Top PDF University Technology Transfer Productivity

University Technology Transfer Productivity

University Technology Transfer Productivity

Barring a reversal of funding trends, land-grant universities in the United States must operate on decreased public funding and increase the efficiency and originality of the research they conduct (Thorp & Goldstein, 2013). State support for public colleges has been declining for at least 25 years (“25 Years”, 2014). The two research universities in Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma, experienced a decreased share of revenue from state support by 10 and 11 percent, respectively from 1987 to 2012 (“25 Years”, 2014). This downturn in funding has occurred all while enrollment has sharply increased (Lederman, 2013). Increasing the educational burden is only one difficulty these universities face as we look to these research institutions to aid in advancing technology and contribute to the solution of complex problems. In order to continually produce exceptional research, universities have pursued additional means of funding such as federal and private grants, endowments, and private partnerships. Now more than ever, these funding sources and other supporters are seeking a measureable return on their investment (Thorp & Goldstein, 2013).
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Knowledge valorisation in Dutch University Hospitals : The role of Technology Transfer Offices

Knowledge valorisation in Dutch University Hospitals : The role of Technology Transfer Offices

In the opportunity and the challenge, the authors discuss the result of the passing of the Bayh- Dole act and that research shows that TTOs are more successful in knowledge valorisation since this legislation has been in place; the relative number of patent applications from universities has grown much faster than that from the private sector. The difference between patents from university and that of industry is that companies mainly apply for patents relevant to their business that can be used by the company itself. Universities will have to search for a third party that is interested in the patents in their patent portfolio. The authors conclude this part of literature review with the fact that literature is divided on whether TTOs should be self supportive and therefore work for-profit or should receive structural funding from the university. As mentioned before, chances are that TTOs are among the first departments to be impacted by budget cuts.
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Demonstration farms and technology transfer - the case of the Lincoln University Dairy Farm

Demonstration farms and technology transfer - the case of the Lincoln University Dairy Farm

Given the overall response rate of 24% to the mail out, some caution is appropriate in drawing conclusions relating to the total population of Canterbury dairy farmers. However, it is clear that those who did respond can be characterised as, in general, well educated high performing farmers who have a strong focus on cash returns and who access information from diverse sources. Amongst those information sources, the LUDF, Dairy NZ events and ‘other farmers’ all rated highly. Focus days and the use of the SIDDC website are complementary information sources with 68% using each. Whereas the focus days are used primarily for appraisal of appropriate technologies, the website is used primarily for ongoing benchmarking of performance, particularly relating to pasture management. Farmers are discriminating in their adoption of technology, with adoption being high for technologies that are seen as giving clear economic payoffs. Farmers who responded to the survey have larger farms, higher production per cow and higher production per hectare that industry averages for Canterbury. Of those who responded; farmers who attended at least some focus days have larger farms, higher milk production per cow and higher production per hectare than non- attendees.
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Identifying Critical Factors in Managing University Technology Transfer and Commercialization Units

Identifying Critical Factors in Managing University Technology Transfer and Commercialization Units

Supply-driven enterprises analyse the milieu of public research with the aim of identifying technologies and good business opportunities. Once they have identified such a technology, they reach an agreement with the university and undertake to transfer it to the market, while assuming the financial cost involved in the process. Their business model is normally based on keeping a part of the royalties, in the case of a conventional license, or a stake in share capital, in the case of a spin-off. Companies that operate along the lines of this model include Research Corporation Technologies (RCT) in the United States, British Technology Group (BTG) and Techtran in the United Kingdom, and MedInnova Partners and MedTech Partners in Canada. Their approach to operations can be summed up as the search for worthwhile technologies and the accomplishment of actions to place those technologies to market.
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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY AND GROWTH: UNIVERSITY OF BENIN IN PERSPECTIVE

