With this study, I was able to ascertain that hunting is a constant and current activity in the Uxpanapa Valley. Although interviews were not conducted in all the villages of the 54 sites, in all the 35 villages where questionnaires were applied, at least some residents undertook hunting activities. Furthermore, information on wildlife hunting was obtained by proxy, interviewing housewives and non-hunters. Only 10% of households denied currently using wild animals as food, while 40% use wild animals as pets and 64% use or have used wildlife for medicinal/traditional purposes. The animals are either obtained by members of their family or bought in the same village. Nevertheless, primate hunting is not widespread, with only 0.58% of hunters reporting them as prey and 0.40% of housewives/non-hunters using them for food. On the other hand, 2.76% and 3.46% of interviewees stated they used primates (specifically spider monkey) as pets and for medicine, respectively. This shows that primates can be a target in the Uxpanapa Valley, but the GLM results did not show hunting as a variable that explains primate presence/absence across the site. Several studies have established that hunting is detrimental for all species populations in the tropical forests, including primates (Peres 1997; Michalski and Peres 2005; Harrison 2011; Wilkie et al. 2011), but most studies on primate hunting have taken place in areas where primates constitute a diet staple (Peres 1990; de Thoisy et al. 2005; Ohl- Schacherer et al. 2007). The fact that primates are not typically used as a food source in this region (and in general in Mexico), may be one of the reasons for which hunting intensity is not directly linked to their presence/absence. Locals also mentioned recent changes in the Mexican law, which now include primate hunting and commercializing as a federal offense leading to a decrease in their hunting of primates (Pers. Com.).
Jessica Junker (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Hjalmar S. Kühl are affiliated with the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research, in Leipzig, Germany and with the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, formerly the Department of Primatology, in Leipzig, Germany. Catherine Crockford, Tene Sop, and Roman M. Wittig are affiliated with the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, formerly the Department of Primatology, in Leipzig, Germany. Silviu O. Petrovan, Alec P. Christie, Rebecca K. Smith, and William J. Sutherland are affiliated with the Conservation Science Group, in the Department of Zoology at the University of Cambridge, in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Victor Arroyo-Rodríguez is affiliated with the Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, in Morelia, Mexico. Ramesh Boonratana is affiliated with Mahidol University International College, in Salaya, Thailand. Dirck Byler and Russel A. Mittermeier are affiliated with Global Wildlife Conservation, in Austin, Texas. Colin A. Chapman is affiliated with the Department of Anthropology at McGill University, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada; with the School of Life Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville, in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; and with the Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Animal Conservation, at Northwest University, in Xi’an, China. Dilip Chetry is affiliated with the Gibbon Conservation Centre, in Assam, India. Susan M. Cheyne is affiliated with the Borneo Nature Foundation, Palangka Raya, in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, and with the Department of Social Sciences at Oxford Brookes University, in Oxford, United Kingdom. Fanny M. Cornejo is affiliated with the Stony Brook University, in Stony Brook, New York. Liliana Cortés-Ortiz is affiliated with the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Guy Cowlishaw is affiliated with the Institute of Zoology at the Zoological Society of London, in London, in the United Kingdom. Stella de la Torre is affiliated with the Universidad San Francisco de Quito’s Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales in Quito, Ecuador. Fabiano R. de Melo is affiliated with the Department of Engenharia Florestal, at the Federal University of Viçosa, in Viçosa, Brazil. Pengfei Fan is affiliated with the School of Life Sciences at Sun Yat-Sen University, in Guangzhou, China. Cyril C. Grueter is
For the State of Oaxaca the National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (Comision Na- cional Para el Uso y Conocimiento de la Biodiversidad; CONABIO) stated that there are five marine priority areas for the conservation of coastal and ocean biodiversity; about these regions CONABIO has highlighted the lack of knowledge about the diversity of marine species , hence it is necessary to conduct research to gain in- formation on the species diversity and in addition to analyze the ecological aspects of populations and communi- ties.
The prioritysites identified may also incorporate the main breeding areas, as Mexican Ducks apparently move to the closest available wetland with suitable cover for nesting after the beginning of rains, when vegetation cover has grown to an acceptable height and the seasonal wetlands have gathered sufficient water (Williams 1980). Due to the low breeding densities of Mexican Duck (about 1 pair/250–300 ha) (Williams 1980), intensive habitat management to supply nest- ing cover seems impractical, but schemes aimed at promoting escape cover for the broods seem a more feasible option. Conservation of Mexican Duck is expected to be costly, because its large distributional area and low densities during the breeding season prevent the efficient application of programmes to promote vegetative cover. Barbed-wire exclusions in small sections of seasonal wetlands to prevent livestock from grazing and to promote escape cover during the brood-rearing season are probably the most viable management option. A similar programme, with the aim of improving nesting cover and water quality in small wetlands has been carried out in Mexico (Ducks Unlimited 2001). The improvement of wetland conditions not only benefits Mexican Duck and other wetland-related wildlife, but also improves watering conditions for cattle and provides a readily available seed bank for rapid reestablishment of annual herbs. An analogous programme could be promoted among state governments and farmers in the prioritysites, and around sites showing population declines.
