The importance of vocabulary becomes more apparent when it comes to teaching a language as a foreign or second language. One of the essential elements of foreignlanguage education and competence in a foreignlanguage is the vocabulary (Çelikkaya, 2012; Tanyer & Öztürk, 2014). As Thornbury (2002) stated, words play an important role in language teaching for the reason that language is built upon words. According to Wilkins (1972), while little can be conveyed without grammar knowledge, nothing can be conveyed without words. Vocabulary —an important constituent of foreignlanguage teaching— is regarded as the base for communicative competence and foreignlanguage acquisition, and vocabulary deficiencies pose obstacles for languagelearning (Susanto, 2017). Since the lack of vocabulary knowledge would hinder effective communication, vocabulary knowledge is regarded as a key element for foreignlanguagelearners (Alqahtani, 2015). In this sense, foreignlanguagelearning can be considered as closely related to vocabulary (Nassaji, 2006). The facts that vocabulary directly contributes to a learner in different areas and, as stated by Özdemir (2017), vocabulary teaching is directly related to all language skills make vocabulary teaching important in foreignlanguage teaching. According to Bölükbaş (2013), teaching and enhancing word knowledge have multi-dimensions and require a long time since it is possible to merely conceptualize the words if seen for the first time and it is possible to forget the word(s) unless they are transferred to long-term memory. Learners learn words explicitly or incidentally inside or outside school in language teaching process. Besides, learners also learn words by using different strategies as independent learners.
Since the 15th century, when the Turkishlanguage initiated its adventure as a taught foreignlanguage, we have come a long way. In a parallel way, with the increasing demand of Turkish as a ForeignLanguage (TFL), Turkishlanguage pedagogy has been continuing to improve adjusting to the new trends in language teaching in the world. The ultimate aim of learning a language is that effective communication cannot be actualised without knowledge of substantial vocabulary. Vocabularylearning and teaching, from a ‘grammaticalized lexis (Lewis, 1993)’ perspective, forms a crucial part of foreignlanguage development, and thus, VocabularyLearningStrategies (VLS) - rooted in cognitive and psycholinguistic research paradigms - are of utmost importance (Lewis, 1993; Nyikos and Fan, 2007). With all these in mind, this study aims to investigate the vocabularylearningstrategies employed by 155 international students studying Turkish preparatory year programme at the TurkishLanguageLearning Centre (TÖMER) of a state university in Turkey. Descriptive results reveal that lower proficiency groups (A1 and A2) employ VLS strategies more than B2 level group does. Memory, Affective and Social Strategies are found to be the most frequently used strategies. One-way ANOVA results reveal that there is a statistically significant difference among proficiency levels of the participants. With respect to gender, t-test results show a difference for one type of strategy employed. The results are discussed in terms of significance and association with previous research. In the end, suggestions and implications are given for stakeholders of learning and teaching TFL.
Discussions are also being made about the ways in which subtitled films can be used to learn language. The films can be viewed with two-way subtitles that can be controlled or uncontrolled. That is, dialogues on the target language can be viewed with repeated or unrepeated subtitles. Perhaps the students will be happy to watch the films with the subtitles (voice and text together) that can be controlled. Because, they will see the words several times during the watching and find opportunities to reinforce them. The use of films according to Zarei (2009)-especially the use of subtitling films-is one of the most enjoyable and comfortable methods of teaching target languagevocabulary. According to some scientists (Paivio, 1971, Stewart & Pertusa, 2004), subtitle film monitoring - along with new word and word content in its content-helps foreignlanguagelearners develop their target language skills as they have a rich target language target content.
The first research question was about the relationship between Ira- nian EFL learners’ motivation and their use of vocabularylearningstrategies. To Answer the research question, a significant correlation between motivation and vocabularylearningstrategies was concluded (sig= .000 and p-value ¡0.05). This finding supported the important be- lief about the positive influence of motivation on vocabularylearning, which is widespread among practitioner and researchers (Clement, Gard- ner, & Smythe, 1977; Clement & Kruidenier, 1985; Csizer & Dornyei, 2005; Dornyei & Csizer, 2002; Elley, 1989; Ely, 1986; Gardner, 1985; Gard- ner & MacIntyre, 1991; Lukmani, 1972; Noels, Clement, & Pelletier, 1999; Schmidt & Watanabe, 2001; Tremblay & Gardner, 1995; cited in Tseng & Schmitt, 2008) in this research area (Tseng & Schmitt, 2008). The findings indicated that many researchers and practitioners have accepted the sensitive role of motivation on learningvocabulary. Ush- ioda (1996) remarked, “[a] utonomous languagelearners are by defini- tion motivated learners” (p. 2). Then they carried out different research studies in order to find the importance of motivation in VL. In this case, Gardner and MacIntyre (1991) demonstrated that both integra- tive motivation and instrumental motivation can facilitate vocabularylearners in using meta-cognitive strategy for vocabularylearning (sig.=.027, p<.05). Based on the results, high motivated learners had higher mean score than low motivated learners.
