Top PDF Validation of the Fiala multi-node thermophysiological model for UTCI application

Validation of the Fiala multi-node thermophysiological model for UTCI application

Validation of the Fiala multi-node thermophysiological model for UTCI application

Each experiment was simulated by accurately modelling the experimental boundary conditions and the exposed subjects. The description of the environmental conditions and activity levels for each exposure was provided either in form of constant values for a given period of time or as time-dependent values changing every minute within the exposure. The latter approach was used mostly for the outdoor exposures. The UTCI-Fiala model was able to accept these time-dependent input parameters allowing the simulation of situations including changing outdoor temperature and wind speeds, various cloudiness and solar radiation intensity, climbing and descending hills, or opening or removing clothes. The clothing thermal and evaporative properties for the validation study were determined using either direct measurements with thermal manikins or estimates according to ISO 9920 (2007) for those garments that were no longer available for direct measurement. The clothing parameters were adjusted for walking and wind effects based on equations by Holmér et al. (1999) and Havenith and Nilsson (2004, 2005) as they were summarised in ISO 9920 (2007) and described by Havenith at al. (IJB, 2011, this issue).
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Validation of the Fiala multi-node thermophysiological model for UTCI application

Validation of the Fiala multi-node thermophysiological model for UTCI application

The essential requirement that COST Action 730 demanded of the model to be used for the UTCI was the capability to accurate simulate human thermophysiological responses across a very wide range of thermal environmental conditions. As the index was intended for the assessment of outdoor conditions, the applicable range of environmental conditions should correspond to the selection of all habitable climates and their seasonal changes. The physiological model should also be able to cope with transient conditions such as continuous variability of outdoor conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate available thermophysio- logical models by direct comparison and plausibility analysis. In the second stage, the selected model was validated for a range of relevant (steady-state and transient) environmental conditions using a number of human datasets collected from the literature and from laboratories participating in this project.
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UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation

UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation

3 Introduction One of the driving impulses for developing the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) has been the growing need from different disciplines for a physiological response-based assessment index that is valid across a broad spectrum of outdoor climate conditions including weather extremes. There has been a consensus among experts in the field that the new index should incorporate up-to-date knowledge in human thermal physiology and biophysics and take into account (i) the complete human heat budget and (ii) thermal physiological response of an average human subject. Considering the scientific advances in thermophysiological modelling of the past four decades, the COST Action 730 experts thus decided to develop UTCI based on the most advanced
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UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation.

UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation.

3 Introduction One of the driving impulses for developing the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) has been the growing need from different disciplines for a physiological response-based assessment index that is valid across a broad spectrum of outdoor climate conditions including weather extremes. There has been a consensus among experts in the field that the new index should incorporate up-to-date knowledge in human thermal physiology and biophysics and take into account (i) the complete human heat budget and (ii) thermal physiological response of an average human subject. Considering the scientific advances in thermophysiological modelling of the past four decades, the COST Action 730 experts thus decided to develop UTCI based on the most advanced
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Probability Modeling of Multi Node Wireless Networks

Probability Modeling of Multi Node Wireless Networks

The probability for the missing handover is computed using MATLAB code and the results are presented in the following plots. Simulation results presented for the cases where the channel bandwidths are 21 and decision time are 2 and 4 ms. Again, two networks are modeled in this work, namely, 2 node network and 3 node network for computing the missing handover probabilities based on the work presented by ref [11-13]. For both of these network models, probabilities are computed for similar conditions like the maximum bandwidth available, decision time and threshold value. Fig. 5 shows the comparison of the probabilities for the 2 node, 3 node and 5 node network models for a case with decision time of 2 ms. It is clear from the plots that there is a good amount of reduction in the missing handover based on the probabilities computed.
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Model based analysis of oligonucleotide arrays: model validation, design issues and standard error application

Model based analysis of oligonucleotide arrays: model validation, design issues and standard error application

