Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy is the fastest growing type of renewable energy that obtains its energy from the sun. PVenergy serves as a substitute to fossil energy that is used in most countries to power grid network . Most homes in the developing countries such as South Africa and Nigeria still depend fully or partly on electricity from the grid . However, tariff charged using electricity from the grid has increased over the years [3, 4]. On the other side, apart from the cost of implementation, PVenergy is considered economical, freely available, inexhaustible, less polluted, noise-free, low running cost, and with drop in cost of PV panels over the years as newer technology that are cheaper are used for the production of photovoltaic panels [5, 6, 7]. Also, Africa is a continent that experience more sunlight thus allowing more energy to be extracted from the PV system which can lead to a reduced energypay-backtime (EPBT) of the panel [8, 9]. EPBT is the length of time (in years) needed for a complete PV system to recompense for the use of energy for its production . Mathematically, Equation 1 is used to estimate the EPBT of a PV panel while equation 2 estimates the profit earned using photovoltaic energy. C in(R) is the total
Many algorithms are being developed for MPPT. From the basic study, the main algorithm used in almost all applications is the Perturb and observe method. For a digitally controlled DC grid system this algorithm could show an efficiency of 99.5% . By comparing the perturb parameter used OF P&O method as voltage or direct duty ratio for standalone PV pumping application, the D.D.R perturb method was found to perform better . In area where more than one energy source is used, the P&O algorithm finds its enhanced way to track the MPP for boost converter along with time- based power monitor, giving an efficiency of 83%.. The efficiency of P&O, wanted a modified algorithm to achieve recovered results for different circuits. The perturbation made in this algorithm is fixed which cannot be utilized for converters other than conventional boost converter. But varying the method or parameter of perturbation it was able to use in different cases. With adaptive frequency perturbation, the system with single sensor PV module achieved more efficiency when compared to other algorithms like Inc. Conductance, Ripple Co-relation Control (RCC) Fractional V or I method and Neural Network with fixed perturbation and requiring multiplication factor .
inductor based converter with extended voltage doubler cell is proposed , but unfortunately this converter can’t offer a neutral point terminal for the half-bridge based transformer less inverter. In this paper an improved single phase high step-up converter with coupled inductor multiplier cell is proposed, this converter naturally create a neutral point terminal and its voltage gain is double then previous converters without increasing the duty cycle, which all the above mention advantages of the converter  has in this converter. A typical solar panel converts only 30 to 40 percent of the incident solar radiation into electricity. The maximum power point tracking technique is used to improve the efficiency of the solar panel. There are different techniques used to track the maximum power point. The choice of the algorithm depends on the time complexity the algorithm takes to track the maximum power point (MPP), implementation cost and the ease of implementation. Perturb and Observe (P&O) in this the time complexity of this algorithm is very less but on reaching very close to the MPP it doesn’t stop at the MPP and keeps on perturbing on both the directions. However the method doesn’t take account rapid change of irradiation level, to avoid this problem use incremental conductance method in this eliminate the error due to change in irradiance but increase the complexity. To automatically find the voltage (Vmpp) or current (Impp) at which the PV panel should be operate to acquire the maximum power output (Pmpp) under a given temperature and irradiance. According to some MPPTTechniques, the Perturb& Observe Technique has well control PV output voltage compare with Hill climbing algorithm [24-25]. Each PV panel was connected with the own power electronic circuits hence know as module integrated converters (MIC) controllers, this MIC controllers allows eliminating the hot spots or panel level hot spots thus improving the system reliability . But in this some drawbacks are there. Those are cost is high because of large number of power converters and another low efficiency of module integrated converters w.r.to large converters .
Abstract—With the increasing use of renewable energies around the world, particularly photovoltaic (PV) systems, considerable research efforts have been dedicated to achieving maximum efficiency. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques are proposed for PVsystems to increase the energy capture. The type of MPPT method utilized in a system can directly influence the energy capture positively, however may also have an unwanted side effect in causing voltage stresses in the converter components which may effect the overall reliability of the system. This paper provides a preliminary investigation of the impact of the choice of MPPT method on the voltage fluctuations in the DC-link and PV- side capacitor of a PV system. The investigation is a first step in working towards a method for assessing the impact of the choice of MPPT method on the reliability of the converter.