cannot let themselves learning as well. Young learners need support from the teacher to find the meaning in language in learninglanguage. Vygotsky (1962) says that when we interact we use words to try to capture our own and other people‟s „sense‟, our own particular contextualized understanding and connotations for events and ideas. The role of the meaning here basically is needed where the children can find it simply through the vocabulary. For the children learningvocabulary of a foreignlanguage, this case has related to the vocabulary development which is about learning words. Cameron (2001) says that learning words is a cyclical process of meeting new words and initial learning, followed by meeting those words again and again, each time extending knowledge of what the words mean and how they are used in the foreignlanguage.
school in Tirana, Albania, where Turkish is taught as a foreignlanguage. The participants’ intelligence types were measured through conduct of Multiple Intelligence Inventory for Adults, while Pearson correlation tests were carried out to analyze the relationship between students’ dominant intelligence types and their scores in each section. The results revealed the existence of negative correlation between the participant learners’ bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence and interpersonal intelligence and their performance in the grammar test. No other relationship between any intelligence types or Multiple Intelligence overall and achievements in vocabulary or writing was established. This study suggests grammar instruction should be provided with all learning styles in mind and that further research focus on effects of MI-based instruction on foreignlanguagelearning proficiency.
In other words, one cannot learn a language without vocabulary even though there are some teachers who believe that vocabulary does not need to be actively taught (Kang, 1995) and too little is known about the relationship between different aspects of word knowledge (Vermeer, 2001). Krashen (1989) describes learners’ interest in vocabulary by the fact that they carry a dictionary more often than a grammar book. Additionally, learnersuse various strategies to find the meaning of new words to retain them in long-term memory, to retrieve them at will, and to use them in oral or written mode (Catalan, 2003). Moreover, lack of knowledge of academic words impedes the natural process of learning (Carlo et al., 2004), and lack of vocabulary knowledge is frequently mentioned by teachers as a problem (Cameron, 2002). On the other hand, learners have different cognitive approaches to learningvocabulary such as picture, picturing the words spelled out, reacting to the sound of the word, and using dictionary (Cohen & Aphek, 1980).
This research is formed at the A1 (Breakthrough) language level. This is the first language level in 6 language levels of CEFR in which  “the learner can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. He/she can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and thing he/she has. He/she can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.”
Another determination strategy which was found to be used by almost more than three-quarters of the participants was the use of dictionaries. 79% of the participants had clearly stated that “it was only at the beginning of the academic year when our teachers requested to bring a bilingual dictionary to class yet we never used it”. When asking our teachers about the meaning of any word, she would say “you have your dictionary, so go home and check the word. There is no time to do this in the class because we have to finish the lesson”. Getting such replies, students never brought their dictionaries with them but they got the point of relying on it when they really need to know the meaning of certain words. The findings of this study are in agreement with others as it is been reported by different research that despite the proficiency level of L2 learners, many of them rely on bilingual dictionaries to know words‟ meaning (Kent, 2001 & Jian et al, 2009). Gu & Johnson (1996) found that guessing and dictionary strategies were the most preferred ones by Malay English learners whereas notetaking, rehearsal and encoding were less adopted.
Therefore, the role of vocabulary in second and foreignlanguagelearning has been the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. A review of the research shows that vocabularylearning has turned its focus toward issues such as the meaning of the word, the number of words that every speaker know and the way to learn them. The results of these studies have exposed that vocabularylearning and teaching need a systematic approach (Carter & McCarthy, 1988; Taylor, 1990; Coady & Huckin, 1997; Stoller & Grabe, 1993; Laufer, 1986; Nation, 1990, 2001; Schmitt, 2000; Nattinger, 1988). Among the many methods and approaches applied to vocabularylearning and teaching, the use of technology has gained added importance recently.