Results: Probe-sensitivity indexes are stable across tissue types. The target gene’s presence in many arrays of an array set allows the probe-sensitivity index to be estimated accurately. We extended the model to obtain expression values for PM-only arrays, and found that the 20-probe PM-only model is comparable to the 10-probe PM/MM difference model, in terms of the expression correlations with the original 20-probe PM/MM difference model. MBEI method is able to extend the reliable detection limit of expression to a lower mRNA concentration. The standard errors of MBEI can be used to construct confidence intervals of fold changes, and the lower confidence bound of fold change is a better ranking statistic for filtering genes. We can assign reliability indexes for genes in a specific cluster of interest in hierarchical clustering by resampling clustering trees. A software dChip implementing many of these analysis methods is made available.
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Effect of Bamboo Node for Construction Application

Effect of Bamboo Node for Construction Application

Bambu merupakan batang yang berbentuk silindris (hollow) dan terdiri dari beberapa ruas atau buku bambu (node). Setiap batang bambu mempunyai jumlah ruas dan panjang antar ruas yang berbeda [2]. Seperti pada bambu jenis lingnania mempunyai panjang antar ruas dapat mencapai satu meter, sedangkan bambu jenis phyl- lostchys mempunyai panjang antar ruas hanya beberapa senti meter saja. Ruas bambu mempunyai efek pada sifat mekanis bambu. Kekuatan tarik (tensile strength) dari pada bambu yang mengandung ruas akan turun sekitar 25 persen dibandingkan dengan kekuatan tarik bambu yang tidak mengandung ruas. Ruas merupakan bagian yang terlemah dari bagian bambu. Karena struktur dan arah serat yang membentuk ruas menjadikan bagian ini mempunyai sifat mekanis yang rendah. Sifat dan ka- rakter daripada ruas bambu ini sama dengan sambungan (joint) pada konstruksi laminasi. Tetapi dengan peng- aturan penempatannya, maka pengaruh sambungan atau node pada konstruksi laminasi dapat dihindari.
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Application and Validation of Multi-Physics Coupling to Model Los Alamos National Laboratory's Routine Production RbCl-RbCl-Ga Target Stack.

Application and Validation of Multi-Physics Coupling to Model Los Alamos National Laboratory's Routine Production RbCl-RbCl-Ga Target Stack.

Previous research demonstrated the success of this approach for a water target operating at a very low beam current [12,13]. Since water is a relatively incompressible fluid, the density distribution that developed within the target as a result of energy deposition did not vary strongly with successive iterations. Our earlier work established a methodology based on a convergent set of stable solutions for a gas target [18] in order to examine the same coupling for highly compressible fluids, where density varies significantly due to energy deposition. Accurate predictions of beam penetration and internal fluid conditions are required for optimization and improved performance of the target design. This coupling was done to model incident deuterons on a conical Ne target for the nat Ne(p,n) 18 F reaction.
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The thermophysiological and ergogenic response to heat stress intervention strategies

The thermophysiological and ergogenic response to heat stress intervention strategies

52 3.7 Statistical analysis All data are presented as mean ± SD. Analyses were completed using the statistical software package IBM SPSS statistics version 19.1 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) and GraphPad Prism (GraphPad software Inc, California, USA). Statistical assumptions were checked using conventional graphic methods (Grafen & Hails, 2002) and were deemed plausible in all instances. Prior to any inferential statistical analysis, descriptive statistics were generated to dispersion (SD, minimum, maximum) and central tendency (mean, median). Statistical analysis was completed using linear mixed models were used to determine if there were any differences in the dependent variables between the conditions over time during across trials. This type of analysis was preferred as it allows for missing data and can specify covariate structures for repeated measures data. First fixed and random factors for the linear mixed model were fit for each dependent variable and the main effects for trial, group and the interaction effect (condition x time) were analysed by plotting the mean values. The most appropriate model was chosen using the likelihood ratio test. This method uses the χ2 critical test statistic to decide which model is the best fit based on the change in the -2 restricted log likelihood of two models. Where a significant F ratio was observed post hoc comparisons with Sidak-adjusted p values were used to identify which pairs of means were different. Two tailed statistical significance was accepted as p < 0.05. 95% confidence intervals (CI) were also reported. Finally, Cohen’s effect sizes (ES) for independent means were calculated utilising the formula outlined by Cohen (1992):
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Classifying railway station catchment areas. An application of node-place model to the Campania region

