non-tracking (fixed) type of the collector with a glass or plastic cover (called glazing) on top side and an absorber plate (painted dark) on the bottom. Solar radiations passes through the glazing and being absorbed by the absorber plate is then transferred to the liquid flowing through the pipes and is thus utilized for raising the temperature of liquid. An attempt has been made in this paper to analyze the performance of flatplatesolarcollector in terms of its efficiency. A comparison of flatplatecollector with and without reflector sheets is also presented in this study.
The major component of any solar system is the solarcollector. A solarcollector is a device designed to absorb incident solar radiation and to transfer the energy to a fluid passing in contact with it. Of all the solar thermal collectors, the flatplatecollectors though produce lower temperatures, have the advantage of being simpler in design, having lower maintenance and lower operational
Abstract: Solarflatplatecollectors are devices adapted excite solar thermal energy and use it for heating applications like water heating, house heating and totally different industrial applications. Flatplatecollectors [FPCs] are normal for low and medium heating applications.
Therefore, statistical and experimental studies were conducted on site in order to improve the thermal efficiency of FPCs.Coolant oil is utilized as fluids are the foremost effective ways in which to improve heat transfer. Comparison of varied heat transfer improvement methods, that cause choosing the foremost effective chance among them. The results of mode parameters just like the thickness and coating of the glass cowl, the thickness and material of the sorbent material plate, the air gap between the sorbent material plate and so the glass cowl, and so the space between risers and so the insulation materials are thought of to spice up the performance of FPCs. The influences of the atmosphere conditions, mass flow, angle and constant on the performance of the collector with clear insulating materials were analyzed.
Dr.S.V.Prayagi.et.al  Present work deals with solar water heating system in particular. Performance of the solarcollectors can be determined by using empirical correlation. This helps in understanding logically the effect of parameters like tube length, tube diameter and fluid flow characteristics for buoyancy induced flow through pipes. The analysis is simple for the forced convection situation, where the flow rate is artificially maintained constant to a desired value. The heat transfer coefficient can be easily predicted using the information available in the literature. However the natural convection situation is very difficult to analyze as appropriate correlations for predicting the value of induced mass flow rate. Because of the thermo-siphon effect and the associated heat transfer coefficient are not available. The aim of present investigation therefore, is to establish correlations for heat transfer and flow characteristics for the buoyancy induced flow through inclined tube in case of solar water heating system. Considering complexity of the problem, experimental approach is preferred. In order to produce required data experiment were performed using increasing tube diameter, and reducing riser length. Experiments were performed to establish heat transfer characteristics where Nusselt number is directly proportional to 2 nd power of the tube diameter
absorber plate on the bottom. The sides and bottom of the collector are usually insulated to minimize heat loss.
Sunlight passes through the glazing and strikes the absorber plate, which heats up, changing solar energy into heat energy. The heat is transferred to liquid passing through pipes attached to the absorber plate. Absorber plates are commonly painted with "selective coatings," which absorb and retain heat better than ordinary black paint. Absorber plates are usually made of metal—typically copper or aluminum—because the metal is a good heat conductor.
Black chrome plating was used as a spectrally selective absorbing coating: whilst not as selective as proprietary mass-produced coatings, it was available locally for one-off applications. The undesirably high emissivity obtained using a general purpose plating bath, Fig. 4, limited the collector efficiency but does not detract from the validity of con- clusions about evacuated panels. The black chrome plating process is highly non-linear and any deviation from uniformity in the voltage gradient between the electrodes produces some regions with too thick a coating while others have almost none.
Experiments conducted by Yousefi et al. (2012) showed that the usage of Triton X-100 surfactant in the noanofluid, in addition to Al 2 O 3 of 0.2%
volume fraction and particle size of 15 nm, in- creased the efficiency by 28.3% in comparison to water. An additional study by Yousefi et al. (2012) confirmed the same finding related to the use of surfactant. Moreover, it showed that an increase in the concentration of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) from 0.2 to 0.4 weight fraction result- ed in a substantial increase in the efficiency. Tyagi et al. (2009) investigated the feasibility of using a concentrating direct absorption solarcollector (DAC) and compares its performance with that of a typical flat-platecollector with a nanofluid used as the absorbing medium. It was noticed that the presence of nanoparticles increases the absorp- tion of incident radiation by more than nine times over that of pure water. It was found that under similar operating conditions, the efficiency of a direct absorption collector DAC using nanofluid as the working fluid was increased by 10% in re- lation to the one of a flat-platecollector. Gener- ally, a DAC using nanofluids as the working fluid performs better than a flat-platecollector.
MONOGRAPH ON EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FLATPLATECOLLECTORSOLAR WATER HEATER
Dr. Sarala. P. Adhau is an associate professor (Electrical Engineering Department) at Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur. She graduated from Government College of Engineering Amravati in the year 1989 and did her post- graduation from Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology Nagpur in 1999 with a specialization in Integrated Power System. There are more than 40 research papers to her credit. She has a wide teaching experience of more than 30 years. Her research interest includes Renewable Energy Generation, Solar PV and Solar thermal applications, Small/micro hydro power generation, biomass conversion etc.
