Top PDF Understanding Long Run African Growth: Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education? Evidence from a New Data Set

Understanding Long Run African Growth: Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education? Evidence from a New Data Set

Understanding Long Run African Growth: Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education? Evidence from a New Data Set

Evidence from a New Data Set Bolt, Jutta and Bezemer, Dirk University of Groningen, University of Groningen.. Online at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/7029/ MPRA Paper No.[r]

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Colonial Institutions, Slavery, Inequality, and Development: Evidence from São Paulo, Brazil

Colonial Institutions, Slavery, Inequality, and Development: Evidence from São Paulo, Brazil

São Paulo is the largest and richest state in Brazil. If it were independent it would have nearly the third largest population of any country in Latin America, behind only the rest of Brazil, Mexico, and almost as large as Colombia. Most of the state’s territory is comfortably inside the tropics, with a smaller portion in the “temperate” region south of the tropic of Capricorn. Like the rest of Brazil, São Paulo was a colonial possession of Portugal from the start of the sixteenth century. The territory of what was then a donatary captaincy was rich in land, but (from the perspective of the Portuguese) relatively poor in labor, and more importantly for the colonization project, it was poor in natural resources compared to Brazil’s northeast. The early colonizers in São Paulo imposed slavery, first on the indigenous population, then using Africans (Monteiro, 1994). Research in the “new historical development” literature has heavily emphasized the importance of the colonial origins of development (Sokoloff and Engerman, 2000; Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson, 2001, 2002; Nunn, 2008). Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (2001, 2002) find that early European mortality risk influenced whether the colony established the settler institutions that promoted favorable long-term outcomes, or instead ended up with extractive institutions. For Sokoloff and Engerman (2000) the factor endowments encountered by the Europeans determined what types of institutions were created in the colonial era, along with long-term patterns of inequality and development. On the other side of the Atlantic, Nunn found that the African regions that were most intensively involved early on in the export of slaves suffered worse developmental outcomes hundreds of years after the fact (Nunn, 2008). In the spirit of this literature, and employing a rich data set for Brazil, Naritomi, Soares, and
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Impact of Health and Education on Economic Growth and Development of Pakistan in the Long Run and Short Run: (Evidence from Time Series Data)

Impact of Health and Education on Economic Growth and Development of Pakistan in the Long Run and Short Run: (Evidence from Time Series Data)

institutions for the sake of economic growth and development in addition to a lot of structural changes specifically in health and education sector. By gaining a lot of information from this study one can get ideas, philosophies and experiences to implement the reform program to the health sector and the education sector. Policies about health sector are applicable to various public and private sector hospitals and policies regarding education sectors can apply to all types of educational institutions so that measures to improve both the sectors must be translated into practice. This study explored the change process that can apply to health and education sector to make advancements in Pakistan. It is a point of precaution that this study is limited to the considered data set only that can make improvements in health and education sector for the rise in the GDP per capita. There is a strong reflection of health and education related particular variables with economic growth and development of Pakistan, as evident from the data. Model and results developed in this research are comparatively more effective to apply in public sector health and educational institutions as compare to health and educational institutions in the private sector. More managerial efforts are required in public health and educational sectors in case of Pakistan. The concluding area of this study will serve and highlight the importance of the generalization the role of health and education sectors in the economic growth and development of Pakistan.
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No limit : imagining the boundaries of autonomy in a post Fordist colonial settler state : thesis submission for a Master of Fine Arts (Fine Arts), Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

No limit : imagining the boundaries of autonomy in a post Fordist colonial settler state : thesis submission for a Master of Fine Arts (Fine Arts), Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

