We found a total of 151 documents that focused on or included data on primates in the selected region since 1976 (the last search was conducted in September 2016). These included 87 published journal articles, 16 technical reports, five book chapter, nine PhD theses, two Masters dissertations, two books and 30 meeting abstracts. Fifty-four were from Guinea-Bissau, 14 from the Boké Region in Guinea, 78 from southern Senegal, and five documents included data from two or all three regions. The majority of journal articles and technical reports (N = 98) contained data from surveys and observations, including direct sightings, camera trap data and/or inferences from signs/traces/biological samples. Fourteen journal articles included information collected using interviews. Within Guinea-Bissau, research on primates mainly focused on areas south of the Corubal River (N = 47, Fig. 3 ), coinciding with the region with highest forest cover (Tombali) and where most of the chimpanzee population in Guinea-Bissau occur (Boé, Tombali and Quinara regions). Only one site in Guinea-Bissau at Caiquene-Cadique in Cantanhez NP (Tombali region) has ongoing research efforts to monitor and collect behavioural data on a specific chimpanzee community (Hockings & Sousa, 2012; Hockings & Sousa, 2013; Bessa, Sousa & Hockings, 2015). Apart from bushmeat market studies in the capital (Sá et al., 2012; Minhós et al., 2013b), data north of the Corubal River, including Dulombi NP, only came from three surveys carried out more than twenty years ago (Limoges, 1989; Thibault, 1993; Gippoliti & Dell’Omo, 2003). In the Boké Region (Guinea) the most recent studies were carried out in the Sangarédi area (WCF, 2012; WCF, 2015a; WCF, 2015b). The only available data along the Guinea-Guinea-Bissau border came from a survey conducted in 1997 (Ham, 1998). Fifty percent (N = 37) of the studies from southern Senegal came from the long-term research site of Fongoli (McGrew, Pruetz & Fulton, 2005; Pruetz, 2006; Pruetz, 2007; Pruetz et al., 2015). The remaining studies mostly fell within the Niokolo-Koba NP (Galat et al., 2000; Galat, Galat-Luong & Nizinski, 2009), particularly Mt. Assirik (McGrew, Baldwin & Tutin, 1981; McGrew, Baldwin & Tutin, 1988; Baldwin, McGrew & Tutin, 1982; Harrison, 1983; Pruetz et al., 2012).
performance). Calls for more quantitative studies are thus popular in accelerator research, especially for large–scale studies on wider population of entrepreneurs (Brown et al. 2019; Tobiassen et al. 2018), from different geographical regions (Clarysse et al. 2015; Clarysse and Yusubova 2014) and which should examine the relationship between specific accelerators and specific entrepreneurs (Pandey et al., 2017). Such researchers argue that larger samples (more accelerators) and more types of accelerators (with different business models and different international contexts) might generate more interesting results (Miller and Bound 2011; Wise and Valliere 2014). While we acknowledge that there is significant value in engaging in such larger scale, quantitative studies, our review also points to the need to better conceptualize the accelerator phenomenon, to seek better theoretical underpinning of accelerator research (see earlier section), and to examine accelerators more in depth across different groups of participants, contexts, and periods of time. All these call for further explorative studies, requiring more nuanced qualitative methodologies beyond the current focus on case studies research supported by interviews. We highlight three aspects that future qualitative research should address. First, we argue for more
The educational environment is increasingly complex and competitive, a large quantity of data is generated that needs to be treated and interpreted competently. One area that emerges for this purpose is known as Academic Analytics. The objective of this article is to present the state of the art of the Academic Analytics research, and identify computational tools and indicators focused on academic management. For such, we carried out a systematicreview of the literature, using all the databases included in the Portal de Periódicos da Capes (Web Portal of Academic Journals of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel - CAPES). The search retrieved 177 academic articles, of which, after applying the exclusion/inclusion and quality criteria, 10 articles were selected for an in-depth analysis. Among the main results, we highlight some Educational Data Mining tools and Learning Analytics that were used to aid the academic analysis, in addition to presenting several indicators such as focus on the students, professors and academic management. In summary, it is likely that this review will provide researchers with an overview of the subject matter under study, and that it highlights research trends that could be the focus of future research.
