Top PDF The Use of Landsat 8 for Monitoring of Fresh and Coastal Waters

The Use of Landsat 8 for Monitoring of Fresh and Coastal Waters

The Use of Landsat 8 for Monitoring of Fresh and Coastal Waters

longest uninterrupted data set available. The Landsat satellites’ main mission is to image the land areas of the earth and therefore there are typically no open ocean (case 1 water) images available. This is one of the reason why Landsat satellites have been underestimated by the ocean color community for the study of water bodies. In addition, the Landsat instruments have generally had broad bands and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when compared to her- itage ocean color satellites such as SeaWiFS and MODIS. Carrying two instruments onboard, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal InfraRed Scanner (TIRS), Landsat 8 is the first of a new generation of Landsat satellites with state-of-the-art technology (Irons et al., 2012). Since its launch in 2013, the OLI instrument onboard Landsat 8 has created high expectations in the ocean color community. With its 12-bit quantization and improved SNR, OLI is a big improvement to the Landsat mission. In addition, OLI includes a new coastal band that increased the spectral resolution of the instrument. These improvements are the main drivers to hypothesize that the Landsat 8 satellite will have a better performance in water quality studies than its predecessors. Roy et al. (2014) stated this potential use of Landsat 8 for fresh and coastal water studies, mainly due to a reported SNR that exceeded expectations and the new coastal band. Therefore, the overall objective of this research is to investigate the performance of Landsat 8 for accurately retrieving water constituents.
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Demonstrating Landsat's new potential to monitor coastal and inland waters

Demonstrating Landsat's new potential to monitor coastal and inland waters

The ability to achieve continuous monitoring of the global water supply from satellite imagery is an ongoing effort in the remote sensing community. Historically, water stud- ies involving the use of satellite imagery have focused mainly on the open ocean. These case 1 waters are relatively easy to monitor as their optical properties are dominated by one constituent called phytoplankton, a microscopic free-floating organism. With the im- provement of sensor technology, however, it has become possible to study more optically complex, case 2 waters. These types of waters, which are typically found in coastal regions or inland lakes and ponds, are classified as optically complex as they contain suspended materials and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), in addition to phytoplankton. Our improved ability to monitor case 2 waters has led to a desire to study issues that are more sophisticated in nature than those studied over traditional case 1 waters. As opposed to simply trying to characterize the concentration of phytoplankton in a water body, ongo- ing efforts include the monitoring of water quality, a desire to characterize sedimentation in coastal waters, and perhaps even the ability to predict beach closings. With this in- creased ability and interest in studying case 2 waters has come a significant increase in the complexity of the corresponding algorithms. Therefore, methods that once held for case 1 waters have to be modified, or in some cases reconstructed altogether. A major thrust of this research effort is the development of such algorithms.
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An Integrated physics-based approach to demonstrate the potential of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) for monitoring coastal/inland waters

An Integrated physics-based approach to demonstrate the potential of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) for monitoring coastal/inland waters

The model calibration at Onondaga Lake was carried out for May 2010, as a good quality image was available. In addition to the two main flow sources provided to the model, a third inflow representing the Harbor Brooks discharge at the southwest corner (Figure 4.9) of the lake was also incorporated to enhance predicting the thermal structure and the material transport in the southern portion of the lake. Figure 5.22 shows the matched model output against the L7-derived surface temperature. The best model output (RMSE < 0.56 o C) resulted from 22% reduction in the originally observed WS and rotating the wind axis (WD) -28 o . As explained, the observed wind pattern in the wide, open areas of the lake can be largely different from that along the lake's shoreline introducing uncertainties in the modeling process. This issue has been compensated via the above-mentioned adjustments. However, the variations in either the flow temperatures or the discharges appeared to be trivial when adjusting during the calibration. However, it will be demonstrated in Section 5.2.3.2 that the discharges have to be considerably boosted to produce particle distributions close to the L7-derived. Briefly, this large adjustment is due to the absence of inputs from Metro and the Ley Creek on the south east corner of the lake (Figure 4.9). Figure 5.23-c shows the in situ measured temperature profile versus that obtained from the model at the south deep station. As shown in Figure 5.23-c, although the surface temperature is in agreement with that observed, there is a relatively significant difference (RMSE > 1.86 o C, on average, through the water column) in the vertical distribution of the temperature in the deeper waters (> 8 m). This inconsistency can be attributed to the inaccurate initialization of the model where a vertically uniform lake temperature was assumed. More precisely, the measured temperature profile (Figure 5.23-d) observed on the starting day of the simulation (March 21st 2010) could have made a great impact in the model performance. Note that an average 6 o C (vertically uniform) was used as the initial lake temperature for this experiment.
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Study on the Applicability of Landsat 8 Images as a Tool for Monitoring the Trophic State of Lake Guiers (Senegal)

