ensure that children are taught in meaningful ways what appropriate behavior resembles and that any wrongdoing will have a consequence (Walker, 1995).
Research studies have proven that many cities and neighborhoods have been branded as unsafe because acts of violence have been repeatedly associated with them (Puma, 2000). In addition, many schools have been labeled as unsafe, as the number of violent acts committed there has risen over the course of years. As a result, national attention has focused on the public health issue of youth violence (Ali, Swahn, & Sterling, 2011). Although researchers have recognized that poverty and violence are highly connected, other factors, such as low socioeconomic status, little community involvement, drug use rates, unemployment, and overcrowding housing (Chonody, Ferman, Amitrani-Welsh, & Martin, 2013), also affect violence rates in communities. To summarize, socioeconomics, discrimination, unemployment, abuse of drugs, weapon availability, lack of parenting skills, and negative media exposure may contribute to youth violence (Walker, 1995). Urban students do see a correlation between schoolviolence and their environment (S. L. Johnson, Burke, & Gielen, 2012). Moreover, schoolviolence occurs in American schools, at all levels; in all regions of the country; and in urban, suburban, rural and or private, public, and parochial school systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions regarding schoolviolencepreventionprograms.
The knowledge pre-service teachers possess regarding mental and emotional disorders among their students is lacking. For example, Kikas and Timoštšuk (2016) state that student teachers may not be exposed to teenage behaviors commonly associated with depression. Novice teachers may only rely on their personal experiences with such conditions to help guide them within student-to-teacher interactions (Kikas & Timoštšuk, 2016). This lack of knowledge may lead a student who is suffering to not come forward with emotional concerns, thereby forcing them into unhealthy isolation (Coles, Ravid, Gibb, George-Denn, Bronstein, & McLeod, 2016; Kikas & Timoštšuk, 2016). Moreover, poor recognition of mental and emotional disorders tends to prevent one from seeking help (Coles et al., 2016). This is also true with regard to teenage dating violence, as high school students who are in volatile relationships are much more prone to depression and suicidal thought (Nahapetyan, Orpinas, Song, & Holland, 2014).
In a research brief for the Northwest Comprehensive Center at Education Northwest, Krasnoff (2014) stated, “Among all school resources, well-prepared, expert and experienced teachers are among the most important determinants of student achievement” (Krasnoff, 2014, p. 1). How we get well-prepared, expert, and experienced teachers to stay in the profession is the point of induction. When “most beginners are given no professional support, feedback, or demonstration of what it takes to help their students succeed” (Krasnoff, 2014, p. 3), it leaves new teachers at risk for becoming part of the statistical reality of teachers exiting the profession before they are able to reach their full potential. Krasnoff quoted Ingersoll’s 2003 research statistics indicating that “14 percent of new teachers leave by the end of their first year; 33 percent leave within three years of beginning teaching; and almost 50 percent leave within five years” (Krasnoff, 2014, p. 3). In addition, Krasnoff stated that studies show “comprehensive induction programs cut attrition rates in half and . . . help to develop novice teachers into high- quality professionals who really impact student achievement” (Krasnoff, 2014, p. 7).
the respondent's sensory channels. For example, many of the participants prefer ordered responses to open-ended questions while others prefer open-ended questions to ordered responses. The first three questions yielded categorical data determining the types of schedules on which the respondents' schools currently operate. The next question was a close-ended question followed by two open-ended questions providing information on possible schedule changes at the schools being surveyed. The next series of seven questions were all close-ended. These questions produced quantitative results which were used to determine the perceptions and concerns that current Tennessee agriculture teachers have regarding the implementation of a year-round schedule. The next five questions yielded quantitative results based on questions asked on a Likert-Scale. The responses to these questions range from 1-5 with 5 indicating the instructor strongly agrees with the statement, 1 indicating the instructor strongly disagrees with the statement, while 3 allows for a neutral response. The final three questions yielded demographic information, which was used to characterize the respondents. After the survey was designed, it was sent to the Institutional Review Board (l.R.B.) for approval. After the I.R.B. granted approval, the study was mailed to all of the non-duplicate high school agriculture teachers in the state of Tennessee.