Classifying railway station catchment areas. An application of node-place model to the Campania region

The study area is the Campania Region (a surface of 13,670 km 2 and a population of over 5,820,000 inhabitants) and its rail network (291 active stations, 3,017 km of lines and 3 transport companies). The region is divided in five provinces (Avellino, Benevento, Caserta, Napoli and Salerno) and 550 municipality authorities. A great part of population and economy activities of the region are located in the territory between the cities of Naples, Caserta and Salerno. In the last two decades, the Campania region government and some municipality authorities invested a lot of recourses to increase the efficiency of the regional railway network and to improve the quality of urban texture (denser and more land-use mix) around the stations (Comune di Napoli, 1997; Pagliara and Papa, 2011). For this application of Node-Place model at the Campania region, all data refers to the year 2011.
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Application of SWAT Model to the Olifants Basin: Calibration, Validation and Uncertainty Analysis

Application of SWAT Model to the Olifants Basin: Calibration, Validation and Uncertainty Analysis

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a physically based medium to large scale river basin model developed by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS) [18]. The basic operational unit of the SWAT model is the hydrologic response units (HRUs) which consist of an area of homogenous land use, topography and soil characteristics. The concept of HRUs is to cater for the diverse ways by which different land use and soil types impacts on hydrology of a watershed. Since its introduc- tion, SWAT has been used in diverse applications ranging from water resources planning, investigation into hy- drological processes, water quality modeling and climate change studies [19]-[22]. For details on the SWAT model one is referred to Neitsch et al. [23].
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An introduction to the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)

An introduction to the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)

In 1999, the International Society of Biomete- orology (ISB) established a Commission ‘On the development of a Universal Thermal Climate In- dex UTCI’. The goal of this project was to derive a thermal index based on the most advanced ther- mophysiological model. Since 2005, these efforts have been reinforced by European COST (Coopera- tion in Science and Technical Development) Action 730, which has brought together leading experts in the areas of human thermophysiology, physiologi- cal modelling, meteorology and climatology, with a view to the Universal Thermal Climate Index,
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A Platform for Changing Legacy Application to Multi-tenant Model

A Platform for Changing Legacy Application to Multi-tenant Model

6. Conclusion In this paper, a Java based SaaS migration platform was designed which could transform existing single-tenant ASP application to multi-tenant model. With a restaurant management application migration as example, the migration principle and process was described. The migration results showed that the conversion platform could quickly complete the multi-tenant system migration and have a small workload of artificial code modification. Finally, a performance test was taken and the performance test proved that the transformed multi-tenant application could improve the utilization of server resources. Our future work will focus on improving the customization capabilities of the migration platform, so that the converted multi-tenant SaaS system not only can customize the user interface with application template, but also can complete tenant personalization business process through migration platform interface.
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Application and Verification of Multi Model Products in Medium Range Forecast

Application and Verification of Multi Model Products in Medium Range Forecast

In the dekad precipitation forecast, the model products can be used as the weather forecasting technology, which is based on the cumulative precipitation of deterministic models and ensemble forecast, dekad average height field and wind field, etc. However, there are significant differences in dekad precipitation between different seasons and regions. Whether the model’s precipitation fore- cast is matched with the circulation and impact system forecast, which model has a better reference function, whether it is consistent with local climatic value and empirical index, all these problems need to be considered in the forecast of precipitation. From the circulation forecast of each model in late October 2012, it can be found that the northeast cold vortex and strong cold air might affect the Northeast China during October 21-23, with obviously water vapor convergence in the middle and low-level (Figure omitted). Combined with precipitation forecast products of four deterministic models, it can predict the strong rain belt in the eastern part of Northeast China. But mentioned the precipitation forecast in the central region of China, the four models are different in the rain area and intensity. In order to determine the rainfall position and the amount of precipi- tation, it should be focused on the 850 hPa mean wind field and the position of the convergence zone and the forecast stability of the southwest jet and shear at 850 hPa of ECMWF model and the precipitation products of ensemble forecast. As for the precipitation in South China, the precipitation forecasting products of each model are more different. It is predicted in the situation field that there will be a tropical system in late October in South China Sea, but the typhoon path and intensity are uncertain, which bring great difficulty for precipitation forecast in South China and need to focus on research in the future medium-range fore- cast (Figure 6).
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The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI in operational use