to social over economic value creation (Dees, 2003; Defourny & Nyssens, 2006a); income generation through commercial activity (Langdon & Burkett, 2004; Smallbone et al, 2001); stakeholder participation in governance (Defourney & Nyssens, 2006; Thompson & Doherty, 2006); limited profit distribution (Langdon & Burkett, 2004); and innovation in addressing social problems (Dees, 2003). However, in some extant literature, the term social enterprise is also deployed more conceptually, and given a broader meaning. It is used as an overarching label for social entrepreneurial/social enterprise activity (Defourny & Nyssens, 2006b). In this paper we embrace this wider notion of social enterprise as not just an organisation but also as an activity. Networks were identified as an area of promise for future social enterprise scholarship by Dacin et al (2011: 1207). They called for a “greater focus on networks and social entrepreneurship” (Dacin et al (2011: 1207), as part of a wider critique of existing social enterprise scholarship which they argued was hitherto often descriptive and atheoretical. Dacin et al (2011) suggested that social enterprise researchers should attend to those network theories and perspectives being deployed in conventional entrepreneurship research. They also saw particular potential for the engagement with social network approaches, for the deployment of concepts of embeddedness and social capital, and for consideration of virtual networks, as well as power in networks, particularly in relation to issues of social enterprise scaling. In a more recent review of social enterprise and network literature, Dufays & Huybrechts (2014) similarly highlight the insights traditional (commercial) entrepreneurship literature provides for developing theoretical arguments relating to the role of social networks in social entrepreneurship. They also make proposals for future research using social network theory to examine the emergence of social enterprise, whilst critiquing that
x Calculate the relative weight of the elements to each level through these steps: (i) add the value of the columns to normalize the matrix; (ii) in the normalized matrix, sum up the lines to obtain the relative priority of the criteria; (iii) evaluate the consistency of the matrix, by calculating the eigenvalues to compare with the random consistency according as matrix size. If there is a consistency problem, the decision maker must review his/her comparisons to improve them; (iv) for each criterion, the anterior steps must be done; (v) calculate values of each alternative for each criterion are included in one matrix, with the application of calculated priority; (vi) add the values of each alternative to obtain the final value. The best alternative is the one with the highest value (priority) .
management. Systematic reviews are qualitative reviews which adhere to the standards for gathering analyzing and reporting Evidence. Systematicreview includes steps, of defining review question, selection of collected research studies, presenting results and summary of Findings table and interpreting results and drawing conclusions. Systematic studies present a constant picture of the Body of Evidence by using realist reviews and meta Narrative Approach to overcome problem of methodology and heterogeneity in diverse literatureSteps in Systematicliterature Revises
Citation about a group of adolescents who were aware of their HIV status...
“The narratives describe how they learned to deal with sexuality and the anxiety of disclosing their HIV status in this context. The narratives highlight unpreparedness, lack of information about prevention and lack of support to cope with the situation, in addition to the stigma and discrimination intermingled in most of the difficulties reported.”
At this point, we would like to draw the reader’s attention to three challenges that we faced across the six stages of the review. The first of these pertains to time management: systematic reviewing is a time-consuming, laborious activity, and the reviewer (or indeed reviewing team) should be aware that many tasks will take longer than anticipated. Further, time should be factored in for the acquisition of potentially required knowledge, skills and abilities in relation to the systematicreview process (e.g. how to use reference management software). The second overarching challenge is linked to the first and relates to a potential danger of decreasing motivation; we tried to avoid this by regularly discussing progress and nextsteps amongst ourselves as well as with other scholars involved in conducting systematic reviews. The third, and perhaps biggest challenge in our case, was
This systematicreview provides an overview of the current knowledge on the associations among breastfeeding and pregnancy or postpartum depression. It includes studies from several countries published over a 30-year period. However, the four selected key- words may have led to the exclusion of relevant references. The use of broader keywords such as “maternal mental health”, “psycholo- gical wellbeing ”, or “maternal depression” could have led to the identi ﬁcation of more records. Despite methodological differences between the included studies (e.g., differences in the studies' designs, and in breastfeeding and pregnancy and postpartum depression assessment measures), an association between breast- feeding and depression during both the prenatal and postpartum periods is suggested.
Recently, the skill involved in playing and mastering video games has led to the professionalization of the activity in the form of ‘esports’ (electronic sports). The aim of the present paper was to review the main topics of psychological interest about esports and then to examine the similarities of esports to professional and problem gambling. As a result of a systematicliterature search, eight studies were identified that had investigated three topics: (i) the process of becoming an esport player, (ii) the characteristics of esport players such as mental skills and motivations, and (iii) the motivations of esport spectators. These findings draw attention to the new research field of professional video game playing and provides some preliminary insight into the psychology of esports players. The paper also examines the similarities between esport players and professional gamblers (and more specifically poker players). It is suggested that future research should focus on esport players’ psychological vulnerability because some studies have begun to investigate the difference between problematic and professional gambling and this might provide insights into whether the playing of esports could also be potentially problematic for some players.