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY AND GROWTH: UNIVERSITY OF BENIN IN PERSPECTIVE

Access to telecommunication and information technology holds the key to the organization’s ability to respond to the demands of its position in the new world order. Access to modern telecommunications services should necessarily be within easy reach of every person that lives within shores of the institution. This is essential to drive socio-economic development, growth and improve the productivity of the organization (Englama & Bamidele, 2002). Information and communication technologies can substitutes for other forms of communication (mainly data processing with typewriters, postal service and personal travel) and are often more effective and more efficient than other forms in their use of time, energy and materials and in their effect on the quality of the environment. Electronic networks now make it possible for people to interact, coordinate action, gain access to and exchange information from computers. The networks provide numerous services including the e-mail, the World Wide Web, information retrieval, e-commerce, students’ portals, news groups, intranets, extranets, games and chats. Staff and students in the institution can freely share ideas, data, opinions and products. Rapid expansion of the Internet holds substantial promise for organizations, which can benefit greatly from the Internet’s communication and information delivery capabilities to help meet their needs. Many organizations operate on-line through the use of very small aperture terminal (VSAT). This helps to promote the goal of paperless transaction in the institution. In the views of Caesar & Cororaton (2002) productivity refers to the additional output generated through enhancements in efficiency arising from advancements in workers education, skills and expertise, improvements in an organization’s gains from specialization, introduction of new technology and innovation or upgrading of existing technology and enhancement in information and communication technology (ICT) as well as a shift towards higher added-value processes. ICT has the potential to accelerate economic development by promoting economic growth by facilitating the generation or increase of another source of income and investment, thus enhancing sustainable development and welfare economy. In addition the spread of computing power has reduced radically the costs for companies of collecting, analyzing, retrieving and re-using information (Harker, 2000).
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Towards a typology of university technology transfer organizations in China: evidences from Tsinghua University

Towards a typology of university technology transfer organizations in China: evidences from Tsinghua University

Third, the observation of Schoen et al. (2014) on some drawbacks of discip- line-specialized university technology transfer organizations may not be visibly reflected in the Chinese context. For instance, Schoen et al. (2014) find that in the European context, the discipline specialization structure is not compatible with a dependent university technology transfer organization. “ The inefficiencies due to lower economies of scale and less synergy exploitation observed in a discipline-specialized structure are perceived as too strong to be compensated by a single university” (p.443). Therefore, they suggest that the university should rather not form a discipline-specialized university technology transfer organization within the university administration. However, in China, many uni- versities including Tsinghua University, established National Engineering Re- search Centers as highly discipline-specialized university technology transfer organizations. The establishment of National Engineering Research Centers is the government ’ s top-down initiative with the primary aim of strengthening technology development in certain priority fields for the country. For those Na- tional Engineering Research Centers affiliated to Chinese research universities, they are dependent on the research resources of related disciplines of the uni- versities. The combination of dependent relation with the host university and a discipline-specialized structure facilitates the knowledge generation and technol- ogy transfer process.
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Selection Between One-Time Transfer and University-Industry Cooperation in Technology Transfer: A Matching Model

Selection Between One-Time Transfer and University-Industry Cooperation in Technology Transfer: A Matching Model

While U-I cooperation has been studied quite deeply, there is not too much literature on the preliminary form of TT, i.e., patenting and licensing. Studies usually focus on identifying the characteristics of the scientists who needs this form of technology transfer, but seldom analyze the mechanism of this kind of selection. Link and Welsh [15] study the characteristics of young inventors and their relationships with the propensity to form new business. Würmseher [10] divides scientists into three types based on their attitudes towards commercialization, and the second type of scientists in his paper, who have very strong focus on academic targets and no ambitious to engage in venturing projects, need to match with surrogate entrepreneurs, who will get all rights of the inventions. In this paper, some driving forces can be identified that make the process of technology transfer to be in the form of patenting and licensing in some situations rather than U-I cooperation which can be widely seen in many studies.
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An Empirical Analysis of the Propensity of Academics to Engage in Informal University Technology Transfer

An Empirical Analysis of the Propensity of Academics to Engage in Informal University Technology Transfer