This paper proposes an effective Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller being incor- porated into a solar Photovoltaic system supplying a Brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive as the load. The MPPT controller makes use of a Genetic Assisted Radial Basis Function Neural Network based technique that includes a high step up Interleaved DC-DC converter. The BLDC motor combines a controller with a Proportional Integral (PI) speed control loop. MATLAB/Simulink has been used to construct the dynamic model and simulate the system. The solar Photovoltaic system uses Ge- netic Assisted-Radial Basis Function-Neural Network (GA-RBF-NN) where the output signal gov- erns the DC-DC boost converters to accomplish the MPPT. This proposed GA-RBF-NN based MPPT controller produces an average power increase of 26.37% and faster response time.
The rapid depletion of conventional sources is increasing the demand for the use of renewable sources. Mainly wind and solar with their abundance and high potential gained the attention of the world. There are different concepts and technologies developed from years in order to utilize the available sources. Both wind and solar power system generations change with varying weather conditions. To best utilize the sources each are provided with some techniques. There are different MPPTtechniques - generally being used in PVsystems. The Perturb & Observe (P&O) -, the Incremental Conductance (INC), Open Circuit Voltage, Short Circuit Current are generally used MPPTtechniques and each has its own drawbacks. The P&O produce oscillations around the Maximum Power Point (MPP) even under steady state illumination. The INC method is efficient and accurate even under varying weather conditions but its controlling circuit is complex than P&O. The open circuit voltage and short circuit current method are simple but not efficient for high energy generation units.
The main aim of the maximum power point (MPP) tracking (MPPT) algorithms is to achieve fast and accurate tracking performance and minimize oscillations due to varying weather conditions. A comparative study on MPPTtechniques for photovoltaic (PV) power systems is reported in  and . Among different MPPT algorithms much focus has been on perturb and observe (P&O) , hill climbing , and incremental conductance (INC) methods . In, a survey of P&O techniques has been presented weather conditionsIt has been shown that the existing techniques suffer from oscillations, complexity, designer dependency, and more computational effort. By reducing the fixed perturbation size these oscillations can be minimized, but it takes relatively more time to reach MPP. The solution to this conflicting situation is to have a variable step size as suggested in.
Electricity demand is growing with highest rate for the energy consumed worldwide. Thus the mankind is facing a massive challenge of never ending increase in energy demand. Availability of solar energy has an exceptional potential to make a noteworthy involvement to the world’s energy requirement. As solar panels are used in a normal conventional way, its non linear property in current and voltage and power- voltage characteristic increases. These characteristics may reduce the efficiency of solar panel. Hence for increasing efficiency and reducing effect of non-linearity of characteristics it requires Maximum power point tracking technique for controlling the solar panels. Hence the aim of MPPT is to control the voltage of solar panels in the influence of variation in atmospheric conditions. Recently lots of researchers making efforts to enhance the power output of the module in terms of maximum power point tracking (MPPT). It is an important part to analyze and formation of solar power projects. In this work, a deep review of different MPPTtechniques analysis and discussion is presented for solar PV system. Further the use of an efficient method to get lower disturbance and higher energy has been explained.
Currently, although the cost of the solar energy is still higher than that of energy from fossil fuels, the trend of oil shortage is one factor that increases the cost of fossil fuels and can eventually enable the cost of solar energy to be lower than that of energy from fossil fuels. In addition, the advances in the maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) algorithm used in solar photovoltaic systems and the resulting efficiency improvement of the inverter enable the cost of solar energysystems to be further reduced. Therefore, in the future, the cost between solar energy and fossil fuel energy may become closer to each other. However, due to the characteristics of the solar cell, the maximum power of the solar cell cannot be provided without the use of a MPPT controller. By using a MPPT converter, the input impedance of the converter can match the output impedance of the solar cell to achieve the maximum power output of the solar cell. Because of its clean and stable output power, solar photovoltaic systems using a MPPT converter will find a place in the field of the green energy application. The programmable advantage of the digital chip accelerates the research of the MPPT algorithm. Different algorithms have different tracking performances. Thus, determining how to obtain improved tracking performance using a simple algorithm is an important topic. By reducing the specification requirement of the digital chip used in MPPT, the use of a simple algorithm can reduce the cost of a PV system. Therefore, a MPPT method using a simple algorithm that provides good tracking performance is desired.
