protocols and service policies are lacking which would allow the integration of neurophysiological, driving evaluation data and medical data in order to facilitate DVLA and drivers make decisions regarding fitness to drive . While evaluating neu- rophysiological status in primary care settings, researchers through survey data established that physicians exhibited a lack of confidence in assessment of drivers . There is no single neuropsychological test that can reliably and economically sep- arate safe older drivers from those that are distinctly unsafe by identifying all deficits that are crucial to driving. Even the on- road drivingtests may not identify important driving deficits in older drivers. Hence there is no standard testing protocol (that is reliable) for assessing a person’s fitness to drive after the onset of neurological disease/trauma and/or natural ageing. Therefore, different neuropsychologicaltests tapping different cognitive domains are in use. Hence, in the absence of a stan- dard reliable protocol, the decisions regarding fitness to drive, are doubtful and exude a low level of confidence on part of the clinicians/professionals. Due to the lack of a reliable standard protocol, some clinicians make their judgments based on self- report (of drivers), which has risks associated with it as lack of insight and judgment are potential common traits of the popu- lation experiencing neuropsychological decrements. In this context, Christie et al.  while carrying out a survey of clin- ical psychologists with regard to neuropsychological settings in the UK in assessing fitness to drive after head injury, observed: “Overall, clinicians’ decisions about a client’s fitness to drive seem to be based on an eclectic approach with considerable reliance on clinical impression”. Seldom is recourse made by health professionals to driving assessment as a first alternative as it requires a fee and such centres are not readily available everywhere. Thus there exists a need for more information on assessment of fitness to drive with regard to neuropsychologi- cal tests, since medical information alone is not sufficient to assist in decision making of fitness to drive. This will also alleviate the need for the requirement of an on-road evaluation/assessment or can be a supplementary tool in addi- tion to on-road assessment and will instill more confidence in decision making on part of the clinician. The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) of the UK publishes and updates a guide for medical professionals with a view to assisting them in assessing fitness to drive .
Mobile phone use and drink driving
The comparison of mobile phones with alcohol impairment continues to attract researchers because of the already established thresholds and risks for alcohol impairment. In 2002, a study by the Transport Research Laboratory in the UK found that while driving while intoxicated is clearly impaired, certain aspects of drivingperformance are even more impaired by mobile phone use. (Burns, Parkes, Burton, Smith, & Burch, 2002). A similar study in 2006 that mobile-phone drivers may exhibit greater impairments than intoxicated drivers. (Strayer, Drews, & Crouch, 2006). However it should be noted that both studies found that length of impairment was obviously far less for the mobile phone users. Mobile phone use – conversation with a passenger – listening to music
quantity of alcohol was individually determined for each participant (depending on age and body mass) so that drivers were moderately impaired according to the UK legal alcohol limit (0.8 g/l). The main result of this study in both phone conditions was that drivers tended to slow down (even when instructed to maintain a set speed), while alcohol had the opposite effect. When using a handheld phone, participants showed significantly more variations of speed as well as a poorer speed-keeping performance. Furthermore, in phone conditions drivers had slower reaction times to road signs as well as missing significantly more target signs. The fact that phone use impaired drivers' abilities to respond to warnings more than alcohol is the critical finding of this study. In general, although drivingperformance in the alcohol condition was worse than in the control condition, it tended to be better than the drivingperformance in both phone conditions. The subjective ratings of drivers also show that they found driving under the influence of alcohol easier than driving while using a phone. Although there are various problems involved in comparing impairments of driving
directed at the need to evaluate in-vehicle information systems and their effect upon visual performance, particularly as use of them has been predominantly unregulated since they were first introduced. Relevant to this particular study, NHTSA has been proposing a set of guidelines with a recommended set of criteria that manufacturers are expected to use to ensure the systems or devices they provide in their vehicles do not dis- tract the driver with tasks not directly relevant to safely oper- ating the vehicle. Furthermore, the recommended guidelines are clear about IVIS not causing undue distraction by engag- ing the driver’s eyes or hands for more than a very limited duration while driving. Interestingly, electronic warning sys- tem functions such as forward-collision or lane departure alerts would not be subject to the proposed guidelines, since they are intended to warn a driver of a potential crash and are not considered distracting devices. It is intended that the guidelines will be progressively phased in – the proposed Phase I distraction guidelines include recommendations to:
examined by a physician and determined that their symp- toms were stable and without recent exacerbation. Al- though this was a cross-sectional study without controls, there was a significant trend in NCI and degree of de- pressive symptoms. There were differences between the racial groups between the young and old groups. How- ever, there were no differences between BDI and NPZ-8 scores in regards to racial groups. This study may not have been powered to detect these differences. Addition- ally, the difference in the duration of HIV infection be- tween age groups was significant, although there was no association between duration of HIV infection and NPZ-8 scores. No interaction between age groups and duration of HIV infection was noted. Our findings are consistent with a previous study that concluded that the duration of HIV illness and use of antiretroviral medica- tion regimen were not related to depression .