While formal technology transfer mechanisms have attracted considerable attention in the academic literature and popular press (e.g., Bozeman, 2000; Siegel and Phan, 2005), there has been little systematic empirical analysis of informal technology transfer mechanisms. We mean by “formal” technology transfer mechanisms ones that embody or directly result in a legal instrumentality such as, for example, patent, license or royalty agreement. An “informal” technology transfer mechanism is one facilitating the flow of technology knowledge but through informal communication processes, such as technical assistance, consulting and collaborative research. While formal technology transfer mechanisms sometimes result ultimately in formal instrumentalities, they often do not and there is no expectation that they will. Formal technology transfer is focused on allocation of property rights and obligations, whereas in informal technology transfer, property rights play a secondary role, if any, and obligations are normative rather than legal.
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University-Industry Knowledge and Technology Transfer. Analysis of University Spin-Offs from an International Perspective

University-Industry Knowledge and Technology Transfer. Analysis of University Spin-Offs from an International Perspective

In Chapter 2, we found that, although significant advances have been made in the understanding of what innovation ecosystem means in the academic entrepreneurship literature, many questions remain unanswered about its nature, its origins and antecedents, effects and consequences. First, building a taxonomy of ecosystem concepts, we identified entrepreneurial university ecosystems as a subsystem in the large context of entrepreneurial innovation ecosystems (Autio et al., 2014; Hayter, 2016a). Second, regarding its origins and antecedents, this concept emerged as a response of policymakers’ initiatives aimed to universities (Morgan, 2007; Nicolaou & Birley, 2003), given their ability to stimulate the production and diffusion of new knowledge and act as catalysts of innovations across their regions (Nicolaou & Birley, 2003; Wright, 2014). That gave rise to a new model of university, called the entrepreneurial university (Guerrero et al., 2016) characterized by providing a supportive ecosystem to the university community and its surroundings in order to produce, diffuse, absorb, and use new knowledge that can become entrepreneurial initiatives (Carree et al., 2014; Guerrero et al., 2014). Third, as different effects and consequences were identified in the literature regarding the emergence of the entrepreneurial university ecosystem, we built on it a research agenda opening up new opportunities for entrepreneurship scholars on the field. Additionally, as Chapter 2 shows, little research is known about the specific role of entrepreneurial universities as anchor tenants and the dynamic of their ecosystems (Agrawal & Cockburn, 2003; Boh et al., 2016; Graham, 2014; Hayter, 2016a; Levie, 2014). Therefore, the following chapters of this thesis were focused on solving this issue.
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Challenges in Linkages Between Industry and Academia in Technology Transfer: Case Study at University Technology of Malaysia (UTM)

Challenges in Linkages Between Industry and Academia in Technology Transfer: Case Study at University Technology of Malaysia (UTM)

Abstract:- Collaboration between academia and industry is important towards technology development process especially in the context of Malaysia. The first objective of this study is to investigate the challenges of technology transfer between academia and industry from UTM’s academia perspectives. Secondly, to identify if culture, goals, time constrains and ownership of intellectual property are listed as the common challenges in technology transfer between UTM’s academia and industry. Third, to identify possible solutions for all mentioned challenges between academia and industry linkage from UTM academia’s perspective. This research employs explanatory research design and qualitative methods in data collection and analyses. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted which involved researchers that are also represented as a chief executive officer, assistant directors, manager, and chief registrar. The finding of this study showed that the most common challenges faced among UTM researchers in collaborating with industry is time constraint, while the least rated is intellectual property ownership. The result of this study can be used to improve the understanding of the challenges faced by the academic and industry linkages in technology transfer, as well as recommendation points for further improvements in the context of research university in Malaysia.
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Indigenous R&D Effectiveness and Technology Transfer on Productivity Growth: Evidence from the Hi Tech Industry of China

Indigenous R&D Effectiveness and Technology Transfer on Productivity Growth: Evidence from the Hi Tech Industry of China

