Top PDF Turkish as a foreign language learners’ use of vocabulary learning strategies

Turkish as a foreign language learners’ use of vocabulary learning strategies

Turkish as a foreign language learners’ use of vocabulary learning strategies

The importance of vocabulary becomes more apparent when it comes to teaching a language as a foreign or second language. One of the essential elements of foreign language education and competence in a foreign language is the vocabulary (Çelikkaya, 2012; Tanyer & Öztürk, 2014). As Thornbury (2002) stated, words play an important role in language teaching for the reason that language is built upon words. According to Wilkins (1972), while little can be conveyed without grammar knowledge, nothing can be conveyed without words. Vocabulary —an important constituent of foreign language teaching— is regarded as the base for communicative competence and foreign language acquisition, and vocabulary deficiencies pose obstacles for language learning (Susanto, 2017). Since the lack of vocabulary knowledge would hinder effective communication, vocabulary knowledge is regarded as a key element for foreign language learners (Alqahtani, 2015). In this sense, foreign language learning can be considered as closely related to vocabulary (Nassaji, 2006). The facts that vocabulary directly contributes to a learner in different areas and, as stated by Özdemir (2017), vocabulary teaching is directly related to all language skills make vocabulary teaching important in foreign language teaching. According to Bölükbaş (2013), teaching and enhancing word knowledge have multi-dimensions and require a long time since it is possible to merely conceptualize the words if seen for the first time and it is possible to forget the word(s) unless they are transferred to long-term memory. Learners learn words explicitly or incidentally inside or outside school in language teaching process. Besides, learners also learn words by using different strategies as independent learners.
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Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Turkish as a Foreign Language Context

Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Turkish as a Foreign Language Context

Since the 15th century, when the Turkish language initiated its adventure as a taught foreign language, we have come a long way. In a parallel way, with the increasing demand of Turkish as a Foreign Language (TFL), Turkish language pedagogy has been continuing to improve adjusting to the new trends in language teaching in the world. The ultimate aim of learning a language is that effective communication cannot be actualised without knowledge of substantial vocabulary. Vocabulary learning and teaching, from a ‘grammaticalized lexis (Lewis, 1993)’ perspective, forms a crucial part of foreign language development, and thus, Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) - rooted in cognitive and psycholinguistic research paradigms - are of utmost importance (Lewis, 1993; Nyikos and Fan, 2007). With all these in mind, this study aims to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies employed by 155 international students studying Turkish preparatory year programme at the Turkish Language Learning Centre (TÖMER) of a state university in Turkey. Descriptive results reveal that lower proficiency groups (A1 and A2) employ VLS strategies more than B2 level group does. Memory, Affective and Social Strategies are found to be the most frequently used strategies. One-way ANOVA results reveal that there is a statistically significant difference among proficiency levels of the participants. With respect to gender, t-test results show a difference for one type of strategy employed. The results are discussed in terms of significance and association with previous research. In the end, suggestions and implications are given for stakeholders of learning and teaching TFL.
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Using Films in Vocabulary Teaching of Turkish as a Foreign Language

Using Films in Vocabulary Teaching of Turkish as a Foreign Language

Discussions are also being made about the ways in which subtitled films can be used to learn language. The films can be viewed with two-way subtitles that can be controlled or uncontrolled. That is, dialogues on the target language can be viewed with repeated or unrepeated subtitles. Perhaps the students will be happy to watch the films with the subtitles (voice and text together) that can be controlled. Because, they will see the words several times during the watching and find opportunities to reinforce them. The use of films according to Zarei (2009)-especially the use of subtitling films-is one of the most enjoyable and comfortable methods of teaching target language vocabulary. According to some scientists (Paivio, 1971, Stewart & Pertusa, 2004), subtitle film monitoring - along with new word and word content in its content-helps foreign language learners develop their target language skills as they have a rich target language target content.
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The Relationship Between Iranian EFL Learners’ Motivation and the Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies

The Relationship Between Iranian EFL Learners’ Motivation and the Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies

The first research question was about the relationship between Ira- nian EFL learners’ motivation and their use of vocabulary learning strategies. To Answer the research question, a significant correlation between motivation and vocabulary learning strategies was concluded (sig= .000 and p-value ¡0.05). This finding supported the important be- lief about the positive influence of motivation on vocabulary learning, which is widespread among practitioner and researchers (Clement, Gard- ner, & Smythe, 1977; Clement & Kruidenier, 1985; Csizer & Dornyei, 2005; Dornyei & Csizer, 2002; Elley, 1989; Ely, 1986; Gardner, 1985; Gard- ner & MacIntyre, 1991; Lukmani, 1972; Noels, Clement, & Pelletier, 1999; Schmidt & Watanabe, 2001; Tremblay & Gardner, 1995; cited in Tseng & Schmitt, 2008) in this research area (Tseng & Schmitt, 2008). The findings indicated that many researchers and practitioners have accepted the sensitive role of motivation on learning vocabulary. Ush- ioda (1996) remarked, “[a] utonomous language learners are by defini- tion motivated learners” (p. 2). Then they carried out different research studies in order to find the importance of motivation in VL. In this case, Gardner and MacIntyre (1991) demonstrated that both integra- tive motivation and instrumental motivation can facilitate vocabulary learners in using meta-cognitive strategy for vocabulary learning (sig.=.027, p<.05). Based on the results, high motivated learners had higher mean score than low motivated learners.
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cannot let themselves learning as well. Young learners need support from the teacher to find the meaning in language in learning language. Vygotsky (1962) says that when we interact we use words to try to capture our own and other people‟s „sense‟, our own particular contextualized understanding and connotations for events and ideas. The role of the meaning here basically is needed where the children can find it simply through the vocabulary. For the children learning vocabulary of a foreign language, this case has related to the vocabulary development which is about learning words. Cameron (2001) says that learning words is a cyclical process of meeting new words and initial learning, followed by meeting those words again and again, each time extending knowledge of what the words mean and how they are used in the foreign language.
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The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Success in Foreign Language Learning: Case study of Albanian Learners of Turkish as a Foreign Language

The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Success in Foreign Language Learning: Case study of Albanian Learners of Turkish as a Foreign Language

school in Tirana, Albania, where Turkish is taught as a foreign language. The participants’ intelligence types were measured through conduct of Multiple Intelligence Inventory for Adults, while Pearson correlation tests were carried out to analyze the relationship between students’ dominant intelligence types and their scores in each section. The results revealed the existence of negative correlation between the participant learners’ bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence and interpersonal intelligence and their performance in the grammar test. No other relationship between any intelligence types or Multiple Intelligence overall and achievements in vocabulary or writing was established. This study suggests grammar instruction should be provided with all learning styles in mind and that further research focus on effects of MI-based instruction on foreign language learning proficiency.
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Towards a better way to teach and promote mentally retarded EFL learners’ vocabulary learning and retention

Towards a better way to teach and promote mentally retarded EFL learners’ vocabulary learning and retention

In other words, one cannot learn a language without vocabulary even though there are some teachers who believe that vocabulary does not need to be actively taught (Kang, 1995) and too little is known about the relationship between different aspects of word knowledge (Vermeer, 2001). Krashen (1989) describes learners’ interest in vocabulary by the fact that they carry a dictionary more often than a grammar book. Additionally, learners use various strategies to find the meaning of new words to retain them in long-term memory, to retrieve them at will, and to use them in oral or written mode (Catalan, 2003). Moreover, lack of knowledge of academic words impedes the natural process of learning (Carlo et al., 2004), and lack of vocabulary knowledge is frequently mentioned by teachers as a problem (Cameron, 2002). On the other hand, learners have different cognitive approaches to learning vocabulary such as picture, picturing the words spelled out, reacting to the sound of the word, and using dictionary (Cohen & Aphek, 1980).
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Internet based French as a Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning: Academic Success and Opinions on FFL Learners

Internet based French as a Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning: Academic Success and Opinions on FFL Learners

This research is formed at the A1 (Breakthrough) language level. This is the first language level in 6 language levels of CEFR in which [3] “the learner can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. He/she can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and thing he/she has. He/she can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.”
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The Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on English language Acquisition of the Saudi Learners

The Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on English language Acquisition of the Saudi Learners

Another determination strategy which was found to be used by almost more than three-quarters of the participants was the use of dictionaries. 79% of the participants had clearly stated that “it was only at the beginning of the academic year when our teachers requested to bring a bilingual dictionary to class yet we never used it”. When asking our teachers about the meaning of any word, she would say “you have your dictionary, so go home and check the word. There is no time to do this in the class because we have to finish the lesson”. Getting such replies, students never brought their dictionaries with them but they got the point of relying on it when they really need to know the meaning of certain words. The findings of this study are in agreement with others as it is been reported by different research that despite the proficiency level of L2 learners, many of them rely on bilingual dictionaries to know words‟ meaning (Kent, 2001 & Jian et al, 2009). Gu & Johnson (1996) found that guessing and dictionary strategies were the most preferred ones by Malay English learners whereas notetaking, rehearsal and encoding were less adopted.
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Iranian language learners' attitude, motivasion and performance toward learning vocabulary using computer assisted language learning

Iranian language learners' attitude, motivasion and performance toward learning vocabulary using computer assisted language learning

Therefore, the role of vocabulary in second and foreign language learning has been the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. A review of the research shows that vocabulary learning has turned its focus toward issues such as the meaning of the word, the number of words that every speaker know and the way to learn them. The results of these studies have exposed that vocabulary learning and teaching need a systematic approach (Carter & McCarthy, 1988; Taylor, 1990; Coady & Huckin, 1997; Stoller & Grabe, 1993; Laufer, 1986; Nation, 1990, 2001; Schmitt, 2000; Nattinger, 1988). Among the many methods and approaches applied to vocabulary learning and teaching, the use of technology has gained added importance recently.
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An empirical study into Hungarian young learners’ English as a foreign language learning strategies

An empirical study into Hungarian young learners’ English as a foreign language learning strategies

Having investigated the instruments assessing vocabulary learning strategies with special regard to those of YLs, a decision was made to consider Stoffer’s (1995), Schmitt’s (1998) and Pavi č i č ’s (2008) questionnaire items adapted from Oxford’s SILL (1991) for a large item pool. The reason for this was that these instruments had been either used or adjusted for YLs vocabulary learning strategies. The pool also involved items that were considered worthy of being a component of a questionnaire assessing Hungarian YLs’ vocabulary learning strategies. The items from all of the selected questionnaires were considered for inclusion in my new instrument. These four questionnaires appeared to have the most alignment with the construct and to be best suited for the development of vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire for YLs because these instruments had also been previously used to investigate YLs. I also added some items to my new instrument because new strategies had also come into the picture especially amongst YLs since social network sites became so popular. Some of the items were extended with different variations. For example, the item in Pavi č i č (2008) ‘I watch English language TV shows spoken in English or go to movies spoken in English’ was modified in the following way and was broken up into three different items: ‘I watch English films with subtitles’, ‘I watch English films without subtitles’ and ‘I watch English films with Hungarian subtitles’. Table 2 presents the questionnaire items and their origins in the literature. Once the pool of the multitude of strategies was gathered, each and every item was examined as to whether they would fit into the instrument and into the Hungarian context. In the wake of this, the items were examined from the perspective of dimensions of vocabulary learning strategies.
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Strategy Use in CALL-Based Self-Directed Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

Strategy Use in CALL-Based Self-Directed Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

Vocabulary learning strategies constitute a subclass of learning strategies applicable to a wide variety of learning tasks. Rubin (1987) defines learning strategies as the processes by which information is obtained, stored, retrieved and used. As seen from the definition, learning strategies cannot be separated from what is being learnt or the process of learning. In order to control their learning, learners need to understand their own learning processes, be capable of making informed choices about their learning paths, and be proactive in managing and monitoring their own learning, all of which require learners to use effective language learning strategies (Figura & Jarvis, 2007). Successful self-directed learners usually develop a series of strategies suitable for themselves to guarantee their effective control of language learning (Cohen, 2000; Ni, Chatupote, & Teo, 2008). Good autonomous learners can grasp a wide variety of learning strategies better and utilize them more efficiently than poor learners (Dickinson, 1993), and this also applies to vocabulary learning (Kojic-Sabo & Lightbown, 1999).
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An Autoethnographic Study of the Use of Mobile Devices to Support Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