teachers gave suggestions about the social workers. Some believed that it was the social worker’s responsibility to intervene so they can have time to finish their curriculum and do their job. This opinion could be due to many factors that were discussed previously such as workload, low self- efficacy and passivity. However, others teachers believed that it was mainly the teacher’s responsibility but social workers still need to be more involved in cases of bullying. As a matter of fact, both teachers and counselors have critical roles in bullying intervention and prevention, and if one group decided to abandon this responsibility then there would be a huge gap in handling bullying cases. For example, teachers are the ones who see students most of the time and most probably witness most of the bullying cases. Accordingly, they should have enough knowledge about bullying and child psychology in order to be able to intervene immediately instead of waiting for the counselor. In addition, counselors should be knowledgeable as well and responsible for connecting and communicating with different groups including the teachers, students, parents and administration (ASCA National Model, 2005). Therefore, teachers need to understand that the role of teachers and counselors are both equally important in dealing with bullying.
In addition, parents will ultimately be the ones to decide if their child is or is not ready for school. Redshirting a child continues to become more and more common as the standards and expectations continue to change and become more rigorous. Developing the whole child’s physical, social, academic, and emotional needs must be always taken into consideration. Quality early childhood programs can help in meeting the needs of the whole child. Katz (1994) highlighted that successful early childhood programs are ones in which the administrators assess the setting, equipment, and staff of the program, how the community is served by the program, and the perceptions of the children, parents, and staff who participate in the program. Morrison (2007) further explained that the most important aspect of any early childhood program involves teachers and children working closely together in order to learn with and from each other.
Dahir and Stone (2012) continue by stating that even though several federally-funded programs such as Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) and the
Elementary and Secondary School Counseling Demonstration Act (ESCDA) have been implemented and drawn attention to the effect school counselors have on the lives of students, much more must be done to evaluate the effectiveness of school counseling programs. Worzbyt and O’Rourke (1989) posit that the events that happen to elementary school students during the early stages of development will have an impact on their coping behaviors later in life. They continue by suggesting “an elementary school counseling program is designed to assist the school and community in addressing the full range of variables affecting the teaching/learning process, from meeting children’s needs to creating new growth to producing learning environments for them (pp. 11-12). Clark and Amatea (2004) place emphasis on this point by noting that “educators are recognizing that when schools attend to students’ social and emotional skills, the academic achievement of children increases, the incidence of problem behaviors decreases, and the quality of the relationships surrounding each child improves,” (p. 132).
The teachers in the sample were representative of the target population in the middle school. I used purposive sampling to select six teachers. Interviews were scheduled at two community libraries. I audiotaped the one-on-one interviews using Evernote software as the primary recorder and audiocassette recorder as the backup. Prior to conducting the interviews, I bracketed my views and ideas in a reflective journal. Bracketing is supported by Husserl’s (1970) phenomenological approach to record researchers’ views so that they do not interject any of their own views into studies. To obtain the most accurate descriptions from the participants, I bracketed before each interview, including during the pilot study. I also used bracketing during the data analysis to ensure the integrity of the data (i.e., contained no researcher bias).
student proficiency on state standards. Through the reauthorization of the secondary and elementary act, U.S. funding was made available to improve teacher and principal
efficacy. RTTT funds were awarded to HIDOE in 2010 as a four year grant. RTTT funds were to ensure that every classroom had an effective teacher, and every school had an effective principal. The RTTT accelerated necessary change to the system to implement teacher and principal evaluations. As part of receiving RTTT funds, HIDOE identified the “state’s lowest performing schools and placed those schools in the zone of innovation (ZSI)” (Hawaii State Department of Education, 2010, p. 5). The ZSI schools received targeted resources learning time that included professional development for teachers and administrators, updated technological resources, and extended learning time for students. Another component of HIDOE reformation consisted of obtaining a waiver from NCLB requirements that measured school effectiveness. In 2013, Strive HI replaced NCLB measurement of school effectiveness.
