Received: 16-02-2015 Accepted: 01-04-2015 Published: 01-12-2015 Abstract:
This study investigates how cooperativelearning facilitates students in learningcriticalthinking in reading and to find out the benefits and challenges during the implementation of cooperativelearning in one vocational school in Cimahi. A case study is utilized by using instruments of classroom observations, questionnaires, semi structured interview and students’ written tests. The findings show that the implementation of cooperativelearning facilitates students develop their criticalthinking and enhance criticalthinking dispositions in reading. Three features which contribute to the development of students’ criticalthinking in reading are: the encouragement of student-student interaction; the provision of group purposes; and the provision of stimulus to the students’ development of thought and ideas. The aforementioned features promote benefits which involved higher motivation and involvement, increased opportunity for language use, and developed interpersonal relationship. Nevertheless, these benefits are constrained by the availability of time, students’ English proficiency, and students’ contribution to the groupwork. It is recommended that further researchers conduct the similar study in a longer period to make sure that the key elements of cooperativelearning are well-structured.
Quite different from the results of questionnaire before the experiment, nearly all the students thought the classroom atmosphere was harmonious and relaxing in which they could learn actively, which revealed that cooperativelearning helps create such a beneficial classroom atmosphere in the item 6; and from item 7, compared with the results of questionnaire before the experiment, a majority of the students claimed that their self confidence in English reading was strengthened; compared with their behavior before the experiment, 84% of the students performed much better in cooperativelearning, and they were more willing to answer questions actively and voluntarily in item 8; from the item 9, when other students spoke, about 77% of the students are willing to listen to others; item 10 revealed that 80% of the students are willing to participate in the activities. So with the help of cooperativelearning, they can understand questions more accurately and express ideas in group activities. Compared Table4.3 with Table4.4, it is obvious that cooperativelearning has a positive effect on students’ English reading. They indicate students can perform their parts as well as when learning in the cooperative way in reading class.
Abstract—the purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of teachingcriticalthinking skills on reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. A sample of 50 students from Arshia Language Institute in Ilam, Iran participated in this study. They were both male and female students who were selected among 80 students based on their performances on PET. The participants were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. First, the two groups were exposed to the pre-test of reading comprehension in order to evaluate their knowledge on reading before the treatment. Based on scores obtained from the Pre- test, no significance differences were observed between two groups. After that the treatment was started and the experimental group was exposed to teachingcriticalthinking skills. Meanwhile, traditional methods of teachingreading comprehension were used for teachingreading comprehension to the control group. Finally, post-test of reading comprehension was delivered to both groups at the end of treatment to check possible differences. To analyze the collected data, ANCOVA was run using SPSS Software Version 16. The results showed that teachingcriticalthinking skills positively affect reading comprehension of intermediate EFL learners, but the interaction of gender and teachingcriticalthinking was not significant.
2.2 Research Approach
This research was a development research. The stages of developing the learning model follow the procedure of developing the Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel (1974) learning model which refers to the 4-D model (four D-Model). The 4-D model consists of 4 stages: defining, designing, developing, and disseminating. The development of learning tools include: Lecturer Manual, Modules, RPS, and research instruments namely criticalthinking skills tests. This third year which was the development stage (develop) conducted the second trial directly by conducting cooperativelearning with the help of Macromedia Flash and used the draft teaching materials / modules as a result of revision-I in the first trial in the second year.
Methods: This was a semi-experimental study that was conducted on 42 third and fifth semester anesthesiology students who were divided into a CBL group (n=21) and a collaborative learning group (n=21). Data were collected before the intervention and one week and a month after the intervention using a questionnaire designed by Goze et al. and the Ricketts' CriticalThinking Disposition Inventory. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) using the generalized estimation equation method, the Chi-square test, independent T-test and the Mann– Whitney U test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
CriticalThinking is a skill that can be taught in both the traditional and online classroom. It is clear from the five strategies discussed, that the emphasis of criticalthinking in the classroom involves time, skill, and dedication. Criticalthinking is a process, methodical in nature and calls for a higher level of thinking beyond recall. With the implementation of such strategies as the Circular Response, Devil’s Advocate, Scenario Analysis, Look Select and Deepen Activity and the Critical Incident Questionnaire, students can be encouraged to live an examined life by questioning assumptions, re-thinking biases and entertaining divergent points of view. Engaging students in criticalthinking encourages interaction and allows a platform for meaningful and rigorous discussion that leads to life long learning.