In summary, this is the first in-traffic study that has assessed current drivers with AMD on a standardized route, compared with an age-matched control group without eye disease, in order to identify differences in specific driving error types and driving locations where errors were made. We demonstrated that while some older drivers with AMD were rated as having safe driving, as a group they were less safe and made more errors involving driving behaviors, such as observation, lane keeping, and gap selection, in complex situations including traffic light–controlled intersections. Importantly, in a growing ageing population and with developments in treatment for those with AMD, the number of drivers with AMD who have visual function that allows them to continue driving will increase in the future. A recent report highlights the use of anti-VEGF therapy as a major long-term treatment for neovascular AMD, with 50% of eyes having visual acuity 20/ 40 or better after 5 years of treatment; many would thus meet driving license requirements and could continue to drive. 36 The impact of these differences on road safety will thus become more critical in the future, particularly as problem areas include situations, such as traffic light–controlled intersections, where the consequences of errors can be fatal. These findings are important and should be explored in future larger scale studies. These would form the basis for advice to eye health practitioners and licensing authorities regarding the types of tests, such as motion sensitivity, that better identify drivers who are unsafe to drive and the types of driving situations that older adults with AMD find most challenging.
performance can be exaggerated using simulators (Reed & Green, 1999; Santos et al., 2005) compared to those achieved from actual driving. For example, the variation in lane position (Reed & Green, 1999) can be twice as large in the simulator as in an instrumented vehicle, which may reflect drivers’ tendency to be less cautious about making errors in the simulator, as the consequences for doing so are far less than in real driving. Another draw back of simulation research is the Simulator Adaption Syndrome (SAS) caused by the mismatch between visual cues of movement and inertial cues. The symptoms of SAS include dizziness, nervousness, light-headedness, body temperature increase, and nausea, and women and older drivers were more likely to suffer from the SAS. Furthermore, the artificial environment of a simulator or laboratory could also lead to different strategies from drivers when dual-tasking, as drivers tend to prioritise secondary tasks over primary driving, given there are no consequences arising from errors (Goodman et al., 1997). Carsten and Brookhuis (Carsten & Brookhuis, 2005) stated that most simulators are not capable of capture drivers’ behaviour when the primary driving becomes really cognitively demanding, i.e. where more understanding and interpreting of the on-road situation are required, because only simple driving-related cognitive tasks are tend to be used (e.g. understanding a road sign). In the HASTE project, some field tests were conducted, which include a straight four-lane motorway section outside of Linkoping, Sweden. The results showed that the field studies tended to pick up somewhat different effects of the systems than the simulator studies (Östlund et al., 2004). For example, the study in the simulator (Jamson & Merat, 2005) showed that drivers compensated for both visual and auditory tasks by reducing their speed, and this was more prominent during interaction with the visual task. However, this effect of auditory tasks was not found in field test.
fearful, happy, angry, depressed, confused, embarrassed, urgent, bored, and relieved (e.g., Ashley, 2001; Eyben et al., 2010; Jackson et al., 2013; Jones & Jonsson, 2008; Li & Ji, 2005; Lisseti & Nasoz, 2005; for empiri- cal factor extraction, see Jeon & Walker, 2011). Then, participants went through the Georgia Tech Simulator Sickness Screening Protocol (Gable & Walker, 2013) where they were asked to: (1) rate their current physical feelings on 17 categories using an 11-point Likert-type scales (0: not feel at all 10: strongly feel); (2) drive a two-minute city driving scenario in the simulator (dif- ferent from the scenario used in the actual experiment); and (3) rate their physical feelings again on the same questionnaire. If the participants felt any symptoms of simulator sickness (e.g., light-headed, dizzy, or other adverse reaction) at any time during the drive, the simu- lation was stopped and they were excused from testing. They were also excused from testing if their scores showed signs of simulator sickness (i.e., if any number is greater than or equal to 5 more than the pre-drive sur- vey, or if any three of the ratings are above 3 as com- pared to the pre-drive survey, adapted from Gianaros, Muth, Mordkoff, Levine, & Stern, 2001).