In this investigation, I sought to collect educational stakeholders’ perspectives on school-based obesity-prevention initiatives in rural Pennsylvania. After interviewing 18 individuals, including six teachers, six parents, three principals, and three nurses from three neighboring school districts, I found that six main themes emerged. These themes provided insight on factors contributing to overweight and obese elementary school children, perceptions of current district-level practices to prevent excess weight gain, and suggestions by stakeholders to improve student wellness programs and initiatives. This investigation has provided valuable information to address a local problem of childhood obesity. If left unaddressed, the issue of childhood obesity can negatively impact the health of affected individuals. In most cases, excess weight gain can be prevented through a healthy diet and regular participation in physical activity; however, when this problem is not addressed, overweight children become overweight adolescents and adults who may suffer from a multitude of adverse health conditions related to the excess weight.
Overall, Pane et al. (2015) found positive effects on achievement from implementing PL, with documented substantial growth in both reading and math. Many students who were some of the lower achievers going into PL had growth greater than that of their peers after engaging in PL (Pane et al., 2015). Elements of PL found in the most successful schools (the schools with “estimated treatment effects that were statistically significant and larger than 0.2 in both math and reading”; p. 29) included (a) grouping student, (c) creating learning spaces that supported the PL model, and (c) helping students become aware of and have discussions regarding their data (Pane et al., 2015). Pane et al. found the three elements were important to PL; however, the small sample size and variations in implementation were also noted as concerns. The findings from the Pane et al. study and the U.S. DOE (2014) study can assist school leaders in developing an image of how PL might appear; however, a lack of information remains regarding the roles of teachers through this transformation process.
education through meaningful school-based programs (Muir, 2012). These school-based programs can provide opportunities for families to work together to promote student academic success. School-based literacy programs create a caring and safe environment for families to make meaningful connections and experiences with text (Montgomery & Smith, 2014). Researchers have identified programs that have been effective in which parents had an opportunity to engage with their children; there were increases in parent engagement and academic scores (Crosby, Rasinski, Padak, and Yildirim, 2015; Moore et al., 2016; Muir, 2012). To positively engage parents in school activities, Moore et al. (2016) conducted a quantitative study about parent engagement in school. The purpose of this study was to examine strengths and needs assessment model called The Positive Family Support-Strengths and Needs Assessment (PFS-SaNA; Moore et al., 2016). To gain positive parent engagement, the PFS-SaNA was used as a parent engagement strategy and given to parents at the beginning of the school year. PFS-SaNA is a 14-item survey used to evaluate parents’ perceptions about their children’s school needs such as their children’s classrooms and relationships with their peers. It gives parents an
feedback from teachers serving on the comprehensive program advisory coun- cil (ASCA, 2012a).
School counselors can take proactive steps to educate stakeholders regard- ing their professional role and services. For example, school counselors could conduct staff presentations on the school counselor’s recommended role and responsibilities, highlighting com- prehensive school counseling programs such as the ASCA National Model (2012a) and providing information on the school-specific counseling program, such as their mission and vision, direct and indirect student services, data-driv- en programs and results, and the like. Further, school counselors could utilize resources provided by ASCA, such as the numerous role statements listed on their website. Such presentations could be held at the start of the school year during staff meetings and professional development days, and when meet- ing with individual teams of teachers. School counselors can also specifically market their consultative services to teachers through means including web- sites, brochures, newsletters, and social media. These outlets could include links to perception surveys, consultation requests, and the school counselor’s schedule and avenues for communica- tion. As part of these efforts, school counselors might consider highlight- ing their unique training and areas of expertise they can offer teachers.