OLAR collectors and thermal energy storage components are the two core subsystems in solar thermal energy systems. The thermal storage subsystems require high thermal storage density with small volume and low construction cost, excellent heat transfer rate in order to absorb and release heat at the required speed. Whilst solarcollector is a device that absorbs the incoming solar radiation, converts it into heat, and transfers the heat to a fluid flowing through the collector. Thus solarcollectors need to have good optical performance in order to absorb heat as much as possible. The flatplatesolarcollectors are usually permanently fixed in position and therefore need to be oriented approximately. A typical flatplatecollector consists of glazing covers, absorber plate, insulation layers, recuperating tubes filled with heat transfer fluid and other auxiliaries -. Hossain et al.  reviewed on solar water heater collector and thermal energy performance of circulating pipe. They found that the solar water heater with a siphon system achieves system characteristic efficiency of 18% higher than that of the conventional system by reducing heat loss for the thermo-siphon solar water heater. Cruz-Peragon et al.  presented a general methodology to validate a collector model, with undetermined associated complexity, which serves to characterize the device by means of critical coefficients, such as the film convection transfer coefficient, plate absorptance or
The study by Prashant Baredar et al.  evaluates heat transfer and fluid flow behavior in a rectangular duct with inverted U-type turbulator roughened ribs mounted on one of the principal wall (solarplate) using CFD software (Fluent 6.3.26 Solver). In this study, the CFD software was used to perform a numerical simulation for enhanced turbulent heat transfer. In this study, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes analysis was used as a numerical technique and the k-ε turbulent model with near-wall treatment as a turbulent model. The results are validated by comparing with existing experimental data. A thin inclined U-turbulator geometry with a passage underside could definitely prevent totally the formation of eddies and also the redevelopment of two boundary layers at the reattachment point between two adjacent ribs. The value of the Nusselt number increases sharply at low Reynolds number and this becomes constant or increases very slightly in comparison to low Reynolds number. This also satisfied our aim of solarcollector application at low Reynolds number.
This would prevent over-heating of the circulating fluid, a common problem in many applications of solarcollectors. One of the first studies of heat pipes in solarapplications was carried out by Bienert and Wol. In this case, the evaporator end of a heat pipe was inserted in a flat-platecollector, and the condenser protruded into a water manifold attached to the upper end of the collector. The results of this investigation were neither conclusive nor optimistic. Since then, numerous studies have been carried out, including theoretical analysis and calculation, experimental testing, combined investigation involving theoretical analysis and experimental trials , as well as applications in practice . Most of these studies involved the investigation of the thermal performance of various types of heat-pipe solarcollectors by analytical, numerical or experimental methods with the aim of establishing suitable structures or system layouts, as well as optimum operating conditions for high efficiency.
Abstract - Flatplatecollectors developed by HOTTEL and WHILLIER in 1950s are the most common type of solarcollector which are widely for domestic house hold hot water heating and space heating, where demand temperature is low. A Solar tracking mechanism is an effort to increase the efficiency of water heating through the solar module. Since the solar module is stationary, rays falling on it are at different angles at different points of time. It takes lot of time to fall perpendicular to the solar module where more amount of solar energy is wasted which leads to decrease in efficiency. During morning and evening hours the efficiency of solar module is as less as negligible leads to very low output of the system. Hence in order to improve efficiency, solar tracking mechanism is used.
have studied the analysis of PV/T flatplate water collec- tors connected in series. They showed that the number of series collectors is influenced by mass flow rates.
In the residential use, there are generally two systems for heating water. The first one is the direct-coupled sys- tems (SDHW) which has two ways to circulate the fluid between the collectors and the thermal storage tank, ei- ther by fixing the total mass flow rate returned from the storage tank to the collectors’ field or by fixing the mass flow rate by a collector. Mass flow rate by collector and the total mass flow rate depend on the connection-type between solarcollectors. The parallel arrangements be- tween collectors increases the total flow rate entering the storage tank that destroys the stratification and decreases the average water temperature within the storage; and in this case series-parallel combinations are preferred.
A ﬂ ooded panel absorber has been designed for use in evacuated ﬂ at platesolarcollectors. The aim was to obtain higher eﬃciency, in a low out-gassing material, than would be possible using a conventional serpentine tube design.
Initial plans for a micro-channel plate were modi ﬁ ed when optimisation analysis showed that a ﬂ ooded panel could achieve as good performance with easier fabrication. The absorber plate is made from hydroformed stainless steel sheets welded together and features an array of through-holes for the glass-supporting pillars with the square panel subdivided into two rectangles connected in series for ease of fabrication and better ﬂ ow distribution. The coolant ﬂow was modelled in Star-CCM+. FEM simulations based on tensile test data informed the choice of sheet thickness and weld radius around the holes to withstand the 1 bar pressure di ﬀ erential.
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-8, Issue-11, September 2019
Abstract: Solarflatplatecollectors nowadays find more applications considering the cost involved with conventional water heating systems using fossil fuels. The performance of these systems can usually be enhanced by varying select important parameters of the system for improved heat transfer ability of the collector. Therefore, this work is aimed at evaluating the effects of nano-Nickel Oxide (NiO) coatings on liquid flatplatecollector for better heat transfer effect. Two flatplatecollectors are designed and fabricated with same operating parameters such as collector area, system size and spacing, pipe diameter and size of collecting tank, etc. The heat transfer effect is simultaneously studied in these two units to observe the effect of nano coating in comparison with black chrome coating.
6. To fabricate a cost efficient flatplatesolarcollector with the use of different alternative materials.
8. Experimental analysis, performance evaluation and comparison of glass cover tubes of a copper pipe diameter in terms of efficiency and selecting the best result for improved efficiency of the fabricated flatplatesolarcollector water heating system.
Key words: Solar Energy, Solar Liquid FlatPlateCollector I. I NTRODUCTION
The flatplatecollectors are the commonly used device for residential water and space-heating applications. Solarcollectors have potential to fulfill the industrial process heating demands which helps in the saving of electric energy. Basically, solarcollectors are used for the low temperature application due to its operating simplicity. From the non-concentrating collectors liquid flatplatesolarcollector (LFPSC) is much preferable because of its design simplicity and more reliability. The main purpose of this paper is to give the selection criteria to create the best design and operational conditions with the best economic characteristics for solarflatplatecollectors.