Shell conducted a survey of 262 baccalaureate program nurse educators about their perceptions of barriers that hindered the implementation of criti- cal thinking strategies. 7 She concluded that faculty encounter several barriers when incorporating criti- cal thinking strategies into curriculum. The greatest barrier is students’ lack of motivation and resistance to active learning. Instructors also identified time constraints when trying to prepare and plan criticalthinking activities because they could not find ample time in the classroom to incorporate the task. The amount of content or factual information required in the courses was overwhelming to both the instructor and student, leaving little time to incorporate criticalthinking activities. Shell concluded that the nursing educators were only slightly confident in their knowl- edge of how to promote criticalthinking in nursing students, and they felt additional education in criticalthinkingteaching methods was needed. 7
The criticalthinking ability of experimental class students based on pre-test-post-test data analysis shows that there are differences in students' criticalthinking skills between before and after treatment usingCooperativeLearning models through the STAD method by giving conclusions to increase. The results of this study are in accordance with those conducted by other researchers such as Junaidi (2009) who implemented student team achievement divisions (STAD), as one of the effective cooperativelearning methods to increase student grades, Erma Wulandari (2012) who implemented the STAD-type CooperativeLearning Model Media Monopoly increases accounting learning activities of Vocational students, Imas Masturoh (2010) who apply STAD CooperativeLearning models can improve students' rational thinking skills, M Taufik (2009) and Rauzah (2010) who apply STAD CooperativeLearning models to mastering economic concepts. The above research supports and strengthens the research conducted by researchers usingCooperativeLearning models through the STAD method can improve students' criticalthinking skills in economic learning.
-oriented, rational, logical, and reflective evaluative thinking, in terms of what to accept (or reject) and what to believe in, followed by a decision what to do (or not to do); then to act accordingly and to take responsibility of both – the decisions made and their consequences (Zoller, 1999). Criticalthinking can be seen as reflective and reasonable thinking that focuses on deciding what to do or believe (Ennis, 1985). Ennis’ conception of criticalthinking has three major parts: 1) Criticalthinking starts as a problem-solving process in the context of interacting with the world and other people; 2) It continues as a reasoning process, informed by background knowledge and previously acceptable conclusions, and it results in drawing a number of inferences through induction, deduction, and value judging; and 3) The criticalthinking process ends in a decision about what to do or believe. Indeed, criticalthinking capabilities can be divided into two categories which is criticalthinking disposition and criticalthinking skills. And a critical thinker should demonstrate some abilities and dispositions. According to Ennis, he define the criticalthinking disposition is the critical spirit. The criticalthinking spirit is the motivation that critical thinkers used to apply criticalthinking abilities to the thinking of others and to their own thinking. People who have criticalthinking dispositions exhibit a probing inquisitiveness, a keenness of mind, a zealous dedication to reason, a hunger or eagerness for reliable information, and are more apt to use their criticalthinking skills than are those who do not have a criticalthinking disposition (Facione, 2007). These criticalthinking dispositions can be described Inquisitiveness, Open- mindedness, Systematicity, Analyticity, Truth-seeking, Self-confidence, Maturity Inquisitiveness is “one’s intellectual curiosity and one’s desire for learning even when the application of the knowledge is not readily apparent”. Open-mindedness is “being tolerant of divergent views and sensitive to the possibility of one’s own bias”. Systematicity is being “organized, orderly, focused and diligent in inquiry”. Analyticity is “the application of reasoning and the use of evidence to resolve problems, anticipating potential conceptual or practical difficulties, and consistently being alert to the need to intervene”. Truth-seeking is “being eager to seek the best knowledge in a given context; courageous about asking questions; and honest and objective about pursuing inquiry, even if the findings do not support one’s self-interests or one’s preconceived opinions”. Self-confidence means having “trust in one’s own reasoning processes”. Maturity is “to be judicious in one’s decisionmaking”.
The advancement of technology requires higher skill in obtaining information due to the rapid flows of information in this recent globalization era. Consequently, reading comprehension becomes an important language skill for students to nurture. In classroom practices, Indonesian students still encounter problems in English reading comprehension. The present classroom action study dealt with improving reading comprehension through collaborative learning. This is due to some studies revealed that collaborative learning is an effective learning strategy to improve students' learning achievement. The data were collected by administering a pre-test in reading comprehension prior to the teaching cycle and two post-tests at the end of every teaching cycle. The results showed that collaborative learning is significantly effective to improve students' reading comprehension and criticalthinking. This study implies that teachers should consider the integration of collaborative learning in teachingreading comprehension.
when learning how to read. In this instance, the students should employ their criticalreading strategies. To foster the criticalthinking skills, the students can use criticalreading strategies. Argumentative text is chosen in this study since students in higher education should be able to write scientific paper such as thesis and journal article. This library study aims to describe how criticalreading strategies enhance the students’ criticalthinking. They include (1) Annotating, (2) previewing, (3) scanning and skimming, (4) fact vs. opinion, (5) drawing conclusion, (6) questioning, (7) summarizing, and (8) paraphrasing. The writers conclude that teachingcriticalreading strategies may be able to help the students to improve their criticalreading, criticalthinking, and higher order thinking skills (HOTS). Besides, by utilizing criticalreading strategies, the students will be able to increase the deep understanding beyond the text.