160 Quijano et al., 2008). Ecogeographic representativeness can indirectly reflect genetic representativeness (Greene and Hart 1999; Steiner, 1999), particularly when morphological descriptors, molecular markers or agronomic evaluation data is not available to analyse the genetic diversity (Parra-Quijano et al., 2008). Parra-Quijano et al. (2006) have developed a series of tools incorporated in CAPFITOGEN ( http://www.capfitogen.net/en/ ) to help analyse the distribution of diversity and improve the ecogeographic representativeness based on Ecogeographic Land Characterization (ELC) maps, describing the different environmental conditions for plant adaptation. As part of the Mexican CWR conservation strategy, prioritysites for complementary in situ and ex situ conservation were recognised for 308 priority CWR taxa. The results are presented in detail in Chapter 3 and included the identification of 110 taxa for further field surveying and ex situ collection and the identification of potential collection sites containing highest collection priority. Moreover, the identification of 64 potential genetic reserves to ensure diversity representation of all taxa was presented as part of the in situ conservation, highlighting the top 10 taxon rich sites for the establishment of genetic reserves, 9 of them are within current PA. In situ and ex situ conservation actions were also recommended for those taxa which ecogeographic diversity was underrepresented in PA. With the implementation of the recommended management in these sites as suggested by Maxted et al. (2008), Dulloo et al., (2008) and Iriondo et al. (2012), including monitoring of populations, control of invasive species and control of disturbances, the conservation of 60% of the Mexican priority CWR taxa will be guaranteed.
Site conservation is clearly one of the most important and successful tactics for reducing global biodiversity loss. Governmental commitments to site conservation include the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which enjoins Parties to establish “a system of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity” and the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) Plan of Implementation to “pro- mote and support initiatives for hot spot areas and other areas essential for biodiversity, and promote the develop- ment of national and regional ecological networks and corridors.” Safeguarding these key areas requires a variety of governance approaches, including national parks, com- munity and indigenous conservation areas, and private reserves — the best approach will vary from place to place. A network of such sites, coupled with species-specific ac-
Ongoing initiatives in Mexico aim to produce a national strategy for wildfowl conservation. Such a scheme will guide the conservation efforts of government institutions and will greatly influence how funding is allocated to research, conservation and management projects in the country. To be sound, such a strategy must be based upon objective, numerical bases. Methods should also be accountable and easily understood. The set of prioritysites proposed here provides a spatial basis on which to focus research and conservation efforts, with the aim of optimising the application of limited available funds. Such an approach emphasises species with large proportions of their populations distributed in Mexico, since they largely depend on the resources available therein and on the state of conservation of Mexican wetlands, but it also accounts for other species with less pressing conservation needs. The results of this study find support for the conservation value of sites already recognised as important for wildfowl, but also identify sites that are particularly significant for certain species that have not previously been recognised as being of conservation interest. Linear integer programming methods allow the representation of the maximum diversity of relevant features (in this case, multiple restrictions for every year) at the minimum cost (minimum number of sites). Solutions are obtained in a transparent, accountable way, allowing others to understand why and how the result was arrived at (Rodrigues et al., 2000). In addition, the selection targets can be changed if special concern for a species arises and the methods can be used to obtain an optimum solution for the revised thresholds. They also permit examination of the network as a whole, rather than evaluating each site on its own.
Mexico: (1) Exhaust gas recirculation (National Energy Technology Laboratory, 2013), (2) Series membrane/solvent hybrid capture system (Merkel et al., 2012; Voleno et al., 2014; Swisher and Bhown, 2014), (3) Parallel membrane/solvent hybrid capture system (Merkel et al., 2012), (4) Natural gas combined cycle with duct ﬁring (Li et al., 2012), (5) Sequential supplementary ﬁ ring as a suitable option for CCS-EOR Mexico (González Díaz et al., 2016), and (6) absorber intercooling in the capture process (Darshan and Rochelle, 2014). These alternatives should be analysed for CCUS readiness and their implications for ret- roﬁt studied. These alternatives could be attractive especially for a power plant that is expected to incorporate carbon capture in the long term.