Having investigated the instruments assessing vocabularylearningstrategies with special regard to those of YLs, a decision was made to consider Stoffer’s (1995), Schmitt’s (1998) and Pavi č i č ’s (2008) questionnaire items adapted from Oxford’s SILL (1991) for a large item pool. The reason for this was that these instruments had been either used or adjusted for YLs vocabularylearningstrategies. The pool also involved items that were considered worthy of being a component of a questionnaire assessing Hungarian YLs’ vocabularylearningstrategies. The items from all of the selected questionnaires were considered for inclusion in my new instrument. These four questionnaires appeared to have the most alignment with the construct and to be best suited for the development of vocabularylearningstrategies questionnaire for YLs because these instruments had also been previously used to investigate YLs. I also added some items to my new instrument because new strategies had also come into the picture especially amongst YLs since social network sites became so popular. Some of the items were extended with different variations. For example, the item in Pavi č i č (2008) ‘I watch English language TV shows spoken in English or go to movies spoken in English’ was modified in the following way and was broken up into three different items: ‘I watch English films with subtitles’, ‘I watch English films without subtitles’ and ‘I watch English films with Hungarian subtitles’. Table 2 presents the questionnaire items and their origins in the literature. Once the pool of the multitude of strategies was gathered, each and every item was examined as to whether they would fit into the instrument and into the Hungarian context. In the wake of this, the items were examined from the perspective of dimensions of vocabularylearningstrategies.
Vocabularylearningstrategies constitute a subclass of learningstrategies applicable to a wide variety of learning tasks. Rubin (1987) defines learningstrategies as the processes by which information is obtained, stored, retrieved and used. As seen from the definition, learningstrategies cannot be separated from what is being learnt or the process of learning. In order to control their learning, learners need to understand their own learning processes, be capable of making informed choices about their learning paths, and be proactive in managing and monitoring their own learning, all of which require learners to use effective languagelearningstrategies (Figura & Jarvis, 2007). Successful self-directed learners usually develop a series of strategies suitable for themselves to guarantee their effective control of languagelearning (Cohen, 2000; Ni, Chatupote, & Teo, 2008). Good autonomous learners can grasp a wide variety of learningstrategies better and utilize them more efficiently than poor learners (Dickinson, 1993), and this also applies to vocabularylearning (Kojic-Sabo & Lightbown, 1999).
underpinned by sound vocabularylearning theory. Successful learning outcomes, however, are dependent on the learner persevering with the learning task and various factors can influence this. Allum (2004) provides some evidence that the interactive ability of computer-based materials to assess responses and provide immediate feedback can motivate learners and encourage them to work harder at tasks and attempt them more frequently compared to paper-based alternatives. Whether that motivational effect will continue given the increasing ubiquity of interactive devices is a moot point.
Besides, the use of new strategies in English learning did not imply that the strategies were advantageous for the beginning learners of the fundamental course. It is, therefore, worth focusing more on the approach to strategy use according to the students’ learning goals. For example, listening to video clips on the Internet for improving pronunciation, speaking with English teachers and/or native speakers of English to improve fluency and communication skills, as well as reading authentic materials for gaining more and new vocabulary and evaluating comprehension skills could be useful for identifying and redirecting efforts to more beneficial objectives for English learning and ideally proposing learningstrategies for individual learners according to their learning goals. Moreover, strategy instruction should take into account teaching the resolution for using the learningstrategies so that the learners can be better equipped with a more accurate set of strategies. Since the use of strategies was different for English languagelearners at various levels, the instruction of learningstrategies should be matched with the learners’ goals, needs, lacks and purposes. Importantly, it is suggested that the learners know what the reasons of using those strategies are, and what the purposes in doing the learning activities are; as a result, the advantages will be given to their learning. Further, teachers should be well aware of the strategies the students use to learn the language. They should be able to be in assistance of their students in choosing learningstrategies that are suitable for their lacks and needs. As the study revealed that the students frequently use MGO and COI strategies which were more likely to help the students to gain positive effects on their English learning achievement, teachers should encourage them to more frequently use the strategies.