The study employs the panel data of 15 hi-tech industries over the period of 2000-2010 in order to examine the effectiveness of R&D with respect to productivity change and indentify the significant contributing factors with intensity in the Chinese hi-tech sector. The Malmquist Productivity Indexes are calculated by using the non-parametric programming technique and censored regression model is applied to conduct the empirical investigation. We find that on average, the sector is confronting productivity deterioration which is mainly due to the technical inefficiency. The Office Equipments industry has the highest productivity gain in our sample at the rate of, on average, 3.7% per year and all of which is caused by technical change. Furthermore, the electronic components industry is found to be the most efficient industry in the sector that drives an industry to have productivity progress on average, of 1.7% per year over the study period. At last, Tobit results indicate that spillovers through FDI and technology import are having significant and positive effect on the productivity progress.
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UNIVERSITY TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER THROUGH ENTREPRENEURSHIP: FACULTY AND STUDENTS IN SPINOFFS. August 2012

UNIVERSITY TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER THROUGH ENTREPRENEURSHIP: FACULTY AND STUDENTS IN SPINOFFS. August 2012

Prior research examining technology transfer and entrepreneurship in universities has neglected the important role student entrepreneurship plays in the technology transfer process (Grimaldi, Kenney, Siegel, and Wright, 2011). Our study of university commercialization efforts suggests that graduate and post-doctoral students are critical participants in university spinoffs, and we offer an in-depth examination of their roles, focusing on the preliminary stages of spinoffs initiated by faculty and students. Our research led to a typology of spinoff development with four pathways, based on the varying functions of faculty, experienced entrepreneurs, PhD/post- doctoral students, and business students. This typology provides insight into the diverse responsibilities of students and faculty in the technology commercialization process, the
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Knowledge Transfer Partnership Associate. University of Gloucestershire Faculty of Media, Arts and Technology

Knowledge Transfer Partnership Associate. University of Gloucestershire Faculty of Media, Arts and Technology

Knowledge Transfer Partnerships is a government funded scheme which places high-quality graduates in companies to undertake projects of strategic importance. Projects in KT Partnerships can cover any important aspect of a business where the company needs an injection of knowledge or expertise.

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The Relationship between the Perceptions of Academic Staff in Mutah University of Technology Transfer and Mutah's University Organizational Readiness for Change

The Relationship between the Perceptions of Academic Staff in Mutah University of Technology Transfer and Mutah's University Organizational Readiness for Change

In the last decade there has been a growing awareness to the value of university-industry collaboration in regard to innovation and technology development. The industry has become more open to mutual research projects with different partners. The old practice, where companies conducted their research only "in house" with their own means and facilities, has changed (Lambert, 2003). Globalization and hard commercial competition demands from companies to extend their range of products and specialists in order to remain competitive in the market. The need for expansion leads to a need for more research in different fields. Most companies have neither the capacity nor the financial means to conduct such researches "in house." In this new business reality, the universities present an ideal partner for research cooperation. The academic environment offers a fertile ground for innovation with a permanent exchange of young, innovative, up-to-date researchers. Nevertheless the universities are not always ready to this collaboration as it requires an organizational change due to the cultural gap between universities and companies which makes technology transfer process not a real success in many cases (Shane, 1997).
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Technology Transfer Services and Performance of Startup Firms Sponsored by University Incubators in Kenya

Technology Transfer Services and Performance of Startup Firms Sponsored by University Incubators in Kenya

The success of business incubators is measured against certain key factors and highly dependent on expectations of stakeholders. These include among others the clarity of mission and objectives, monitoring of the performance of business incubation, the sector specificity, incubate selection process, exit processes, proximity to a major university, the level and quality of management support, the extent of access to potential internal/external networks, and the competency of the incubator manager to configure hard and soft elements of the business incubation environment (Lee et al., 2011; UKBI, 2012). Kenya is considered a promising place to do business, with growing markets and good opportunities whereby private sector contributes 97% of gross domestic product (GDP). Greater integration of informal businesses into the formal sector would enhance their credit access, which would reinforce the positive output which continues to expand more rapidly comprising about 80% of youth (AFDB, 2014; KIPPRA, 2014). Job creation potential of businesses is related to their growth orientation where the Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest percentage of start-ups with low growth expectations at 85.5% and the lowest percentage with high growth expectations at 3.9% (Kew et al, 2013).
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Licensing & Transfer of Technology

