The leaves, flowers, stems, berries, and roots of plants are used to prevent, relieve, and treat illness. From a "scientific" perspective, many herbal treatments are considered experimental. The reality is, however, that herbal medicine has a long and respected history. Many familiar medications of the twentieth century were developed from ancient healing traditions that treated health problems with specific plants. Today, science has isolated the medicinal properties of a large number of botanicals, and their healing components have been extracted and analyzed. Many plant components are now synthesized in large laboratories for use in pharmaceutical preparations. For example, vincristine (an antitumor), digitalis (a heart regulator), and ephedrine (a bronchodilator used to decrease respiratory congestion) were all originally discovered through research on plants.(Kokate C.K., 1995)
Seeds, leaves, stem, bark, roots, flowers, and extracts of all of these have been used in herbal drugs over the millennia of their use. Herbal products have reached extensive adequacy as beneficial agents like anti microbial, anti diabetic, anti fertility, anti aging, anti arthritic, sedative, anti depressant, anti anxiety, anti spasmodic, analgesic, anti inflammatory, anti-HIV, vasodilatory, hepatoprotective, treatment of cirrhosis, asthma, acne, impotence, menopause, migraine, gall stones, chronic fatigue, Alzheimer’s disease and memory enhancing activities. Herbal drugs have been recognized for approximately 4000 years. These drugs have survived real world testing and thousands of years of human testing. Some drugs have been discontinued due to their toxicity, while other have been modified or combined with additional herbs to side effects.
activities, and the second best in this regard was the ethanolicextract of Curcuma longa. This suggests that antioxidant activities are primarily contributed by phenolic and flavonoid compounds in these three Thai plants. The high antioxidant activities and high levels of phenolics and flavoniods in Curcuma longa found in this study support its beneficial health effects. This current finding was also in agreement with our previous report, and of particular interest, the maximum UVA absorption was found in Curcuma longa extracts from the ethanol and dichloromethane fractions . Although it exhibited the inhibitory effect on Id1 expression, the extract of Annonasquamosa was not the richest with respect to antioxidant contents and antioxidant activities. This suggests that the suppressive effect of Annonasquamosaextract may not be primarily responsible by antioxidant contents and activities. It is worth addressing that phenylated flavone derived from Annonasquamosa may be a major contributor to inhibit the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thus being an interesting herb with antitumor effect . Cancer and psoriasis are similar because of the hyperproliferative feature of cells. This highlights the feasible applications of Annonasquamosa leaf extract and should be additionally studied for drug discovery. Of note, phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Annonasquamosa leaf extracts were widely carried in India. In particular, there were only a few reports recently conducted by Thai researchers while at least five reports were published in 2011 alone by Indian researchers [28-32].
The central analgesicactivity was tested by tail-flick method. The tail flick latencies or the basal reaction time of the animals were assessed using analgesiometer (Elite). Basal reaction time of radiant heat was taken by placing the tip (last 2 cm) of the tail on the radiant heat source. A cut- off period of 10 sec was observed to prevent damage to the tail. Reaction time were recorded at pre-drug, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120,150 and 180 min after administration of vehicle or drugs. Here, pethidine was used as the standard drug and naloxone was used to determine the mechanism of action.
D.virginiana belongs to the family Ebenaceae was collected from Coonoor, Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India and identified by the special key given Cambell flora.  The leaf and bark of D.virginiana were washed with sterile distilled water. After, the leaves and bark were shade dried and powdered by using pestle and mortar. 25g of powder was filled in the thimble and extracted successively with ethanol using a Soxhlet extractor for 48 h. The extracts were concentrated using rotary flash evaporator and preserved at 5°C in airtight bottle until further use. The ethanolic extracts of the plant was diluted with distilled water and was administered orally to mice.
20 g of dry powder of mint and sita fruit leaves are packed in a filter paper and placed in a thimble or extracted in a Soxhlet extractor using 100 ml of methanol solvent at 80ºC for 36 hours. After 36 hours the supernatant was collected and the extracts were left to evaporate in the air at room temperature yielding a concentrated methanol extract which was used for the amylase inhibition studies.