involve risk in various fields, such as the behavior of farmers in Ghana in a study conducted by Balcombe, Bardsley, Dadzie, and Fraser’s (2019), which considered the parameter of loss aversion, or Martin et al.’s (2016) study of the impact of a subjective reference point for making choices such as choosing whether or not to pay to view a movie with unknown ratings. In the current study, the experiences and perceptions offered by preservice teachers illustrate the thoughts that readily come to mind with regards to schoolviolence and violent intruder drills for individuals pursuing a career in education. The findings reveal factors that may be considered and may lead to biases in the decision-making process. For example, the found subtheme of lightbulb moments reveals a reported change in awareness of schoolviolence for participants over time throughout their coursework and experiences. The subtheme of prevalence of actual incidents demonstrates the impact of saliency on perception. Mind over matter as a subtheme offers an explanation for the juxtaposition of ongoing schoolviolence and the decision to pursue a career in education. Taken together, the findings demonstrate the usefulness of prospect theory for understanding the decision to seek employment as a teacher despite the potential risk of experiencing violence in schools.
School climate, also referred to as the “conditions for learning,” (Temkin, in press)generally refers to the aggregate perceptions of students, staff, and the broader school community regarding school norms, values, relationships, safety, and structures (Anderson, 1982; Thapa et al., 2013). There are many competing conceptualizations of the key components of school climate, but recent work has supported a framework developed by the U.S. Department of Education that divides school climate into three primary components: (1) engagement; (2)safety, and; (3) environment (Catherine P. Bradshaw et al., 2014; Osher & Kendziora, 2010). Engagement refers to indicators that bind the school community together, such as relationships among and between students, parents, and staff, respect for diversity, and participation in school activities (see also: School Connectedness). Safety refers to both the perception and incidence of violence, substance use, and other behaviors that affect physical and emotional well-being. Environment refers to a school’s contextual and structural supports, such as the physical environment (i.e. the cleanliness, attractiveness, and comfort of the school building), the disciplinary environment (i.e. discipline is fair and consistent), the academic environment (i.e. students are challenged and held to high standards), and the wellness environment (i.e. students have resources and support for their mental and physical health) (Temkin, in press). School climate has been linked to a number of outcomes, including self esteem (Hoge, Smit, & Hanson, 1990), self-concept (Cairns, 1987), substance use (LaRusso, Romer, & Selman, 2008), truancy (Worrell & Hale, 2001), suspensions and expulsions (Lee et al., 2011), academic achievement (McEvoy & Welker, 2000), and emotional and mental health (Way, Reddy, & Rhodes, 2007). In relation to violence, positive school climate has been linked to reduced reports and perceptions of aggression and violence (Astor et al., 2002; A. Gregory et al., 2010), harassment and bullying (Kasen et al., 2004), and other forms of school crime (Gottfredson et al., 2005). These relations are a function, in part, of school norms and acceptance for such outcomes. For instance, Henry and colleagues (Henry et al., 2000) find that the frequency of aggression is significantly lower in classrooms in which both teachers and students had strong norms against aggressive behavior and where teachers demonstrated observable reprimand of aggression. Similarly, Roland and Galloway (Roland & Galloway, 2002) find that teachers’ classroom management skills are significantly related to both the social structure and the frequency of both being bullied and bullying others in a
solve conflicts when they are still young. In this regard, it is not only to teach problem-solving skills in the classroom but also to assist students in creating significant and indispensable skills. Of course in today’s school situation, there are disagreements and different points of view with respect to these conflict issues. Hence, it is crucial to educate our students with respect to how to solve conflict in peaceful ways by negotiating and compromising methods so that they can apply the conflict management skills in their real lives in the present and future (Apipalakul & Ngang, 2015). As all life is viewed as interconnected and interdependent, mutual responsibility exists to ensure well-being (Vaandering, 2011). When well-being is undermined by harm, it is viewed as an injustice that requires healing. Thus, restorative justice involves healing leading to a state of healthy balance (Ogilvie & Fuller, 2017; (Pavelka, 2013). Restorative practices have been most commonly taken up in educational settings as a means to manage student behaviour. This promotes the perception that restorative principles have an influence on schooling beyond reducing truancy and violations of appropriate conduct. (Vaandering, 2014; Vaandering, 2010). Restorative justice provides a framework for addressing violence in a manner that promotes healing and restores community. The positive outcomes fostered by this approach have led educational authorities to apply restorative principles to school discipline (Ogilvie & Fuller, 2017; Pavelka, 2013).