The dataset comes from a sample of 49 drivers to examine the effects of wireless telephone use on drivingperformance in three age groups: young drivers (aged 18-25 years), middle (aged 30-45 years) and older (aged 50- 60 years). The letters Y, M and O are used for young, middle-aged, and older participants. Gender include letter M for male and F for female. The study was conducted at the U. Iowa National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) in EE.UU, where participants were asked to drive through a signalized intersection while engaged in one of three secondary tasks. The traffic signal would transition from green to yellow to red to green again. The data was collected at 240 Hz (or 240 frames per second), value that is used for converting frames in seconds, how a first step.
A smart driving Smartphone application – which offers real-time fuel efficiency and safety feedback to the driver in the vehicle – was evaluated in a real-world drivingstudy. Forty participants drove an instrumented vehicle over a 50 minute mixed route driving scenario, with 15 being selected for video data analysis. Two conditions were adopted, one a control, the other with smart driving advice being presented to the driver. Key findings from the study showed a 4.1% improvement in fuel efficiency when using the smart driving system, and an almost 3-fold reduction in time spent travelling closer than 1.5 seconds to the vehicle in front. Glance behavior results showed that drivers spent an average of 4.3% of their time looking at the system, at an average of 0.43 seconds per glance, with no glances of greater than two seconds. In conclusion this study has shown that a smart driving system specifically developed and designed with the drivers’ information requirements in mind can lead to significant improvements in real-world driving behaviours, whilst limiting visual distraction, with the task being integrated into normal driving.
With driver inattention contributing to over a quarter of all crashes (Stutts et al., 2005), there has been a surge of interest – both academic and political – in the effects of distraction on drivers and drivingperformance. However, investigations of the sources of these distractions have to a large extent focused on the myriad and increasing technological innovations available (in particular mobile phones), while ignoring more mundane in-car activities such as eating and drinking, map-reading, grooming, etc. (cf. White et al., 2004). In the case of mobile phones, such is the evidence on their detrimental effects for drivingperformance that many countries (including the UK) have now passed legislation specifically banning the use of handheld mobile phones while driving. Yet there is no specific offence for taking one’s hands off the wheel for more everyday behaviours.
scienTiFic issUes anD MeThODOlOgY research Question
Despite technological advances made in cars’ engines and especially in energy consumption, fuel consumption remains a considerable challenge in thermal cars. The adaptation of the existing system seems however difficult. According to Larsson and Ericsson (2009) , the use of a resistant accelerator pedal beyond a certain level does not give any significant reduction of consumption. Also, many studies ( Regan et al., 2006 ; Saint- Pierre and Ehrlich, 2008 ) show that the use of the Intelligent Speed Adaptation ( Ericsson, 2001 ) does not bring any significant reduction of fuel consumption. Besides, a recent study ( Azzi et al., 2011 ) has shown the effectiveness of visual and haptic assistance in eco-driving.
TCRAVA 013, Guyancourt, France
Serious games present a promising approach to training and learning. The player is engaged in a virtual environment for a purpose beyond pure entertainment, all while hav- ing fun. In this paper, we investigate the effects of the use of serious game in eco-driving training. An approach has been developed in order to improve players’ practical skills in terms of eco-driving. This approach is based on the development of a driving simulation based on a serious game, integrating a multisensorial guidance system with metaphors including visual messages (information on fuel consumption, ideal speed area, gearbox management, etc.) and sounds (spatialized sounds, voice messages, etc.). The results demonstrate that the serious game influences positively the behavior of inexperienced drivers in ecological driving, leading to a significant reduction (up to 10%) of their CO 2
Such impairment from cell phone use distraction is dangerous because of the driver’s limited capacity to share task resources while adequately monitoring and controlling the safe path of the vehicle in the traffic environment. Distraction-related crashes result from the unexpected onset of a traffic hazard while the driver’s attention is diverted to the demands of the cell phone interaction ( Ranney, Mazzae, Garrott, & Goodman, 2000 ). As a result of this growing evidence of the crash risk associated with cell phone use, crashes and personal injury related to cell phone use are becoming significant liability issues and culpable drivers are being prosecuted for involvement in distraction-related crashes ( Glater, 2002 ). Moreover, poli- cymakers are beginning to consider the need for regu- lations that would govern the use of cell phones while driving ( Sundeen, 2001 ). Many other countries have already established legislation to ban cell phones in some form, but only a few states in the United States have imposed bans ( Cellular-News, 2003 ). As of 2001, only New York had a legislated ban on the use of (hand-held) cell phones while driving, although Massachusetts and Illinois ban cell phone use for bus drivers, and New Jersey prohibits the use of cell phones for provisional drivers. Several other states are currently debating legislation, but many others have either proposed bans that have sub- sequently failed to be legislated, or have moved respon- sibility for setting such bans to local city councils. Even so, new evidence suggests that such bans do not affect long- term behavior of drivers without sustained enforcement and publicity ( Royal, 2003 ).