Tūwhakairiora was a wanderer. One day he walked towards Wharekahika and spied two young women collecting pipi at Kaiare- ro beach. He sat on their clothes to keep the women stuck in the tide. Eventually he walked away so the two women could get dressed. He then followed the women, who were sisters named Ruataupare and Auahikatoa, to their pā, Tokamapuhia. The sisters talked to their father, Aotaki and explained what had happened. Aotaki replied, ‘Let him come to me, to Hikurangi, the mountain crowned in snow’. Here, Aotaki likened his mana as high chief of the land to the of Mount Hikurangi, but undermined the mana of the wandering of the Tūwhakairiora, who was without place. However when he ar- rived, Tūwhakairiora was permitted to stay with Aotaki and eventu- ally he married Ruataupare. Together they had many children with their descendants being known as ‘Te whanau-a-Tūwhakairiora’. Eventually their union soured because Ruataupare began to despise her husband and how much the power of his mana overwhelmed hers. She began wanting to claim a name for herself. She became so fed up she asked Tūwhakairiora to take another wife named Ihikō, who was already married. He refused, so Ruataupare taunted him until he went to Ihikō and to claim her as his wife.  Satisfied, Rua- taupare left and wandered for a while, before eventually settling in Tokomaru. Her descendants from this area are still recognised under her name, Ruataupare. 103
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No limit : imagining the boundaries of autonomy in a post Fordist colonial settler state : thesis submission for a Master of Fine Arts (Fine Arts), Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

No limit : imagining the boundaries of autonomy in a post Fordist colonial settler state : thesis submission for a Master of Fine Arts (Fine Arts), Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

Te Whanganui-a-tara. Although Treaty settlements are often seen as means of “reconciliation” between Pākehā and Māori, they are merely an acknowledgement of a crime—you cannot undo the process of colonisation, but you can acknowledge it. The loaded sites we live and work on in Aotearoa have painful histories that have been neither erased nor rightfully acknowledged. A common whakataukī from my iwi, Waikato-Tainui, relating to confiscations, “I riro whenua atu me hoki whenua mai, ko te moni hei utu mō te hara” (“As land was taken so must it be returned, the money is an acknowledgement of the crime”) 1
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Kim Hyong Jik’s Idea of “Jiwon” (Aim High) and the Korean National Association

Kim Hyong Jik’s Idea of “Jiwon” (Aim High) and the Korean National Association

teachers and students and gave anti-Japanese lectures to them. He condemned the frantic atrocities of Japanese imperialists who had kicked off massive roundups under the fabricated pretext of attempted assassination of Governor-General Te- rautsi, and called upon the students afire with patriotism to take the lead in the sacred fight for independence. The first leg of his visit in Uiju was Yangsil School, a private school which was set up in 1906 by the patriotic people and anti-Japanese inde- pendent fighters there. It was recognized to be a leading school in North PHyongan Province in terms of the size, anti-Japanese content in education and number of graduates. In addition, most of its teaching staff, including the headmaster, were independ- ence fighters. In the spring and summer of 1912, he went to Suan and Koksan in Hwanghae Province, where taught to the youth and students what duty they were entrusted with for the country and appealed to them to rise up as one in the fight to restore national sovereignty as long as the blood of the nation ran in their youthful hearts (WPK, 1984: pp. 72, 90, 75-76). For Kim Hyong Jik, the Sungsil Middle School days were valuable ones that paved the way for struggle and rallied to him like- minded comrades willing to risk life and death (WPK, 1984: pp. 75-77). For him, a “comrade” meant a person who devoted a strong will to the well-being of the country and people and to the restoration of the country. He used to say that “as a comrade who will share life and death is are rare, he or she should be sought out and fostered with as great an effort as mining gold or treasures. One is sure to find many good comrades if he or she is sincerely devoted to the country and people”. Kim Hyong Jik said: One is sure to find many good comrades if he or she is sincerely devoted to the country and people. What matters is the will and intention. Anyone can be a comrade if he or she shares the same will, no matter how poor he or she may be in life. Kim Hyong Jik cherished such a noble will and warm heart that he could easily find comrades to join him in his cause. President Kim Il Sung said: “The greatest achievement made by my father at Sungsil Middle School was to find many comrades with whom he could share life and death” (WPK, 2011: p. 19; WPK, 1984: p. 119).
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Long run exchange rate pass through: Evidence from new panel data techniques