Wilson et al. (2013b) indicated that a significant number of the DD species in Mexico actually should be placed in one of the threat categories or, perhaps, the Near Threatened (NT) category. To ascertain whether this applies to the LC species occurring in Oaxaca, we constructed Table 15 using the same design as for Tables 13 and 14, and listed the 174 LC species and their respective EVS values (except for Hydrophis platurus, a marine species whose EVS cannot be calculated). The EVS values in this table range from 3 to 17, which at the upper end is two points fewer than the highest score applied to a member of the Oaxacan herpetofauna. The absolute and relative numbers of EVS values in the LC category are as follows: 3 (3, 1.7%); 4 (3, 1.7%); 5 (3, 1.7%); 6 (6, 3.5%); 7 (9, 5.2%); 8 (19, 11.0%); 9 (13, 7.5%); 10 (8, 4.6%); 11 (22, 12.7%); 12 (12, 6.9%); 13 (20, 11.6%); 14 (23, 13.3%); 15 (18, 10.4%); 16 (13, 7.5%); and 17 (1, 0.6%). Given the three aforementioned categories of vulnerability, 56 species (32.4%) show low vulnerability, 62 (35.8%) medium vulnerability, and 55 (31.8%) high vulnerability. In our opinion, only the low vulnerability species deserve allocation to the LC category. All but four of these 56 species are non-endemics; the exceptions are Exerodonta sumichrasti, Plectrohyla bistincta, Tantilla bocourti, and Hypsiglena torquata, all country endemics with an EVS of 8 or 9, at the upper end of the low vulnerability category. The EVS of the remaining 84 country endemics ranges from 10 to 17 ( x– = 13.5). The EVS of the seven state endemics ranges from 14 to 16 (15.4). The 95 country and state endemics presently allocated to the LC category probably should be shifted to a higher category of endangerment (CR, EN, VU, or NT). Until that happens, the EVS can be used to gauge the level of attention that should be accorded the members of the Oaxacan herpetofauna.
Given that it is often not practical to reverse or stop devel- opment, low impact development (LID) techniques are becoming a popular means to improve water quality in urban watersheds (Dietz, 2007; Pyke et al., 2011; Roy et al., 2008; Urbonas & Stahre, 1993). LID is a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating urban impacts to the environ- ment at the sub-catchment level. LID techniques work by reducing runoff from localized impervious source areas (e.g., by using rain barrels, green roofs and porous pavement), by slowing and ﬁlter- ing overland water runoff, sediment, and pollutants before they reach the main stream network (e.g., via grassed swales, rain gar- dens and detention/retention ponds), and by slowing and ﬁltering runoff in or adjacent to the main stream network (e.g., protection and/or restoration of riparian buffers) (Craig et al., 2008; Mayer, Reynolds, McCutchen, & Canﬁeld, 2007). Effective LID implementa- tion is inﬂuenced by several variables such as placement, selection of technique, design, construction, and upkeep (Muthukrishnan & Field, 2004). The location of LID implementation within a water- shed can be the most important factor determining effectiveness (Passeport et al., 2013). For example, placement of LID determines the volume of runoff, thereby directly inﬂuencing the beneﬁts per the associated cost (Agnew et al., 2006; Berry, Delgado, Khosla, & Pierce, 2003; Qiu, 2009). Thus, a need exists for a spatially-explicit approach for siting LID.
Equally, changing functional need, as they become viable tourist spots or research places, global warming and heavy footfall, puts unusual demands of modern day amenities onto an old structure, which earlier was in sync with climate equilibrium. The people and visitors for purpose of tourism add a different dimension to the conservation needs. The number worshippers are less than casual visitors who are non- believers. The challenge is to maintain the sanctity while allowing public interest to continue. To manage the sacred values and heritage character while allowing casual visitors the access is an important parameter.
In Step 1, a user on the internal Acme Widgets enterprise network surfs the Internet from a Windows machine that is running an unpatched client-side program, such as a media player (e.g., Real Player, Windows Media Player, iTunes, etc.), document display program (e.g., Acrobat Reader), or a component of an office suite (e.g., Microsoft Word, Excel, Powerpoint, etc.). Upon receiving the attacker's content from the site, the victim user's browser invokes the vulnerable client-side program passing it the attacker's exploit code. This exploit code allows the attacker to install or execute programs of the attacker's choosing on the victim machine, using the privileges of the user who ran the browser. The attack is partially mitigated because this victim user does not have administrator credentials on this system. Still, the attacker can run programs with those limited user privileges.
o In woodland, only systematic coverage of the worksite can allow confidence that all large and visible plants have been removed. This is especially important where most of the plants being removed are seedlings (i.e. in Phase 3 maintenance). Systematic coverage and consequent complete removal of seedlings will allow that sites be swept for seedlings at as long an interval as possible without any risk of plants achieving flowering and seed production.
a b s t r a c t
The southern part of Assam in India, a part of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, harbors a myriad number of wild plant and animal species. Although there is only one protected area, the Barail Wildlife Sanctuary (Cachar district) and a few reserve forests (RFs), there are as many as eight primates inhabiting the region e a diversity hardly found elsewhere. In addition to the protected area and RFs, tea gardens and secondary forests also serve as habitats for animals. The border areas of the region with the states of Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Tripura are among the most important abodes of these primates. Unfortunately, these primates are under constant threat from multiple sources. The present article provides an extensive survey of the available literature on the primates of southern Assam with reference to their distribution, habitat preferences, threats, and conservation. Additionally, data from ﬁeld obser- vations of the author are also presented.