students that are reading above grade level because they want our numbers to look good, and that is something where-this is a program where it really helps but we're not using it with the students who it would help because they're more interested in looking good than helping the students. One of the programs that I know has worked over the years is the Read 180 program, and at this point, our building interventionists are using that program, but they picked the highest achieving students to actually use it. That defeats the purpose of even having the program at all. With Read 180, you have the high interest, low read ability books that the students would want to read but we're just not using it in the right way. A program that we had that only lasted for one year was the Voyager, that's with Voyager Sophers? I've taught that as well as I've taught Read 180 in the past, and with that program, the intent was good, but it wasn't meant for students on the middle school level because it could not hold their attention. The ones that I would like to know more about -we do use Academy of Reading, but I don't think that we're using it to the extent that we should, and I feel that's something that every English/Language Arts/Reading teacher needs to know more about because we can scaffold that to the student’s level.
responsibility, to set standards for safe learning and safe teaching in schools.” In 1999, a study conducted by Joong (1999) showed that the Violence Free School Policy (Ontario Ministry of Education, 1994) that preceded the Act was not effectively implemented in some schools. Would the introduction of another piece of legislation have the same results? To date, no study has yet been performed to investigate how well the current Act is implemented in Ontario schools. In addition to the requirements of the legislation, schools introduced a variety of practices to improve school safety. These included the use of metal detectors, the presence of security guards, ID cards, dress codes, anti- bullying instructional programs, codes of behaviour, zero-tolerance programs, and peer mediation to name a few. However, were any of these initiatives having an impact or reducing the number of violent incidents occurring in Ontario schools?
instruction. A decrease in academic learning time effects student achievement and is a problem that could be rectified with the features of a violenceprevention program such as SWPBIS.
As a teacher in this studied school, professional development is not offered annually on schoolviolence so the staff does not know the most current legislation on schoolviolence. One mandated professional development was given a few years ago by the district’s attorney to explain the new state laws on violence and information regarding Harassment, Intimidation, and Bullying (HIB). However, this was a two hour training that took place in an auditorium with all the district teachers and no follow up training was offered that year or to date. This poses a problem for teachers who may have questions regarding the new laws to address schoolviolence and the district’s most current policy to handle violence. Teachers in this district are not up to date on the most current national, state, and local laws and polices surrounding violence in the school environment. This is a problem that could affect teachers, students, parents, and the community due to the fact that teachers are uninformed and not trained about current legislation.
As a principal, I make sure I organize bullying awareness programs to sensitize the student on the danger of school bullying. I encourage the student to speak out when bullied. I tell them my office is open to them and that they should come in and talk with me should they be experiencing a bullying experience in the school. They also work with students to promote positive behavior. Participant Naomi said this of the principal, “The principal helps promote a positive school environment by executing the district school bullying policy in the school.” According to the participants, the principal goes on rounds at different intervals during the school day in the effort to prevent school bullying. The principals make more rounds in areas where bullying activities are more frequent in the school. A principal promotes a culture of learning that does not tolerate bullying. Participant Faith specified, “The principal makes rounds during the school hours, and this has also helped reduce the incidence of bullying in the school.” There are procedures put in place for students that are being bullied. They are referred to the counselor, who put the machinery in motion towards punishing the bully. During the code of conduct assembly, at the beginning of the year, it is made clear to students that the school does not tolerate bullying. Further, the principals help in preventing bullying by implementing anti-bullying programs intended to increase and encourage a favorable school climate and eradicate bullying harassment and intimidation in school.