Study on the Applicability of Landsat 8 Images as a Tool for Monitoring the Trophic State of Lake Guiers (Senegal)

Researches about extracting water quality parameters (WQPs) of surface waters from satellite imagery have been the subject of several studies ([16]). Numerous case studies have demonstrated the use of reflectance measurements in the visi- ble range (400 - 700 nm) for chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) mapping. ([17]) used the ra- tio of the Green/Red spectral bands to estimate and map the CHL-a contents in the waters of Lake Monticchio in southern Italy. ([18]) demonstrated the effi- ciency of the Blue/Red bands ratio for mapping the CHL-a in the waters of the Pensacola Bay in Florida. According to the theory, the numerical values of the concentration of WQPs can be derived from the parametric (processed) image by measuring the spectral reflectance in different wave lengths.
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Fusion of Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2 MSI data

Fusion of Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2 MSI data

Abstract: Sentinel-2 is a wide-swath and fine spatial resolution satellite imaging mission designed for data continuity and enhancement of the Landsat and other missions. In this paper, a new approach is presented for fusion of Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 data to coordinate their spatial resolutions for continuous global monitoring. The advanced area-to-point regression kriging (ATPRK) approach was employed for the fusion problem, where the 30 m spatial resolution Landsat 8 bands are downscaled to 10 m using 10 m Sentinel-2 bands as covariates. To account for the land-cover/land-use (LCLU) changes that may have occurred between the Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 images, the Landsat 8 PAN band was also incorporated in the fusion process. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach is effective for fusing Landsat 8 with Sentinel-2 data, and the use of the PAN band can decrease the errors introduced by LCLU changes. By fusion of Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 data, more frequent observations can be produced for continuous monitoring, and the observed 30 m Landsat 8 data can be downscaled to a finer spatial resolution of 10 m. The products have great potential for timely monitoring of rapid changes on the Earth’s surface.
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Classification of Landsat 8 Imagery Based On Pca And Ndvi Methods

Classification of Landsat 8 Imagery Based On Pca And Ndvi Methods

Abstract: Remote sensing is an important issue in satellite image classification. In developing a significant sustainable system in agriculture farming, the major concern for remote sensing applications is the crop classification mechanism. The other important application in remote sensing is urban classification which gives the information about houses, roads, buildings, vegetation etc. A superior indicator for the presence of vegetation can be computed from the vegetation indices of a satellite image. This indicator supports in describing the health of vegetation through the image attributes like greenness and density. The other parameter in detecting objects or region of interest is an image is the texture. A satellite image contains spectral information and can be represented by more spectral bands and classification is very tough task. Generally, Classification of individual pixels in satellite images is based on the spectral information. In this research paper Principle component analysis and combination of PCA and NDVI classification methods are applied on Landsat-8 images. These images are acquired from USGS. The performance of these methods is compared in statistical parameters such as Kappa coefficient, overall accuracy, user’s accuracy, precision accuracy and F1 accuracy. In this work existing method is PCA and proposed method is PCA+NDVI. Experimental results shows that the proposed method has better statistical values compared to existing method.
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Turbidity and light attenuation in coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef

Turbidity and light attenuation in coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef

Potential stress thresholds for some coastal corals were quantified by Cooper et al. (2008) using an 18 month data set of water turbidity at Horseshoe Bay on the northern side of Magnetic Island, a continental island located within Cleveland Bay, a soft-bottomed embayment off Townsville with water depths ranging from about 3-13 m. Shallow areas were defined as being 2 m below LAT. The site is also occasionally influenced by river plumes and lies 100 km north of the mouth of the Burdekin River, the largest single riverine source of sediment to the GBRL (Belperio 1983). Turbidity greater than 20 NTU occurred mostly during high wind events and was interpreted as caused by wave resuspension within Cleveland Bay, with subsequent advection to Horseshoe Bay by tidal currents. Turbidity exceeded 50 NTU during Tropical Cyclone Larry in March 2006 and during a high wind event in February 2007. Flooding of the Burdekin River was also recorded during the period of February 2007. This was commented upon by Orpin and Ridd (using the same data set) who showed that there was no relationship between the Burdekin plume and the turbidity at Horseshoe Bay (Orpin and Ridd 2012). Analysing coral bioindicators for water quality, the study concluded that long-term (ca. 2 years) turbidity >3 NTU leads to sub-lethal coral stress and >5 NTU may represent a threshold for severe stress on corals in shallow areas (Cooper et al. 2008).
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A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System