Anti-Diabetic Study: Effect of compound extract of three plants annonasquamosa, eclipta alba and butea monosperma extract on fasting blood glucose level in diabetic rats. Ethanolicextract of three plants was subjected to anti-diabetic activity in rats where alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) used as the diabetogenic agent. A marked rise in fasting blood glucose level observed in diabetic control compare to normal control rats. Ethanolicextract of three plants (at 200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a dose dependent significant anti- hyperglycemic activity on 7 th , 14 th and 21 st day post treatment. The extract dose of 100 mg/kg also caused reduction in blood glucose level but the results were found statistically insignificant. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of ethanol extract at was found less effective than the reference standard, Glibenclamide. Glibenclamide produced a significant reduction in blood glucose compare to diabetic control. The results are shown in the Table 1.
means to sprout and phyllon means leaf. The secondary metabolites which are obtained from different parts of plant such as alkaloid, flavanoid, tannin, glycoside, phenolic compounds, which have therapeutic value. The plant are used in different pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic antihypertensive, antileishmanial, antimicrobial, analgesic, anticancer. These are also use in bleeding disorder and ulcer and diarrhea.  The present study was under taken to evaluate anti inflammatory activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum
Tropaeolum majus L belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae. As medicinal plant it contains glucosinolates,a mustard oil glycoside called glycotropeoline which have antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial properties to treat infections, cold flu and digestive upsets. Tropaeolum majus L are grown in summer and do well in full sunlight or light shade .This species of the family Tropaeolaceae contains a single glucosinolate benzylglucosinolate which is biosynthetically derived from L-Phe. Phytochemical studies detected the presence of fatty acids, benzylisothiocynate and flavanoids in seeds and leaves of Tropaeolum majus L. Tropaeolum majus have shown biological activities like diuretic and potassium sparing effect of isoquercitrin, antihypertensive effect, antimicrobial and anti- inflammatory activity of volatile oil. The floral
The central aim of current study was to investigate the scientific basis for the traditional use of MNSBEE had an analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Acute oral toxicity of MNSBEE was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg. The MNSBEE exhibited analgesicactivity. It significantly inhibited the abdominal constriction induced by acetic acid in the mice. Acetic acid causes an increase in peritoneal fluids of PGE2 and PGF2α (Deraedt R et al., 1980) and is a very sensitive method of screening antinociceptive effect of extracts (Collier HO et al., 1968). From the effect of MNSBEE it may be concluded that prostaglandins may be involved in the action of the extract. At 200 and 400 mg/kg the MNSBEE exhibited highly significant results and showed to have analgesicactivity. If the herbal products as it is and modern medicine are combined, it will produce best drug in the treatment of various chronic conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, peptic ulcer, hypertension and other immune disorders.
Different parts of B. arundinacea such as root, shoot, leaf, flower and seed showed antidiabetic 16 , anthelmintic 17 , anti-inflammatory 18 , estrogenic 19 , antiulcer 18 , antimicrobial 20 , antifertility 21 , wound healing 22 , anti-arthritic activity 23 , antioxidant 24 anti-thyroid 25 and antiamnesic activities 26 . Seeds are unpleasant, laxative, and said to be useful in urinary discharge and strangury 27 . The root (burnt root) is applied to ringworms, bleeding gums and aching joints. Bark is used for skin eruptions. Leaf is febrifuge, emmenagogue, bechic, antileprotic, and also used in haemoptysis 28 . This study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities of ethanolicextract of Bambusa arundinacea (EEBA) in rats by using models tail immersion test, hot plate test and brewer’s yeast pyrexia model.
Chronic health problems such as asthma, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, kidney and liver failure and certain inflammation, showed involvement of free radicals induced damage . Antioxidants prevent free radical induced tissue damage by stabilizing the unstable free radical by donating electron or may reduce its formation or enhance their decomposition . Free radical induced damage can be reduced by use of certain antioxidant agents derived from synthetic or natural source. The rich sources of natural compounds with antioxidants property are present in traditional Indian diet and medicinal plants [27,28]. In present study, the antioxidant activity of Gossypium arboreum leaves was performed by using DDPH radical scavenging assay. DPPH produce a stable free radical, and in present assay the measurement of electron donating ability of EEGA and that can be analysed by colour change in the reaction mixture. The changes in colour (from deep violet to light yellow) were measured at 517 nm on a UV-visible light spectrophotometer . EEGA exhibited a significant DPPH radical scavenging activity and that was comparable to ascorbic acid. Radical scavenging ability of EEGA may be due to presence of certain phytochemicals such as lipid, proteins, flavonoid and glycoside responsible for antioxidant effect .