Abstract: In this paper, it has been done on MPPT based solar system performance enhancement by use of fuzzy logic controller’s designs optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO). We have described about different latest A.I. techniques that has been hybrid with fuzzy logic for improving PV array based solar plants performance in recent time. The artificial intelligence technique applied in this work is the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and is used to optimize the membership functions for maximum power point tracking rule set of the FLC. The PSO algorithm is used for the optimization of the FLC, which is the able to maximize the energy being absorbed by the system loads while ensuring a higher stability and speed as compared to P&O based MPPT algorithm.
Solar energy is one of the most important distributed generation option. For the production of electricity ,solar energy is widely used.Therefore, a developments in Renewable and alternative energysystems are expected to increase for this purpose. It is important to develop more and better means of alternative energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass. Solar energy is renewable, inexhaustible and non-polluting, and it is more intensively used as various applications. Solar energy is a unique perspective solution for energy crisis. All these advantages of solar energy, they do not have desirable efficiency.A solar cell which is used converts 30-40% of solar energy into electrical energy. Cells which are connected in series that satisfies higher voltage requirements and which are parallel that gives higher current requirements. The maximum amount of power that can be extracted from the solar panel .The maximum power depends on the solar radiations, temperature, and load. So the input to the solar cell is basically sunlight and temperature of that particular area.The efficiency of solar cells depends on temperature, radiation and spectral characteristics of sunlight, dust, shading, which result in poor performance. Due to the poor efficiency of PVsystems, “maximum power point tracking” (MPPT) techniques were proposed. The photovoltaic has an optimum operating point to extract the maximum power of the PV module. This point is called the maximum power point (MPP), which depends on cell temperature, solar radiation level and the nature of load. Tracker is deviate from the maximum power point due to the variation in solar radiations and temperature, thus the tracker needs to response within a short time . Maximum power point tracking technique is chosen based on several factors such as simplicity, cost, quick tracking under varies atmospheric conditions, small power output locations etc. The MPPTtechniques finds the voltage or current at which maximum power point in a PV module should operate. Under partial shading conditions it is possible to have multiple local maximum at the same points so maximum power point shifts according to it.
residential sectors, solar energy considered as best alternative for generation. For production of such large power plants PV cells need to be grid connected. With increased capacity, nonlinearity introduced in the system could not be ignored. This paper reviews some existing techniques to reduce harmonics & controlling power level of inverter.. It also focus on the design of inverters with PV cell characteristics, its MPPT tracking point & current control schemes used in single phase grid connected systems.
Abstract — This article compares maximum power point tracking (MPPT), which plays an important role in Solar Photovoltaic (SPV). Fluctuation in electricity or power generation economically is not marketable and therefore electricity production must be kept at maximum power point (MPP) all the time. The cost of electricity from the PV array is more expensive, mainly due to the fact that its production is not very efficient than other electricity generation from non-renewable resources. Therefore, MPPT controllers are applied to improve the performance of PVsystems with different requirements and conditions. The photovoltaic system is connected to a DC/DC boost converter to increase the output voltage. To extract the maximum power from a PV system, MPPT algorithms are implemented. In this project, we present a comparative simulation study of three MPPTtechniques: Fuzzy Logic (FL), Incremental Conductance (InC), and Perturb & Observe (P&O) based MPPT controller under constant and variable environmental conditions. The simulation results show that FL based MPPT can track the MPP with faster response and good performance compared to the conventional (P&O) and (InC) algorithms by continuously adjusting the duty cycle of the DC/DC converter to track the maximum power of the solar cell. Thus, increasing the efficiency of the entire system. MATLAB/Simulink toolbox is used to develop and design the model of the PV solar system equipped with the proposed MPPT controller.
Abstract - This paper presents a fuzzy controller (FC)- based single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC) for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) operation of a photovoltaic (PV) system along with battery. The FLC proposed scheme uses the convergent distribution of the membership function. The fuzzy controller for the SEPIC MPPT scheme shows the voltage without any changes in different load conditions at the inverter output (load) side. The behaviour of the converter is tested in simulation at different operating conditions. The load is fed from the battery storage continuously with constant voltage. The battery will be charge with the help of PV module and the SEPIC converter, which is controlled by FLC-based MPPT. The proposed FLC-based MPPT with battery will supply more power to the load than the without battery system.