A Fresh Cow Health Monitoring System

Cows with difficult deliveries are at a greater risk for fresh cow problems (i.e. retained placenta and metritis). Keep- ing a record of calving ease will help a producer know which cows to monitor more closely. The Calving Sheet can be used to record calving information for all cows within the herd to look for herd trends and to monitor retained placentas in individual animals. Most cows in all herds should calve in with a score 1, using the scoring system in Table 1. Although difficult deliveries will occasionally oc- cur, a producer should contact his or her veterinarian and nutritionist if a producer notices an increase in the number of cows that need assistance delivering.
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Physical constraints on phytoplankton in estuaries and shallow coastal waters

Physical constraints on phytoplankton in estuaries and shallow coastal waters

in the order of 1 m s1, occurring during the ebb period. There is a tidal asymmetry in that the first flood period is reduced to 4 hours, however this does not correspond to the period of maximum current velocities, as the ebb period also exhibits rapid current velocities. Minimum velocities were measured at the times of low and high water. The pattern observed for the east-west current velocities exhibited a much stronger tidal signal in tune with the low and high waters, at the Hoek van Holland. The influence of the lower salinity water (Figure

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Water dynamics and transport timescales of coastal waters and estuaries

Water dynamics and transport timescales of coastal waters and estuaries

The finite element unstructured model SLIM was successfully applied to simulate the water circulation and to analyse some physical oceanographic features of the Great Barrier Reef. The model was well calibrated using current measurements from up to twenty mooring sites. Moreover, this is the first numerical model applied to the Great Barrier Reef that was previously calibrated to accurately model mixing processes. This calibration was achieved by comparing model results with measurements of salinity during the dry season (i.e. typically between August and November). The SLIM model adequately simulated the mean slope of the salinity rise, the magnitude of salinity achieved at steady-state, and the time scale for reaching steady state (Andutta et al., 2011). The model was successfully used to estimate a few different transport timescales for coastal areas and bays in the central GBR, and the model was used to analyse the influence from reef density on water renewal within many reef configurations and cluster of reefs. Also, a further variation of simple methods to estimate transport timescales was developed and applied to many estuaries worldwide. In summary, objectives previously mentioned were all satisfied.
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Proceedings of symposium on hydrology of the coastal waters of North Carolina

Proceedings of symposium on hydrology of the coastal waters of North Carolina

Donald Horton, BamPico Marine Laboratory, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, Aurora, North Carolina.. "Hydrographic Studies in the Pamlico Sound" - Dr.[r]

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Vertical migration of phytoplankton in coastal waters with different UVR transparency

Vertical migration of phytoplankton in coastal waters with different UVR transparency

Swimming speed of chlorophytes and dinoflagellates has been documented to be in the range of 20 to 60 μm s -1 which would correspond to hourly movements over dis- tances of about 7 to 22 cm [23]. At the time of sam- pling, dinophyta dominated within Helgoland (spring time) and Hiddensee (autumn time) waters; that is a typical phytoplankton composition at the particular times of the year for the open marine waters of Helgo- land (e.g. [36,37]) and for the near-shore waters of Hid- densee (e.g. [38]). The quick development of chlorophyll a maxima in the present paper suggests that these motile pelagic autotrophs managed even bigger dis- tances in the short time available as to be expected by the laboratory experiments of Richter et al. (2007). Indeed, investigations from the natural environment have documented downward migrations of several metres in phytoplankton over the course of 1 day [39]. The discrepancies between laboratory measurements of swimming speed and field observations of rapidly chan- ging chlorophyll a maxima over several metres are prob- ably due to the fact that the idea of an entire phytoplankton population migrating through the water column oversimplifies the natural conditions. As visua- lised in Figure 3, a substantial proportion of the chloro- phyll remains evenly distributed in the water column; even under calm and sunny conditions that would be
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Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters

Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters

The standard SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm, designed for open ocean water, has been extended for use over turbid coastal and inland waters. Failure of the standard algorithm over turbid waters can be attributed to invalid assumptions of zero water-leaving radiance for the near-infrared bands at 765 and 865 nm. In the present study these assumptions are replaced by the assumptions of spatial homogeneity of the 765:865-nm ratios for aerosol reflectance and for water-leaving reflectance. These two ratios are imposed as calibration parameters after inspection of the Rayleigh-corrected re- flectance scatterplot. The performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated for imagery of Belgian coastal waters and yields physically realistic water-leaving radiance spectra. A preliminary comparison with in situ radiance spectra for the Dutch Lake Markermeer shows significant improvement over the standard atmospheric correction algorithm. An analysis is made of the sensitivity of results to the choice of calibration parameters, and perspectives for application of the method to other sensors are briefly discussed. © 2000 Optical Society of America
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Chemical speciation of iron with humic ligands in estuarine and coastal waters

