The response indicates that the change in entropy between ice, , and water vapor, , is greater because the entropy of water in the solid phase, with molecules bound in fixed positions within the solid, is less than the entropy of water in the liquid phase, with molecules able to move more freely and form a greater number of spatial configurations. Water in the gas phase, with molecules much more dispersed and even more free to move, has the highest entropy of the three phases. Therefore, process 1 (sublimation) involves a greater change in entropy than process 2 (evaporation from a liquid) does.
“I think they will both travel up the same distance along the inclines. The kinetic energy at the point shown in the diagram is equal to the initial energy stored in the compressed spring. This is the same for both cases since they both are compressed the same distance and have the same spring constants. The kinetic energy at the point shown is also equal to the gravitational potential energy at the top or mv 2 /2 = mgh. Thus, the mass cancels out, leaving the same heights for each case.”
Plants are known in which at least the following processes are controlled by photope- riod: flowering, tuber formation, seed germination, vegetative development, tissue differentiation and induction or termination of dormancy of buds, bulbs, etc. (Thomas, 1998). In plants, photoperiodic perception occurs in the young expanded leaves (Lang, 1965; Vince-Prue, 1975). The first clear observation of photoperiodism was reported in tobacco Nicotiana tabacum, which only flowered and set seeds when given 10 hours light and 14 hours of darkness per day in the lab, while those living under the long days in the field remained vegetative (Garner, 1920). Following this study, it was found that chlorosis and decreased growth of tomato plants caused by continuous light could be prevented by subjecting the plants to light-dark cycles in the context of 24 hours (Hillman, 1956), which demonstrated a protective effect of plants’ responses to photoperiod. After the molecular genetic identification of photoreceptors and light-signaling components in plants, further progress in photoperiodism has been made. Most recently, the expression of the floral regulator gene CONSTANS shifts either at dawn or at dusk, depending on the daylength, which suggested that the pho- toperiodic perception in Arabidopsis was mediated by adjustments in the phase of en- trainment to the daily light:dark cycle (Roden, 2002; see 1.3).
When heated, calcium carbonate decomposes according to the equation above. In a study of the decomposition of calcium carbonate, a student added a 50.0 g sample of powdered CaCO 3 (s) to a 1.00 L rigid container. The student sealed the container, pumped out all the gases, then heated the container in an oven at 1100 K. As the container was heated, the total pressure of the CO 2 (g) in the container was measured over time. The data are plotted in the graph below.
Sułek et al.  have proposed a NB-LDPC coder using the mixed domain FFT-BP decoding algorithm with the multiplication units and it also named as semi-parallel decoder. Coder favors mapping a touch of the check to the multiplier focuses embedded in a FPGA, in like way making use of the wide number of sorts of FPGA resources. The throughput wrapped up by a single FPGA by the decoder in light of current conditions made. In NB-LDPC coder, the CNU block enhanced by an approximated evaluation of the nonlinear vectors. The NB- LDPC coder implemented using an FPGA development board from Xilinx with Virtex4 XC4VSX55 device with two different GF orders such as GF 8 and GF 32 . The GF 8 NB-LDPC decoder consumes the number of slices utilized as 14535, the number of multiplier as 128 and maximum clock frequency of 170.8MHz. The GF 32 NB-LDPC decoder consumes the number of slices utilized as 22494, the number of multiplier as 192 and maximum clock frequency of 130.2MHz. This NB-LDPC coder is not a fully parallel structure and it consume more hardware utilization than existing LDPC coders discussed in related works. Moreover, the multiplier is as main part of CNU block in LDPC coder, but author’s use recursive multiplier for this design. For that reason, we present the flexible non-binary LDPC coder (FNB-LDPC) over GF 2 m without the necessity of reconfigurable hardware structure. The proposed FNB-LDPC coder implemented over different Galois fields GF 2 m without modified structure of hardware design. The performance of proposed coder will compare with existing coders including NB-LDPC coder .