Present days the distribution generator significantly connected across the distribution system. The demand for DG connected distribution system increased day by day. The main parameters of the growth of the electricity generation system are renewable energy resources (RES) and CHP (Combined Heat and Power plants). The unbalance production mostly consists of the DG units. The distribution of electricity is a legally and functionally unbundled from the production activity. The major problem in the distribution system network related to the DG is large penetration level of DG which increases the cost of power generation. In this research, the quantification of the effect of DG on distribution network costs in three distribution fields. Various conditions and demands analyzed in the different areas; the two conditions were taken in each area maximum net demand and maximum net generations of electricity in a period. The reference network model used for the large scale distribution analyzed the cost of the DG connected PV system .
the wind requirements in double-axis column trackers (height, large surface exposed to wind forces, only one support point, etc.) this contribution is considerably higher than the energy required by ﬁxed systems. However, the energy requirements for structure and foundations of horizontal axis trackers are very similar to the ﬁxed systems amounts: the structure is supported by an axis parallel to the ground, with several support points, and located at low height and then less exposed to wind forces, reducing requirements of concrete and steel. The importance of the rest of items is secondary. It is worth to stress that, although it is necessary to dedicate higher amounts of wire in double axis tracker systems—due to the higher requirement of terrain in order to avoid mutual shadows– the global inﬂuence is insigniﬁcant.
As we very well know that for social and economic development as well as for human activity energy is a basic need. Human life can be made better by the sufficient supply of energy. Now a day’s global warming is occurring due to the nonstop combustion of fossil fuels all over the world, creating environmental hazards and reducing conventional energy sources, this scenario is contributing to the need to search for an energy source, which is clean and available in excess. Due to the huge impetus in the government policies on the development of solar energy, it is acting as a main alternative renewable energy source. PV cells/modules is used for the generation of DC voltage and can be given to buck converter, boost converter etc. based on the requirement. The converter output is given to the battery and via inverter it can be converted to AC and can be given to the AC grid. The solar energy is popular due to easy maintenance, cleanliness, sustainability, and zero noise characteristics. [1-3]
Roberto Faranda and Sonia Leva 3 discussed manyMPPT techniques under the energy production point of view: Constant Voltage Method, Short-Current Pulse Method, Open Voltage Method, Perturb and Observe Method, Incremental Conductance Method and Temperature Method.These techniques vary amongthem in many aspects, including simplicity, convergence speed, hardware implementation, sensors required, cost, range of effectiveness and need for parameterization.
The application of an energetical LCA to a system requires the definition of spatial and temporal borders containing the components and processes which are to be taken into account in the analysis. Moreover, this definition of frontiers allows to establish useful indicators for comparison with alternative typologies or technologies. In our framework, the objective is to analyze the behavior of some techniques of solar tracking along their life cycle. Therefore, the LCA will leave out those components and processes which depend from local conditions (for example, a local normative for Medium Voltage (MV) installations), and which should be chosen by the engineer whatever the tracking technique adopted. In order to summarize with a label, our frontier is the Low Voltage (LV). Hence, our LCI includes the energy used for the manufacturing and transport of the PV modules, LV wiring, inverters, support structure and foundations. This LCI will not include the impact of MV centres, protections and lines. Other components which are included inside the LV frontier are discarded due to their low impact in the global sum: LV electrical protections, manpower, communication systems, and documentation tasks.
By observing the various algorithms, it found that each has some limitations on extracting power from Photovoltaic cells. In this paper, we proposed a Novel algorithm for MPPT Charger, it is possible to obtain stable output at MPP point that tracks every time changes in environment and improves speed, accuracy, and efficiency of PV array. The developed Novel algorithm for MPPT Charge controller for PV application is based on measure of voltage & current calculates existing power and increase / decrease duty cycle to obtain peak point then tracks according to source voltage reference for achieving all the time maximum power from PV. Less number of sensors needed in the controller circuitry since the MPPT controller is only utilizing the source voltage information. By utilizing a variable step-size algorithm, it improves the speed, accuracy, and efficiency of the PV system for better MPP.