Chemical speciation of iron with humic ligands in estuarine and coastal waters

The “A ethod stipulates that just o e e u d op is dispe sed ‘ue a d B ula d, hi h is u usual as auto ated olta ete s o all dispe se se e al efo e usi g a f esh o e, a d the appa atus, o soft a e, a e ui e odifi atio the soft a e of the Bioa al ti al “ ste s BA“ olta ete does ot e ui e odifi atio . The use of a si gle d op as to a oid a appa e t de ease i the espo se he a s a as epeated usi g the sa e solutio , hi h as as i ed to adso ptio o the e u d ops i the ell ‘ue a d B ula d, . The d op - size of the s ste s used fo i o spe iatio a a a fa to of Bu k et al., , so this aspe t is tested i this o k. A de ease due to Fe e o al as a esult of adso ptio o the olta et i ell is eli i ated if a o ditio ed ell is used. Be ause of the de easi g espo se, epeat easu e e ts fo Fe - “A o ali uots of a tit atio a e a ied out i sepa ate ali uots, he eas othe CLE - C“V ethods epeat the s a s i the sa e ell. This de easi g espo se is a i o e ie e of the “A ethod as it affe ts epeat s a s, ali atio s a d sta da d additio s, a d its ause is at least i pa t
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Phaeocystis globosa and the phytoplankton succession in the East Frisian coastal waters

Phaeocystis globosa and the phytoplankton succession in the East Frisian coastal waters

Dominant species during the first diatom blooms in the annual cycle at the Norderney plankton survey station, 1985-1991.. Year First diatom bloom Second diatom blo[r]

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A preliminary investigation of the variation of vitamin B12 in oceanic and coastal waters

A preliminary investigation of the variation of vitamin B12 in oceanic and coastal waters

in coastal water Wee Bankie, 56° II' N., 2° 08' W., in January and O'OOOlp,g/l.in North Atlantic water 57° 55' N., 17° W., in July; since the Seitz-filtered, bacteria-free, samples so fa[r]

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Fresh waters and fish diversity: distribution, protection and disturbance in tropical Australia

Fresh waters and fish diversity: distribution, protection and disturbance in tropical Australia

We expand on previous assessments of terrestrial protected area effectiveness (e.g. [2,3,5]) and disturbances influencing the condition of fresh waters (e.g. [4]) by: 1) including tributaries as well as main river systems in our analysis; 2) accounting for the representation of fresh waters and supported fish species (not only rare species) in the terrestrial protected area network; 3) assessing the total amount of protection as well as the percent representation of stream order length, wetland area and the distribution of 45 fish species, protected entirely within IUCN category II protected areas (chosen as these protected areas are categorized with the highest level of formal protection to terrestrial ecosystems in the region, and by definition afford a high level of protection to ecosystem processes important for species persistence); and 4) quantifying current adjacent and upstream human-induced disturbances that influence condition of stream reaches and wetlands both within and outside of terrestrial protected areas. We focused on fish species because their taxonomy is well known, they are strongly dependent on stream and wetland ecosystems and because there was sufficient available data to model their current distributions. Protection level of each ecosystem and species was determined for the protected area categories for the State of Queensland and the IUCN, making our results both nationally and internationally relevant. Our results are an initial step towards identifying systematic conservation priorities for fresh waters and the biodiversity they support, at a regional scale.
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Studies on the zooplankton and hydrology of South Eastern coastal waters of Tasmania

Studies on the zooplankton and hydrology of South Eastern coastal waters of Tasmania

Copepods, 8 Euphausids, 1 Sergestid, 11 Chaetognaths and 7 Pelagic Tunicates. Except for 2 Copepod species which are assigned to a genus, the remainder are posi ti vely identified. i'mongst the species recorded, 22 Copepods are new to Australian waters whereas 38

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Diversity of methyl halide degrading microorganisms in oceanic and coastal waters

Diversity of methyl halide degrading microorganisms in oceanic and coastal waters

bromide, suggests that methyl halide degradation in the marine environment.. is not just a case of co-metabolism or detoxification of these compounds.[r]

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Some common components of the plankton of the southeastern
coastal waters of Tasmania

Some common components of the plankton of the southeastern coastal waters of Tasmania

BoeckeZla triarticulata Thomson, 1883 figs 42a - f Previous Tasmanian Records: Freshwater Lakes and Lagoons of Tasmania Bayly 1964 Figure Exp1 anations: a female whole animal, lateral vi[r]

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