From the respective number of paper, we have found 7 several simplifications strategy from existing technique. Figure. 2 shows the plot of the various techniques and their performances to enhance their approached. There are some efforts that have been invested in simplification research. This is evidenced with the number of techniques available in the literature. These techniques are used to determine the strategy with greater value to business successes. The highest percentages until the low percentages effort techniques are detailed as follows: With the highest percentages of 90% excellence efforts, Dale et. al, has done a great job by proposing new algorithm named as Interaction-based Test Suite Minimization (ITSM) to enhance the CT design for an effective test planning. ITSM is used to cover the target from different form or explicit set of value combinations to be covered. The set of tests that the CTD algorithm may choose from is limited to the input tests. Exact implementation details depend on the CTD algorithm used, but common to all is the need to represent the set of possible tests. In the execution, there found more improved ways to reduce the constant factor in the algorithm. One of the ways is to avoid unnecessary calculations by the number of times that uncovered target counted. As large data sets, the improved algorithm is about 32 times faster than the straight forward solution .
Three reviewers (C.P.L., P.H.C., and S.E.) independently searched PubMed, Medline, Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting research abstracts, and the Cochrane Library databases from July 1996 through January 2005 to identify all studies of pediatric hospitalists using the key words “hospitalist,” “hospitalists,” “hospital medi- cine,” “pediatric,” and “pediatrics.” In addition, the first authors of all primary-data studies were contacted and asked to provide unpublished data or additional unpub- lished studies or abstracts to minimize the problem of publication bias. From the 3 reviews of the literature and abstracts, and from the information provided by authors, we compiled an inclusive list of candidate studies for the
Our review has limits by the quality of the included studies, which involve a combination usage of only two, but main keywords "family" + "psychoanalysis" for the perimeter of study. We have not standardized the data collection and analysis, and the comparative analysis has fairly common character, but at the same time it demonstrates certain patterns of research in the field of family psychoanalysis. Despite these limitations, it is the first review on this issue that underlines the main problems of family psychoanalytic research in accordance with the keywords and on the basis of basis of detailed qualitative analysis in relation to the text of abstract articles. This study can serve as a guideline for conceptualization of the basic family psychoanalysis provisions and further analysis in respect to their combination with the relevant frame of reference within the scientific publications for the reasonable support to families and individual family members.
Changing Leaves with Behaviour Analysis has created this handbook as a resource for parents and guardians of infants and young children. At Changing Leaves with Behaviour Analysis, we understand the important role parents and caregivers have in the early detection of developmental delays. The research is clear that early intervention is beneficial for a child and therefore, the earlier a concern can be identified the sooner therapy can start. This handbook outlines the steps you can take in identifying developmental concerns and provides guidance for nextsteps.
Quango reform: The nextsteps?
The Coalition Government elected in 2010 in the UK pursued a programme of quango reform focused on reducing the number and expenditure of arm’s length bodies, increasing transparency, improving accountability and maximising efficiency and effectiveness. In this article we revisit Flinders and Skelchers’ 2012 article ‘Shrinking the quango state: five challenges in reforming quangos’ to assess progress to date and consider future challenges. Drawing insights from the UK programme of quango reform , as well as similar developments in Ireland, we identify five new challenges for governments: ‘regulating’, ‘managing’, ‘reconciling’, ‘co‐ordinating’ and ‘reflecting’.
It is an important that energy is conserved whenever services and applications are used in useful resource restricted by mobile phones. Mobile phone multimedia services are a good looking Web service that the usage is predicted to improve very soon. On the other hand, the larger amount of network system traffic and sophisticated calculation necessary for mobile phone multimedia streaming can easily drain the actual battery in very little time. Because of this, there's a conflict found in end user need and also the service issues to assist the services by using existing methods. Consequently, power use of cell phone multimedia services is a fundamental study issue.
complications at 90 days are 2.5 times more likely to occur in the surgeon’s first 50 cases compared with their next 50 cases. Other studies assessed by Zevin et al. demonstrated that as the number of bariatric surgeries per surgeon per year increases the risk of re-admission or death decreases. From a study of 16,155 patients, Flum et al. reported that the adjusted odds ratio for death at 30 days was 0.8 for each quartile increase in annual surgeon volume. 305 In a separate study,
Circulating tumor DNA. While the nex- t-gen sequencing of cancer genomes has traditionally been performed on banked tis- sue (either fresh-frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded [FFPE]), it has recently been applied to detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Beyond the obvious ease of sample acquisition (phlebotomy rather than obtaining archival tumor tissue or a new biopsy), the next-gen sequencing of ctDNA is likely to serve a number of broader appli- cations. For example, recent work suggests that it can be used to noninvasively monitor tumor burden (38–40) and, perhaps most excitingly, that it can be used to detect mechanisms of secondary resistance to targeted therapy (e.g., activation of the RAS/MEK/ ERK pathway in EGFR inhibitor–treated metastatic CRC patients) (40, 41). While not prohibitive, a current limitation to most of the reported ctDNA techniques is the need for relatively deep and broad sequencing of putative ctDNA.