An Autoethnographic Study of the Use of Mobile Devices to Support Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

underpinned by sound vocabulary learning theory. Successful learning outcomes, however, are dependent on the learner persevering with the learning task and various factors can influence this. Allum (2004) provides some evidence that the interactive ability of computer-based materials to assess responses and provide immediate feedback can motivate learners and encourage them to work harder at tasks and attempt them more frequently compared to paper-based alternatives. Whether that motivational effect will continue given the increasing ubiquity of interactive devices is a moot point.
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Use of Learning Strategies and their Effects on English Language Learning of Thai Adult Learners

Use of Learning Strategies and their Effects on English Language Learning of Thai Adult Learners

Besides, the use of new strategies in English learning did not imply that the strategies were advantageous for the beginning learners of the fundamental course. It is, therefore, worth focusing more on the approach to strategy use according to the students’ learning goals. For example, listening to video clips on the Internet for improving pronunciation, speaking with English teachers and/or native speakers of English to improve fluency and communication skills, as well as reading authentic materials for gaining more and new vocabulary and evaluating comprehension skills could be useful for identifying and redirecting efforts to more beneficial objectives for English learning and ideally proposing learning strategies for individual learners according to their learning goals. Moreover, strategy instruction should take into account teaching the resolution for using the learning strategies so that the learners can be better equipped with a more accurate set of strategies. Since the use of strategies was different for English language learners at various levels, the instruction of learning strategies should be matched with the learners’ goals, needs, lacks and purposes. Importantly, it is suggested that the learners know what the reasons of using those strategies are, and what the purposes in doing the learning activities are; as a result, the advantages will be given to their learning. Further, teachers should be well aware of the strategies the students use to learn the language. They should be able to be in assistance of their students in choosing learning strategies that are suitable for their lacks and needs. As the study revealed that the students frequently use MGO and COI strategies which were more likely to help the students to gain positive effects on their English learning achievement, teachers should encourage them to more frequently use the strategies.
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Learners’ motivation and learning strategies in english foreign language (EFI) in Indonesian context

Learners’ motivation and learning strategies in english foreign language (EFI) in Indonesian context

Many researchers have defined the term language learning strategy. Wenden and Rubin (1987) define learning strategies as "... any sets of operations, steps, plans, routines used by the learner to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval, and use of information." Richards at. al. (1992) state that learning strategies are "intentional behavior and thoughts used by learners during learning so as to better help them understand, learn, or remember new information." According to Stern (1992), "the concept of learning strategy depends on the assumption that learners consciously engage in activities to achieve certain goals and learning strategies can be regarded as broadly conceived intentional directions and learning techniques." Either consciously or unconsciously, language learning strategies are employed when language learners are processing new information and performing tasks in the language classroom. Since teaching and learning activity is like a problem-solving process, using language learning strategies is inescapable for students to find the quickest or easiest way to do new input and difficult tasks given by their instructors. The following is some different taxonomy of language learning strategies.
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The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies among Sudanese EFL Learners

The Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies among Sudanese EFL Learners

The study is basically limited to the use of vocabulary learning strategies with respect to the Sudanese EFL learners. Thus, the study would not be generalized to other domain of study or subject matter. The study is also limited to population of Sudanese EFL learners taking the English language as major course at university level, therefore, the results could not be generalized to other population even if they are Sudanese EFL learners at university level because of the different setting and different environment. With regard to suggestion for future research, the current study confines itself to the context of Khartoum region in general and Khartoum University in particular. Similar studies need to be conducted within other learners in different contexts in order to compare their results and findings to those of the current study. In addition, VLSs investigated in this study are comprehensive set. However, a number of these strategies need to be investigated with more investigation with respect to their effective use, factors affecting their use and also their effect on learning outcomes.
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The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Proficiency of English Language Learners

The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Proficiency of English Language Learners