Sites of Metropolitan Importance for nature conservation are those sites which contain the best examples of London’s habitats, sites which contain particularly rare species, rare assemblages of species or important populations of species, or sites which are of particular significance within the otherwise heavily built-up areas of London. They are of the highest priority for protection. The identification and protection of Metropolitan Sites is necessary, not only to support a significant proportion of London’s wildlife, but also to provide opportunities for people to have contact with the natural environment. The boundaries of the Metropolitan Sites in this report were endorsed by the Mayor of London on 25 November 2002.
rain samples below pH 5.6. Additionally, nitrate concentrations were greater than sulphate levels and were even higher than those reported for polluted sites such as Mexico City. At the beginning of this study, the ECNP site was treated as a control site; it was an interesting discovery that this site was potentially impacted by the high deposition rate of N; this can be a significant problem for sacred fir forests (the dominant vegetation at this site). Data obtained and forestry research carried out at this specific site provided evidence that forest fires occur fre- quently and directly influence the natural reforestation dynamic of the sacred fir forests  . During 2009, Hidalgo State registered a high occurrence of forest fires (311) . Satellite images were consulted for the stu- died period from the Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Products (NOAA NESDIS HMS)  in order to identify days with fire occurrence. Some images were not available (for November 2009), however, from the available information, a direct relationship was observed between days with fire occurrence and rainwater sam- ples with high nitrate levels and low pH values, suggesting that forest fires were the local source of nitrates in this site (Figure 2).
DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2018.106037 727 Journal of Geographic Information System The analysis of the coverage of PABCs (2003) per biome (Figure 3 and Graphic 3 and Graphic 4) reveals a higher concentration of these areas in the Amazon. This result is consistent with the historical conception and responsibil- ity to give far greater attention to this biome than to the others in Brazil. Not least, because of its importance in controlling planetary climate change . Furthermore, although over 1% of the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes is protected, this protection is only afforded for the highest priority PABCs (classed as extremely high and very high priority), which is consistent with the previous argument.
The danger of extinction of such elements is ahead, therefore, to ensure the survival of germplasm, necessary measures need to be taken for their protection, conservation and multiplication. Maximum afforestation of such economically important plants is necessary to balance the ecosystem. Further, the germplasm of depleting plant resources may also be preserved in seed banks, the habitats need to be protected by establishing more biosphere reserves. National parks, Botanical gardens and wildlife sanctuaries are essential efforts to conserve the rare and threatened species. The botanical gardens may also play a vital role in ex-situ conservation and multiplication of the germplasm, which is widely scattered and in the condition in-situ conservation is not possible. The agro forestry literature suggests that the best option for conservation is circa in situ conservation, which entails management and protection in production systems. Besides above conservational measures, the research alone cannot help to restore the biodiversity loss unless there is a political will, awareness and involvement of the people in conservation programs (Plate 6).
Abstract : Predation on cattle by the endangered jaguar (Panthera onca) can be a serious ecological and economic confl ict. We investigated habitat characteristics of kill sites of cattle in Sonora, Mexico, from 1999 to 2004 to see whether habitat management or cattle distribution could be used as effective nonlethal methods to limit predation. Kill-sites were positively associated with oak, semitropical thornscrub, and xeric thornscrub vegetation types, whereas they were negatively associated with upland mesquite. Sites of cattle kills were also positively associated with proximity to permanent water sources and roads. A model including these relationships fi t kill locations well (AUC = 0.933) and correctly classifi ed 93% of all kill-site locations. Because kill-sites were associated with specifi c habitat attributes, management practices that alter cattle distribution, such as placement of permanent water sources in uplands, herding, and fencing riparian areas characterized by frequent depredations, can be used to minimize co-occurrence of jaguars and cattle and, thus, potentially limit predation without illegal killing of jaguars. These practices could also lead to more uniform use of pastures and, consequently, higher stocking rates, resulting in increased profi tability to landowners. Managing habitat attributes that predispose cattle to predation may provide a viable alternative for maintaining both livestock enterprises and a large endangered carnivore in areas of confl ict.