Individual intensive reading is ideal for short texts because it is concerned with inferring and analyzing specific information or details, so it demands more careful and deeper reading. Intensive reading requires the discovery of different interpretations, the author’s intentions, and reconstructions of a text framed in transactional processes between the reader and the reading material (Carrell & Carson, 1997). Accordingly, during the pedagogical intervention, students read the selected urban legends individually with the support of worksheets (see Appendix B) in which they were asked to answer several questions about what they read. Individual reading was developed in the classroom while the teachers walked around to monitor and help students complete the tasks. Students asked questions about vocabulary, asked for clarification, and called the teachers to review and correct their answers. Worksheets included pre-reading activities that activated their prior knowledge, allowed them to make predictions about the readings, or led them review and learn vocabulary that they found later in the urban legends. After reading the material, the students
The president’s first public comment on the violence was es- sentially that both sides were equally to blame. His second was a strong condemnation of racism and neo-Nazism. His third was a reaffirmation of the first two comments, with the addition of the claim that there were “fine people” on both sides of the confronta- tion. (A close reading of the Politico transcript, cited earlier, of his third public reaction suggests that—contrary to many reports of what he said— he was talking about peaceful protesters on both sides.) But the equal-blameworthiness claim is very difficult to reconcile with the information provided in the final two sentences of the preceding paragraph (information readily available to the president). And the claim about “fine people” on both sides is undermined to some extent by the fact that rightwing extremists were by far the largest element of the Lee-statue protest while Antifa was apparently a smaller part of the counter-protest. The president should have resisted the temptation to seek an intermedi- ate position between opposing assessments of blame for the vio- lence in Charlottesville. Certainly, other Republican leaders who spoke up did so, such as Paul Ryan, Mike Huckabee, and Attorney General Jeff Sessions (Thrush and Haberman 2017).
• Four Peer Reviewers independently evaluate article to be presented by an Investigator, submit one page reasoned critique due evening before the small group session. It engages the students not presenting/teaching the article to the class making them highly knowledgeable for participation in the active learning.
Yıldırım (2010) can students learn to think critically while adequate preparation and active participation in such activities as case studies and group discussions. Spoon-feeding the course content with a course format may be popular with students, but it certainly does not encourage criticalthinking. Courses may be effective means to foster criticalthinking if instructors also utulize open-ended questions and encourage the students to ask questions. Reading assignments have also been used to stimulate critical thinling. Instructors have asked students to summarize the main points, identify implications for change, propose counter-arguments, analyze the strengths and weaknesses of articles, and identify the author’s beliefs and assumptions. Other educators have developed creative means to help students critically evaluate what they have read. They have asked students to respond to articles as if they were a member of the population being discussed, or to prepare a visual or artistic representation of the subject matter. Asking students to critically analyze written material inthis way helps students to become more disciplined in their thinking habits (Brigham, 1993; Fopma-Loy & Ulrich, 1999; Hickman, 19993; Lemire, 2002; Powers, 1999; Youngblood & Beitz, 2001).
Thinking map are the consistent visual pattern linked directly to eight specific through process and help students reach higher levels of critical and creative thinking. Because thinking map is the language of cognitive process pattern . Each thinking map corresponds to a single thinking process such: Circle map—helps define words or things in context and presents points of view; Bubble map—describes emotional, sen- sory, and logical qualities; Double bubble map—compares and contrasts qualities; Tree map—shows the relationships between main ideas and supporting details; Flow map— shows events as a sequence; Multi-flow map—shows causes and effects and helps pre- dict outcomes; Brace map—shows physical structures and part-whole relationships; Bridge map—helps to transfer or form analogies and metaphors .
Simulations and Intended Learning Outcomes
Intended learning outcomes (ILOs) predict what students will gain as a result of successful learning. The importance of ensuring that simulations are aligned with the achievement of ILOs is highlighted widely in the literature (Moizer et al., 2009, Ellington, 2004; Feinstein et al., 2002). Feinstein et al. (2002) concludes that computer simulations are “not an educational panacea”, and the choice of teaching format should be chosen with the teaching objectives and learning outcomes in mind. The literature further stresses that consideration should be paid to the suitability, maturity, and experience of the student cohort for whom the simulation is being considered (Moizer et al., 2009; Sutcliffe, 2002). Considerations may include: computer skills required for the simulation, the background theoretical knowledge required to complete the simulation, and the complexity of the simulation. Greater complexity may enable a more realistic simulation, but it may also reduce the ability of students to learn if they are overwhelmed by it (Moizer et al., 2009; Dempsey et al., 2002). Control-value theory suggests that students will be more motivated to engage with a learning activity if they perceive it as an appropriate challenge for their skill level, such that they have some level of control over the outcome of the activity (Cordova and Lepper, 1996; Pekrun et al., 2010).
understanding the works of philosophers, you need to acquire some foundational criticalthinking skills (Imaniar, Lestari, & Munir, 2018).
Unsuccessful CriticalThinking Strategies
Hopeful people have tried many activities to enhance criticalthinking. Examples include exposure to classical music, the so-called Mozart effect, learning to play a musical instrument, and learning to play chess. None of which have succeeded as hoped. According to Willingham (2019), “It is no surprise that programs in school meant to teach general criticalthinking skills have had limited success. Such programs are usually curricular add-ons during which students engage in criticalthinking activities for perhaps five hours each week over the course of a year or two. Unfortunately, the evaluations of these programs seldom offer a rigorous test of transfer (p. 6).”