Long run exchange rate pass through: Evidence from new panel data techniques

The first goal of our paper is to measure the long-run ERPT into import prices index for 27 OECD countries. We follow Pedroni (2001) methodology by applying FMOLS and DOLS group mean estimators. Little is said about long run pass- through in this context, and the aim of our paper is to fill this gap by using these recent panel data techniques. The second goal is to provide insights into the factors underlying cross-country differences in pass-through elasticities. To this end, we explore three macroeconomic determinants, i.e. inflation rate, degree of openness and exchange rate volatility which are potential sources of heterogeneity in ERPT. To preview our results, we first provide a strong evidence of incomplete ERPT in our panel 27 OECD countries. On the long run, import prices do not move one-to-one following exchange rate depreciation. Both FM-OLS and DOLS estimators show that pass-through elasticity does not exceed 0.70%. When considering individual estimates, we can note a cross-country difference in the long run ERPT. Especially, there is an evidence of complete pass-through for 5 out of 27 OECD countries, namely, Czech Republic, Italy, Korea, Luxembourg and Poland. Second, when split our sample in different country regimes, our results reveal a regime-dependence of ERPT, i.e. countries with higher inflation regime and more exchange rate volatility would experience a higher degree of pass-through. However, we find that ERPT is weakly correlated to the degree of openness.
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Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu

Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu

buckets and covering of trenches to prevent fly and smell nuisance (MCK, 1958). Bucket sanitation was headed for phasing out as early as 1930s due to the health risks, disposal problems, and lack of so- cial acceptability, but still prevailed 30 years after commissioning of sewerage scheme. Bucket sanitation was financed through conservancy fees lumped together with refuse collections, excreta removal, drainage and malaria, and plague control services. The first sewerage plan for Kisumu was proposed in 1928 after finishing the water supply network in 1927 for 7000 people i.e. 4000 Railway workers and 3000 others. It targeted the planned township in phases. First phase was to cover high density areas, second the low lying areas requiring pumping of sewage to the outfall sewer and third the low density European and Goan residential settle- ments (Action, 1927, 1928). The plan was to be financed through colonial loans, at full cost recovery repayed through township rates, apportioned on proportion of revenue payable from township land rates per annum by government, private persons and the Railway (Forrest, 1927). The private persons payments rates equaled the conservancy fees they would cease to pay, with financial deficit to be met by a quarter of water revenue (Action, 1926, 1927). It adopted a centralised approach with aid of pumping stations and flushing of sewers twice a day to attain self cleansing velocities. Costs were to be charged from the public water supply (Action, 1926). However, this plan was not implemented due to 1930 eco- nomic recession and the second World War. A sewerage plan was developed in the early 1950 stargeting the planned township area. It was implemented between 1955 and 1965, and expansion and maintenance programmes were undertaken between 1965 and 1975. The sewerage plan was an extension of the 1928 sewerage plan, but excluded unplanned peri-urban African areas even after independence. Generally in Kenya, including Kisumu, the water supply service level for sewerage connection was 220 l/ca.d, which was the case for immigrant population in planned townships. By contrast, peri-urban African areas were supplied with 44 l/ca.d (Nilsson & Nyanchaga, 2008).
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A colonial dilemma : British policy and the colonial economy of Tanganyika 1918-1938

A colonial dilemma : British policy and the colonial economy of Tanganyika 1918-1938