This study is the first report regarding analgesicactivity of EEMT leaves. Anti nociceptive models like acetic acid induced writhing test and radiant heat tail flick method were used to evaluate analgesicactivity of EEMTL. The results of the present study shown that EEMTL produced significant analgesicactivity against chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice and rats.
The stomach was carefully removed and the gastric contents were collected. The gastric juice was centrifuged at 1000rpm and gastric volume was measured. Free and total acidities of the supernatant were determined by titration with 0.01 N NaOH by using phenopthalein as indicator and expressed as mEq/ L /100 gms. The stomach was cut open along the greater curvature and pinned onto a soft board for evaluating the Gastric ulcers and to calculate ulcer index. Ulcer scoring is done according to the scale mentioned below. (Vogel et al., 2002).
The greater beneficial effects have been reported for natural products in folk medicine. Different studies on medicinal plants, have shown them to be alternative source for new compounds with potential pharmacological activity. Gastroprotective effect of MEAR was evaluated against ethanol, indomethacin, stress and pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rat model. The methanolic extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed significant antiulcer activity. The percentage ulcer protection is been observed in all the Models, but the extent of percentage protection is more in indomethacin induced ulcer and pyloric ligation ulcer. The ulcer index is reduced in the higher dose. In the pre-treated group, the volume of gastric juice is reduced in all the Models and pH value is increased significantly as the dose of extract increases. It is also found that, there is significantly decrease in the free acid and total acid in all the four models.
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of pancreas. It is a set of ailments that occurs from either lack of insulin or the factors which interfere with the action of insulin. In animals, it can be induced by partial pancreatectomy or by the administration of diabetogenic drugs s as alloxan, streptozotocin, ditizonx and anti-insulin serum. The disease is progressive and is associated with high risk of atherosclerosis, kidney and nerve damage as well as blindness. Abnormalities in the regulation of peroxide and transition metal metabolism are postulated to result in the development of the disease as well as its long term complication .
Annonasquamosa L [1,2] is a species of the plant genus Annona, belongs to the family Annonaceae. The phytochemical analysis of Annonasquamosa showed that it contained carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids The preliminary pharmacological studies revealed that Annonasquamosa possessed analgesicanti- inflammatory, antibacterial, cytotoxic, anti oxidant, antilipidimic, antiulcer, hypoglycemic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, insecticidal, anthelmintic and also used for the regulation of hyperthyroidism and lipid peroxidation. [3,4] This study therefore, intends to investigate the anti depressant activities of the roots of Annonasquamosa L. by studying the effects of ethanol extracts of the plant on forced swim test and tail suspension test induced depression in experimental animal models, in order to confirm the medicinal properties of the plant. Depression, a state of low mood and aversion to activity, can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being. A multiple biological, psychological and social factors that have been identified as being related to the development of depression. Depression has been linked to problems or imbalances in the brain with regard
The precise causes of psoriasis, a relatively common, chronic, inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin disease, are still not known, thus making it very difficult for treatment. We previously found an in vitro anti-psoriatic activity in ethanolicextract of Annonasquamosa L. leaves. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligand, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, have been demonstrated to be strikingly upregulated in active psoriatic plaques, thus implicating their functional roles in psoriatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular effect of ethanolicextract derived from Annonasquamosa L. leaves on the EGFR expression using HaCaT keratinocyte cell line as a model. Based on RT-PCR, concentrations at 3.15 and 1.575 µg/mL (IC 50 = 6.3 µg/mL) significantly reduced the EGFR mRNA expression (P<0.05) as compared to control
This method was used to preferentially evaluate possible peripheral effects of methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus as analgesic substance. Groups of four Swiss albino male mice (n=6) were fasted overnight prior to the start of the experiment, with free access to water. The peripheral analgesic drug, Indomethacin (5mg/kg), was used as a positive control. Group-1 normal control (0.5% CMC p.o), and group-2 Indomethacin (5mg/kg, p.o.), whereas groups 3 and 4 animals received methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered orally (p.o), to mice. 30 min after treatment, the mice were injected intra peritoneally with 0.1 ml of 1% acetic acid solution to induce the characteristic writhings. 5 min after acetic acid administration, the mice were then placed in an observation box, and the number of writhings was counted in a 5min period. The response of the extract and Indomethacin treated groups were compared with those of animals in the control group (Mate et al., 2008, Jeane Silva et al., 2003).