“Right,” she says to herself. “I forgot to add the message to the messages table.” She adds the correct error message to the messages table and is happy to see that the acceptance test passes. Next, since Jane and the other developers on the team practice continuous integration, she updates her local machine with the latest code from the source control system, manually merges any conflicting changes on her local development box, then runs all the unit tests again to make sure everything is green. When all the tests pass, she checks in the code changes.
longitudinal dataset of 7,876 subjects to quantify the iris ag- ing effect on recognition over time in a study called IREX VI . They concluded that an increase in Hamming distance due to elapsed time between enrolled and query images has no significant effect on iris recognition fail-ures. Some limitations of the IREX VI study were iden-tified , . Yoon and Jain analyzed a longitudinal fingerprint dataset of 15,597 subjects and found a decreas-ing trend in genuine match scores; however, the recog-nition accuracy, at operational FARs between 0.01% and 0.00001%, remained stable up to 12 years (the maximum time span in the dataset) . Best-Rowden and Jain per-formed a subject-specific analysis using two longitudinal face datasets: PCSO dataset containing 147,784 images of 18,007 subjects and LEO dataset 1 containing 31,852 images of 5,636 subjects . Best-Rowden and Jain concluded:
PRESS (predicted residual sum of squares) statistic. Although a strict application of
this criterion selected 6 different models, a slight compromise allowed to fit all test scores by two models.
In several tests of the CERAD-NAB many participants achieve maximal scores. Residuals of such test scores are heavily skewed. An arcsine transformation has been tuned to the data, so that residuals are close to a normal distribution, at least for residuals in the lower quartile which is relevant in diagnosing cognitive impairment. Test results are finally presented as z-scores which can be easily compared to a standard normal distribution.
Most qualitative studies of backchannels’ production have been collected during semi-spontaneous dialogs triggered by conversational themes  or games such as map tasks  or other collaborative games . Regularities of such multimodal interactive behaviors are mined and – together with data from the literature – often straightforwardly implemented in conversational virtual agents and social robots  without considering the very specificity of the task. We analyze here the back-channels produced during short-term face-to-face interviews aiming at evaluating potential deficits of cognitive abilities of interviewees. This study is part of a broader research aiming at giving humanoid robots social skills for monitoring task-oriented interviews. Backchannels are in fact an important factor in creating the impression of cooperative, natural human dialog for synthetic dialog agents.
Participants were more likely to miss the reaction time stimuli while using their phone. When they did respond, reaction times to visual and auditory stimuli were found to increase from approximately 1.2 to 1.6 seconds when using a smartphone to send and receive messages on a social networking site. This finding is consistent with other studies that have looked at the distracting effects of spoken conversations and text messaging using a mobile phone (Burns et al., 2002, Reed and Robbins, 2008). When driving, failing to respond to a warning or hazard can lead to accidents. The effect of a delayed response will depend significantly on the circumstances. At motorway speeds, for example, a delayed response of 0.4 seconds could result in an increased stopping distance of 12.5m. This could make the difference between a near miss and an accident, or increase the severity of an accident.
training on road safety (Gregersen, 1995). Other studies suggest that accident reductions are possible provided a package of safety measures is in place (Gray 1990; Gregersen, Brehmer and Moren, 1996).
Whilst one of the goals of driver training is to improve road safety, reduction in accident rates may not be a reliable indicator of driver training effectiveness. Firstly, there are well-established problems in the reliability of accident records that lead to difficulties in using accident rates as a criterion measure (Wahlberg, 2003). Secondly, an accident may be the result of several events that might be due to factors not considered during the driver-training course under study. Thirdly, accident frequency is an unreliable criterion given the fact that accidents are comparatively rare events when considering the prevalence of everyday risk taking. Perhaps a more fruitful avenue would be to consider whether post-test professional driver training leads to reduced risk taking behaviour which may ultimately improve road safety whilst not necessarily influencing individual accident risk.