If you could read the P.C. [Provincial Commissioner] reports - "steady progress - hope for the future - ready acquiescence in British rule - loyalty of chiefs - honesty of chiefs" - 20 lies in every page. We who live among them know what a sham it all is. Hicks up from Secretariat told men that Headquarters live on the eyewash that is put up to them. It seems to be the way to get promotion for what that may be worth. There seems to be no single purpose merely double shuffling and petty subterfuge to placate some anonymous individual in Whitehall. However it is my bread and butterrtill I win a sweep, I shall continue to tell everybody that there is slow and steady progress during the year.^06
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A People Apart: Factionalism and Conversion in Pueblo Mission Villages, A.D. 1620–1680

A People Apart: Factionalism and Conversion in Pueblo Mission Villages, A.D. 1620–1680

In 1956 Stubbs and Ellis excavated parts of the so-called Lost Church, known also as the Ortiz Church, which they determined had been built sometime before 1620 but had not been completed, and that some of the construction material had been salvaged and re-used in buildings on the mesilla (Ivey 1996:3-13). When Pecos National Monument was established in 1965, government-sponsored research on the mission complex came to the forefront. As Nordby (1990:23) argued, the demands of display, interpretation, and stabilization helped bring about a shift in archaeological emphasis from the Puebloan past to “historical and Euro-American” themes. In the following half-decade, Jean Pinkley and Alden Hayes directed excavations in the church and convento, but they tried to do more than time and resources permitted. The outcome was a lesser contribution than what could have been (Ivey 2005; Eininger 2002). The significant results of this work were the discovery of the fourth church (Hayes 1974) and features within the convento, including a tower and, most controversially, a kiva, whose origins and meaning remain subjects of disagreement (Ivey 1998).
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The influence of French colonial humanism on the study of late antiquity: Braudel, Marrou, Brown.

The influence of French colonial humanism on the study of late antiquity: Braudel, Marrou, Brown.

landscape. This, he remarks, sets Gautier’s work apart. From now on, all historical studies of North Africa will be defined by their relationship to this work (Braudel 1933: 42). For Braudel, the importance of Gautier’s study lay in the way it conjoined the events of the past with the locality in which they took place (Deprest 2010). Seen in this context, the histories produced by Ibn Khaldun and ‘les chroniqueurs arabes’ are local phenomena determined by local topography; in contrast, Gautier’s text produces a universal history, one which opens out a new future for historical studies. Braudel’s position here is epistemological: to know about the past, one must be able to situate that past within a wider universal account of how the development of particular peoples is determined by their local geography and climate. As commentators observe, this review shows the extent to which Braudel was already in 1933 thinking about the close connections between geography and historical time (Gemelli 1995: 42–44).
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Pacification and Gender in Colonial Africa: Evidence from the Ethnographic Atlas

Pacification and Gender in Colonial Africa: Evidence from the Ethnographic Atlas

Surprisingly, the same interpretation might apply to the abolition of slavery. Note that while the magnitude of the coefficient on DUR remains large and positive, it is no longer statistically significant at conventional levels. This is the case for both the presence of slavery and the abolition of slavery. This suggests that the large TIME trends estimated in columns (1) and (2) were independent of the duration of white chief rule within-decade. The historical literature on the abolition of slavery in colonial Africa is extremely cautious about attributing too much to the colonial administration’s commitment to abolish slavery. 20 The moral mission to abolish slavery was a pretext for colonial occupation, in no small part to garner support from missionaries on the ground and political constituencies back home, but following occupation the primary goals quickly shifted to social control and self-sufficiency of the colonial administration (Phillips (1989). The abolition of slavery was not always consistent with these objectives. Abolition could advance over time and space, but in the long-run it could not jeopardize the larger goals of social control and administrative self-sufficiency. The estimates in columns (2) and (3) of Table 1 are consistent with this view. Abolition proceeded over time but not because of persistent and consistent pressure from white chiefs. It progressed across time and space in a host of
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Imagining an Imperial Modernity: Universities and the West African Roots of Colonial Development

Imagining an Imperial Modernity: Universities and the West African Roots of Colonial Development