The current study was carried out to examine L2 learners’ VLS use habits and the relationship of VLS with their vocabulary proficiency levels. In addition, language learners’ beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness were also studied to understand L2 learners’ VLS use habits more deeply. To examine these matters, a descriptive research design was employed. The participants included 252 preparatory students from different proficiency groups (Upper-Intermediate, Intermediate, Pre-Intermediate, Beginner) at Gaziantep University Higher School of Foreign Languages. To collect the related data, they were given “Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire” and “Vocabulary Levels Test”. The data analyses were conducted by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed that the participants used a wide range of VLS, and there was an overlap between their beliefs about VLS in terms of usefulness and how often they used them to a large extent. Secondly, Memory Strategies correlated positively with the participants’ academic and general vocabulary proficiency levels. However, there were also some differences among the proficiency groups about which specific VLS are correlated with their vocabulary proficiency levels. As to the regression analysis results, none of the VLS predicted participants’ vocabulary proficiency levels.
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The Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Iranian EFL Learners with Different Language Proficiency Level

The Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Iranian EFL Learners with Different Language Proficiency Level

Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning since it provides the learners with numerous diverse privileges such as independency from teacher. The researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in Iranian EFL learners with different language proficiency levels. To meet the above purpose, a total number of 190 male and female EFL learners participated in this study. The methodology underlying this study was quantitative (thorough the administration of two questionnaires and two language proficiency test – TOEFL for advanced group, and Nelson for intermediate level). The quantitative data was analyzed using a set of correlational analysis revealing a significant positive correlation between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in high proficient group, and a significant positive relationship between these two constructs in low proficient group, however not as strong as in the advanced group.
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Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Malaysia

Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Malaysia

fined as a set of words to speak and write which contain meaning and are understood by the speakers of the lan- guage (Susanti, 2002; Yusoff, Ghani, & Al-Qusyairi, 2008). The language students are not able to communicate and convey the message clearly might be caused by lack of vocabulary (Daud & Pisal, 2014; Gan, 2012). One of the factors that distinguish the level of foreign language achievement of a student is Language Learning Strategy (LLS) used. The studies about LLS in Malaysia have found a significant relationship between the use of LLS with skills and mastery of the language (Baharudin & Ismail, 2014; Nurazan, 2004; Teh, Yusoff, Embi, & Ma- hamod, 2000). The study done by Mahamod & Embi (2005) which focuses on the use of Language Learning Strategy among brilliant students and weak students in mastering English Language reading finds that the ex- cellent students use more LLS in order to enhance their language skills compared to weak students. Similarly, the study done by Mahamod, Embi, & Yusoff (2010) finds that student who masters the language skills namely reading, writing, listening and speaking skills uses various LLS. The studies about Arabic Language Learning Strategy conducted by Embi, Long, & Hamzah (2001), Nurazan (2004), KamarulShukri (2009) and Yasim (2012) also show that excellent students tend to use more LLS in learning the language.
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Explicit Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Promoting Vocabulary Knowledge  (A case study Jabel Awlia Secondary school for girls)

Explicit Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Promoting Vocabulary Knowledge (A case study Jabel Awlia Secondary school for girls)

This study examines the use of vocabulary learning strategies knowledge. This study briefly, outlines some common vocabulary teaching strategies, and discusses the effectiveness of explicit, rich vocabulary teaching and learning strategies. In addition, this study aims to develop word consciousness within our students and maintain their interest in words. The population of this study was selected from two groups consisted of 60 students. The researcher assumed testing to be the data collection tool. That is because testing is used to measure certain areas of difficulty and concern when acquiring a second language.The first group was given a test to examine the effects of neglected vocabulary learning strategies. The second group was trained to use vocabulary learning strategies such as (collocation, word mapping, infer meaning etc.). The group studied about 16 lessons. This study hypothesized that most of the Sudanese EFL Learners of Jebel Awlia fail to retain vocabulary they learnt before and unable to use vocabulary learning strategies. The study showed that, vocabulary learning strategies can help students to understand and use new words confidently. The result showed that students’ performance in learning vocabulary in English language is very low. The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the frequent problems that face learners in vocabulary knowledge.
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