Licensing & Transfer of Technology

The public / consumers are the ultimate beneficiaries of the technology transfer. The investment / financial support provided to research institutions helps produce intelligible benefits to the society. Thereafter, with the efficient conversion of innovation / knowledge into good and services through the transfer of technology stimulates economic development and growth which would increase employment opportunities and improves standard of living. The opportunity of licensing the knowledge / technology developed provided a window to the researcher institutions / universities to acquire income in the form of license royalties in order to support their teaching and further research activities. The employees of the university gain a medium to a supplementary income for their hard work in the form of certified research results or successful inventions as a compensation for their consultancy services or for serving as a member of Advisory Board of licenses. 154
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Technology Transfer in Academia : The Case of National Technical University of Athens (A Brief Sketch)

Technology Transfer in Academia : The Case of National Technical University of Athens (A Brief Sketch)

There is no doubt that the creation, transfer and exploitation of science and technology are playing an important role in modern economic analysis. Numerous surveys have indicated the multiple sources of innovation, whereas collaboration between creators and users of knowledge is one of them. Of course, the process of technology transfer has a significant so- cial dimension as well. For instance, the university spin-outs from the development of re- search products offer job vacancies. However, despite the fact that Research & Development (R&D) leads to increases in productivity and economic growth, E.U. invests fewer funds in R&D compared to its competitors. The R&D industry hires people of higher qualifications and pays better. Analytically, the employment increase was equal to 16.2 % for the know- ledge-intensive services (KIS) and 12% for the high-tech field in the time period 1997-2002, compared to an 8% increase of the total employment (E.C., 2006).
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Monitoring the performance of university technology transfer offices: the bias control.

Monitoring the performance of university technology transfer offices: the bias control.

Many! studies! have! shown! that! a! great! deal! of! TTOs! operate! inefficiently.! Some! studies! have! been!conducted!to!understand!the!underlying!deficiencies.!When!we!try!to!assess!the!ratio!of! each! output,! then! we! start! to! question! the! effectiveness! of! university! technology! transfer.! A! simple! calculation! of! ratios! of! research! expenditures! per! invention! disclosure! and! licensing! income! euros! may! at! first! glance! lead! a! sceptic! to! question! the! effectiveness! of! university! technology! transfer.! Heher! (2006)! provides! a! forecast! of! the! income! through! university! innovations.!His!finding!of!expected!exponential!increase!also!justifies!exploration!of!the!field.! This!issue!of!efficiency!has!been!explored!by!using!different!methods.!!University!research!and! its!transfer!to!industry!has!been!a!topic!of!interest!in!the!management!of!technology!literature! over!decades!(Anderson!et!Al.!2007).!!
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Final Report on the University of Missouri Technology Transfer Project

Final Report on the University of Missouri Technology Transfer Project

A final example: Ms. Ann Ahlvers visited the University of Nebraska to participate in a MATC-sponsored workshop for students considering graduate school. With the information, networking, and guidance she received there, she decided—during the workshop—to attend graduate school, and is now enrolled in the civil engineering graduate program at the University of Minnesota.

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University-Industry Technology Transfer: Issues and Probable Remedies

University-Industry Technology Transfer: Issues and Probable Remedies

The importance of technology transfer (TT) from Universities to industry cannot be overstated. Such transfer does not only stimulate development, but is also a way of bringing research into practical use. However, the issue of how Universities and industry partner for enhancement of TT activities is not well articulated. This study attempts to answer the following questions: How does policy on intellectual property rights affect TT from Universities? How does government funding affect TT from Universities? This research highlights the mechanisms adopted by Ugandan Universities for TT and the avenues for protecting intellectual property rights. It is hoped that the findings of this study will provide useful lessons to policy makers who are concerned with evaluating the effectiveness of TT from Universities. The Endogenous Growth Model was used to assess this TT. The research project was a qualitative descriptive single case study using Makerere University as a case institution. The Nvivo 9 data analysis technique was employed to organize and analyse the data. Findings indicate that inadequate funding; problems with ownership of intellectual property, lack of ethics by faculty and researchers, low motivation of staff and conflict of interest are the major impediments to University-industry TT in Uganda. The study recommends increased funding for University-industry TT activities and formalization of intellectual property rights in higher education institutions.
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