The Yaba protests succeeded in large part because they formed one aspect of a larger crisis faced by the British empire in the 1930s. The Depression and the consequent decline in colonial governments’ spending produced a pattern of protest, which included widespread disorder in the West Indies, strikes and cocoa hold ups in West Africa, and the Yaba protests. 50 Questions were asked internationally about Britain’s record of colonial governance, which contributed to growing doubts about the compatibility of Britain’s alliance with African chiefs, the central tenet of indirect rule, with efficient colonial development. As war loomed in Europe, Colonial Office officials became more willing to contemplate an active role for London in colonial development planning. The shift in British imperial ideology was seen most clearly in the 1940 Colonial Development and Welfare Act, which for their first time created a central fund for colonial development projects. 51
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Redox control in development and evolution: evidence from colonial hydroids

Redox control in development and evolution: evidence from colonial hydroids

Using PC-SAS software, the three treatments were compared using univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (MANOVA) analysis of variance for the relationship between the total area of polyps and the total area of empty, unencrusted coverslip enclosed within the colony. Both polyp area and empty, unencrusted inner area were expressed as a fraction of the total colony area (note that the total area of stolons can be calculated as 1 minus this combined fraction, although this third variable was not used in the present analyses). Polyp area is clearly a measure of polyp development; empty, unencrusted inner area is largely a measure of stolon branching and anastomosis (i.e. as these aspects of stolon development increase, inner area decreases). While polyps can shield empty inner area from observation and measurement, in practice this is a minor source of error because stolon development is generally most extensive at the base of the polyps. Thus, polyp area and unencrusted inner area behave as largely independent measures of two different aspects of colony development (see further discussion of methods in Blackstone, 1996). While some heterogeneity of variances was apparent in some of the measures used (e.g. polyp counts), generally all of these data approximately meet the assumptions of parametric statistics. Both natural logarithm and arcsine transformations provided a poorer fit to these assumptions.
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Legacy of Colonialism, Foreign Aid, and Poor Governance in Africa: Case Study of Togo

Legacy of Colonialism, Foreign Aid, and Poor Governance in Africa: Case Study of Togo

established the Indian Civil Service, providing a dense network of several generations of well- trained civil servants with a growing tradition of meritocracy. Few countries in Africa had any comparable experience,” (Brautigam and Knack, 2004, 259). African countries became independent with a limited capacity to govern. These limited capacities are used by donor organizations leaving most governments with less capable civil servants. To make things worse, the salaries offered by international organizations are higher than the local salaries. Aaron Schneider pointed at a particular program called “project assistance” which severely undermines accountability. With “project assistance”, Schneider argues “line ministries lose their ability to manage sector-wide development strategies as individual departments obtain greater autonomy. In turn, ministries of finance and parliament lose their ability to control and oversee aggregate government activity,” (2005, 94).
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Fixed capital and long run economic growth: evidence from Poland

Fixed capital and long run economic growth: evidence from Poland

In the first step of this part of research, an Aug- mented Dickey!Fuller (ADF) unit root test was con- ducted. Before conducting the test, the maximal lag length was set at a level of 6 and then the informa- tion criteria (namely, the AIC, BIC and HQ) were applied to choose the optimal lag. However, the ap- plication of the ADF test is related to two serious problems. First, this test tends to under-reject the null hypothesis pointing at nonstationarity too often 9 . Second, the outcomes of ADF test are relatively sen- sitive to an incorrect establishment of lag parameter. This is why the Kwiatkowski!Phillips!Schmidt!Shin (KPSS) 10 test was conducted to confirm or under- mine the results of the ADF one. If two unit root tests lead to contradictory conclusions, a third test must be applied to make a final decision about the stationarity of time series. In this paper, the Phillips! Perron (PP) test was additionally applied. A non- parametric method of controlling for serial correla- tion is used when testing for a unit root by means of PP test. In this case the null hypothesis once again refers to nonstationarity.
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CIVIL SOCIETY ITS ROLE IN GOOD GOVERNANCE: PARTICIPATION, ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY

CIVIL SOCIETY ITS ROLE IN GOOD GOVERNANCE: PARTICIPATION, ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY

NOV-DEC 2016, VOL-4/27 www.srjis.com Page 3242 strategies which prioritize the MDGs; Second, sustained commitment and enhanced political will on the part of the world leaders and Third; new development partnership based on shared responsibilities among major stakeholders. It requires many combined and complimentary efforts by international agencies, national governments, local authorities, private sectors and civil society organizations. (CSOs). Civil Society has to make major contributions both directly and indirectly to the process reduction and attainment of other MDGs targets. Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOs), Community Organisations, Professional Associations and other civil society groups are regularly called on to help design and implement poverty reduction strategies. This participation is also built into special initiative like the global fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
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Housewives, Slaves, and Indigenous Peoples: Hybridity in the Diet of the American Frontier

Housewives, Slaves, and Indigenous Peoples: Hybridity in the Diet of the American Frontier

Women could explore their own identities, and in turn (though perhaps unknowingly) shape a broader identity of their national as a whole. Women also had a newfound sense of convenience, no longer needing to rely on memory and oral transmission. 73 This allowed for the quicker and more far-reaching spread of recipes and culinary knowledge. Moreover, publishing cookbooks gave a new sense of duty to many housewives. Despite her marginalized social position as a woman and self-proclaimed "American Orphan," Amelia Simmons claims authority and deep cultural knowledge through her cooking skills. 74 Mary Randolph promotes helping the
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Evolution of Local Government and Role of Reforms in Nigeria

Evolution of Local Government and Role of Reforms in Nigeria

The Igbo (Ibo) societies were republican in nature and often times regarded as a stateless state. In the first place, authority in Igbo land was not centralised but segmented and diffused. Power was not focused on one person but on councils and village assemblies, kingship groups or titled men (Ndichies), age set, and societies (women and youth) played considerable role in the governance of the society. Consequently, there were not individual traditional authorities which could rule over the people. The kingship groups presided over by the eldest male were the basic unit of deliberation, decision making, implementation and administration (Goss, 2001). Above all, the Igbo political system was based on the village assembly or councils. These assemblies or village councils were the highest authority organ of legislature and its decisions were supreme and binding. The age grades were part of the machinery for the implementation of the decision taken by the councils. The Igbo societies were not used to direct taxation and disputes were settled by the elders’ council as there was absence of a king or central figure. The village head or the council membership were not hereditary or ascribed but through age and achievement.
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The Growth Effects of Openness to Trade and the Role of Institutions: New Evidence from African Countries

The Growth Effects of Openness to Trade and the Role of Institutions: New Evidence from African Countries

The weak effects of trade liberalization on growth may thus be due to insufficient focus by policy makers on factors that make liberalization work. Unless accompanying policies are implemented to provide an environment that is conducive for trade, investment, productivity, and private sector activity in general, the effects of trade liberalization will be only marginal (UNCTAD 2005). The lack of effective accompanying policies to trade liberalization may explain weak growth gains from liberalization in various ways. In particular, due to ineffective investment promotion policies, the gains from trade expansion are not translated into economic diversification and growth. Moreover, inefficient management of foreign reserves may also prevent countries from benefiting from trade expansion. Indeed, foreign exchange proceeds are often stored into idle reserves instead of being absorbed into the economy and invested into productive activities. While African oil-exporting countries have experienced substantial trade account surpluses and high saving rates, this has not translated into commensurate increases in investment in non-oil sectors (UNECA 2006). This raises concerns about the sustainability of oil-led growth. Furthermore, the underdevelopment of African financial systems, which are characterized by pervasive inefficiencies in financial intermediation may also explain weak transmission from trade liberalization to growth. Indeed, even when countries experience expansion in trade, the resulting increases in savings do not stimulate investment due to inefficient financial intermediation.
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