Many researchers have defined the term languagelearning strategy. Wenden and Rubin (1987) define learningstrategies as "... any sets of operations, steps, plans, routines used by the learner to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval, and use of information." Richards at. al. (1992) state that learningstrategies are "intentional behavior and thoughts used by learners during learning so as to better help them understand, learn, or remember new information." According to Stern (1992), "the concept of learning strategy depends on the assumption that learners consciously engage in activities to achieve certain goals and learningstrategies can be regarded as broadly conceived intentional directions and learning techniques." Either consciously or unconsciously, languagelearningstrategies are employed when languagelearners are processing new information and performing tasks in the language classroom. Since teaching and learning activity is like a problem-solving process, using languagelearningstrategies is inescapable for students to find the quickest or easiest way to do new input and difficult tasks given by their instructors. The following is some different taxonomy of languagelearningstrategies.
The study is basically limited to the use of vocabularylearningstrategies with respect to the Sudanese EFL learners. Thus, the study would not be generalized to other domain of study or subject matter. The study is also limited to population of Sudanese EFL learners taking the English language as major course at university level, therefore, the results could not be generalized to other population even if they are Sudanese EFL learners at university level because of the different setting and different environment. With regard to suggestion for future research, the current study confines itself to the context of Khartoum region in general and Khartoum University in particular. Similar studies need to be conducted within other learners in different contexts in order to compare their results and findings to those of the current study. In addition, VLSs investigated in this study are comprehensive set. However, a number of these strategies need to be investigated with more investigation with respect to their effective use, factors affecting their use and also their effect on learning outcomes.
Vocabularylearning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabularylearning since it provides the learners with numerous diverse privileges such as independency from teacher. The researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and vocabularylearningstrategiesuse in Iranian EFL learners with different language proficiency levels. To meet the above purpose, a total number of 190 male and female EFL learners participated in this study. The methodology underlying this study was quantitative (thorough the administration of two questionnaires and two language proficiency test – TOEFL for advanced group, and Nelson for intermediate level). The quantitative data was analyzed using a set of correlational analysis revealing a significant positive correlation between learner autonomy and vocabularylearningstrategiesuse in high proficient group, and a significant positive relationship between these two constructs in low proficient group, however not as strong as in the advanced group.
fined as a set of words to speak and write which contain meaning and are understood by the speakers of the lan- guage (Susanti, 2002; Yusoff, Ghani, & Al-Qusyairi, 2008). The language students are not able to communicate and convey the message clearly might be caused by lack of vocabulary (Daud & Pisal, 2014; Gan, 2012). One of the factors that distinguish the level of foreignlanguage achievement of a student is LanguageLearning Strategy (LLS) used. The studies about LLS in Malaysia have found a significant relationship between the use of LLS with skills and mastery of the language (Baharudin & Ismail, 2014; Nurazan, 2004; Teh, Yusoff, Embi, & Ma- hamod, 2000). The study done by Mahamod & Embi (2005) which focuses on the use of LanguageLearning Strategy among brilliant students and weak students in mastering English Language reading finds that the ex- cellent students use more LLS in order to enhance their language skills compared to weak students. Similarly, the study done by Mahamod, Embi, & Yusoff (2010) finds that student who masters the language skills namely reading, writing, listening and speaking skills uses various LLS. The studies about Arabic LanguageLearning Strategy conducted by Embi, Long, & Hamzah (2001), Nurazan (2004), KamarulShukri (2009) and Yasim (2012) also show that excellent students tend to use more LLS in learning the language.
This study examines the use of vocabularylearningstrategies knowledge. This study briefly, outlines some common vocabulary teaching strategies, and discusses the effectiveness of explicit, rich vocabulary teaching and learningstrategies. In addition, this study aims to develop word consciousness within our students and maintain their interest in words. The population of this study was selected from two groups consisted of 60 students. The researcher assumed testing to be the data collection tool. That is because testing is used to measure certain areas of difficulty and concern when acquiring a second language.The first group was given a test to examine the effects of neglected vocabularylearningstrategies. The second group was trained to usevocabularylearningstrategies such as (collocation, word mapping, infer meaning etc.). The group studied about 16 lessons. This study hypothesized that most of the Sudanese EFL Learners of Jebel Awlia fail to retain vocabulary they learnt before and unable to usevocabularylearningstrategies. The study showed that, vocabularylearningstrategies can help students to understand and use new words confidently. The result showed that students’ performance in learningvocabulary in English language is very low. The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the frequent problems that face learners in vocabulary knowledge.