We noted in unit 1 that representativeness is an essential feature of a corpus. It is this feature that is typically used to distinguish a corpus from an archive (i.e. a random collection of texts). A corpus is designed to represent a particular language or language variety whereas an archive is not. Unless you are studying a dead language or highly specialized sublanguage (see unit 2.3 for further discussion), it is virtually impossible to analyze every extant utterance or sentence of a given language. Hence, sampling is unavoidable. Yet how can you be sure that the sample you are studying is representative of the language or language variety under consideration? The answer is that one must consider balance and sampling to ensure representativeness. Hence, this unit introduces the key concept of corpus representativeness as well as the related issues of balance and sampling. We will first explain what we mean by representativeness (unit 2.2), followed by a discussion of the representativeness of general and specialized corpora (unit 2.3). We will then move on to discuss corpus balance (unit 2.4) and finally introduce sampling techniques (unit 2.5).
Place 2 ml of ethyl ethanoate in a round-bottom distillation flask. Add 25 ml of sodium hydroxide (2 mol L -1 ) and some boiling chips. Reflux the mixture gently for about 30 minutes. Distill the mixture slowly to collect about 1 ml of distillate. Add concentrated HCl to the cooled residual solution with constant stirring.
Figure 2.—Levels of frq mRNA and protein in strains containing various wc-2 alleles following a light pulse (LP). (A) Northern blots of frq mRNA in strains containing wc-2 alleles ER33, ER24, ER44, and wild type. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining of rRNA bands on the blotted membrane is shown below the Northern blot. Cultures were treated such that at harvesting all cultures had been grown for a similar length of time. DD con- trols were treated identically to the LP samples, but received no LP. Time in DD varied for each strain dependent on strain period length such that the time of LP fell at CT18. Wild type was held in DD for 28 hr, ER24 for 37 hr, and ER33 and ER44, which are arrhythmic, for the same length of time as wild type. Also included is an ER24 DD28 control (the first ER24 DD sample). All samples were grown at 25⬚. Light pulses were given to groups of four cultures and were stag- gered by 3 min for logistical reasons; thus each lane represents RNA from an individual culture, but the samples for ER33 and WT are duplicated on the left and right blots as reference samples. Due to the high level of variability in amplitude of the response, LP samples are shown in tripli- cate. (B) Western blot of FRQ in strains con- taining wc-2 alleles ER33, ER44, ER24, and wild type. Two different exposures are shown to reveal FRQ in DD controls. The amido black-stained membrane is shown below the FRQ blots. Cultures were treated as in A, but tissue was harvested 4 hr after the LP. Each lane represents protein from an individual culture. (C) Densitometric analysis of data in A, relevant samples from Figure 4A and other experiments plotting the amount of frqmRNA normalized against EtBr-stained rRNA. (D) Densito- metric analysis of data in B, relevant LP samples from Figure 4B and other experiments plotting the amount of FRQ normalized against amido black-stained total protein. For C and D, n ⫽ 3–5 for most samples and values shown are the mean ⫾ SEM. DD samples were quantified from longer exposures of the blots shown and then normalized to reference samples. Solid bars correspond to DD, hatched bars to LP.
Language: Writing is different and difficult from speaking in a classroom. A self-learning material should persuade the learner to read it, participate in and interact with it before it makes learners think critically about it. To help accelerate this process it is absolutely necessary to write in a language which communicates to learners effectively and most directly. Some teachers have a wrong notion that if you use difficult words you are more scholarly. But here while writing SLMs test is not for scholarship, rather how best learners understand and absorb the content. In learning at a distance, to make communication simple, effective and directive is imperative. It is the creativity of the course writer to decide, based on his previous experiences related to the level of language for the target group. Also learner’s educational background, intellectual growth and maturity of thought mainly determine the difficulty of the language. Thus, you should write in a simple, plain and clear language. If your unit makes learners consult the dictionary quite often, it indicates the difficulty of language. The sentences should be short and simple. If the sentence is too lengthy, break it into two or more small and simple sentences. Even if your sentences, grammar and vocabulary are simple and very intelligible, lengthy passages may spoil the effect. One idea can be presented in one paragraph.