The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI in operational use

thermal environment in bio-meteorological applications based on the equivalence of the dynamic physiological response predicted by a model of human thermoregulation, which was coupled with a state-of-the-art clothing model. The operational procedure, which is available as software from the UTCI website (www.utci.org), showed plausible responses to the influence of humidity and heat radiation in the heat, as well as to wind speed in the cold and was in good agreement with the assessment of ergonomics standards concerned with the thermal environment. This suggests that in this regard UTCI may be universally useable in the research and in the major areas of application of human biometeorology.
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Node importance evaluation method based on multi attribute decision making model in wireless sensor networks

Node importance evaluation method based on multi attribute decision making model in wireless sensor networks

network is related to the traffic flow through the node and the location of the node. And a method based on node contraction is obtained by combining two indica- tors. Reference [22] gives a new centrality called density centrality to identify and rank the node importance. The density centrality is computed by considering the degree and the distance between two nodes. Reference [23] uses the node efficiency and the node degree to evaluate the node importance. Reference [24] studies the bi-objective critical node detection problem and finds a set of solutions which minimize the pairwise connectivity of the induced graph and the cost of removing these critical nodes at the same time. These methods improve the comprehensive- ness of critical node judgment, but ignore the weight problem of the various indicators, which makes the ob- tained important nodes far from reality. The accuracy of their evaluation requires improvement. Therefore, to re- search the node importance evaluation, the evaluation model should switch from the unilateral indicators to combined indicators, and the weight of the various indica- tors on the node importance should be considered.
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Application and validation of a 3-D calcium, chloride, and sulfate model in Lake Okeechobee

Application and validation of a 3-D calcium, chloride, and sulfate model in Lake Okeechobee

Aquifer storage and recovery is a water management technology/strategy that uses groundwater aquifers to store wet season surface water and then recovers this water later to augment dry season surface water sup- plies. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (USACE 1999) included the hypothetical construction of up to 330 ASR storage wells throughout south Florida, of which 200 were conceptualized for the Lake Okeechobee basin (USACE, 1999). Each well was estimated to have a capacity of 5 million gallons per day. The existing LOEM model was modified to in- corporate SO 4 predictions specifically to evaluate po-
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The Application of the Multi Level Investment Flows Monitoring Model (MIF Model) on china and ASEAN

The Application of the Multi Level Investment Flows Monitoring Model (MIF Model) on china and ASEAN

For a long time, researchers, academics and policy makers have been using the concept of foreign direct investment (FDI) to explain the mobility of capitals across countries or regions under portfolio and stock market exchanges. According to this research, the FDI displays some limitations when it comes to analyzing investment flow mobility under different levels such as intra-state level, domestic level and intra-regional level. It makes sense to rethink this concept when there is the possibility to propose an additional classification to analyze the mobility of investment flows under a multi-level perspecti ve. Hence, FDI’s limitations have given rise to a new proposition: an alternative model called the multi-level investment flows monitoring model (MIF-model).
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A theoretical model of the application of RF energy to the airway wall and its experimental validation

A theoretical model of the application of RF energy to the airway wall and its experimental validation

Based on preliminary measurements in dogs, the diameters of treated airways ranged from 2 to 6.5 mm (see Figure 1) and were measured using a technique previously described [17]. One hundred eighty-eight airways were treated with an average dia- meter of 4.09 mm and a standard deviation of 0.94 mm. We used these anatomic data to physically scale the model to simulate the treatment of a 4 mm conducting airway using a six-electrode bipolar RF energy delivery catheter. This catheter consisted of an expandable electrode array with six equally spaced electrodes, where electrical energy flows between adjacent electrodes. The electrode dimensions and RF energy delivery scheme within the model were designed to mimic those used in previous animal stu- dies so that the results of the animal work could be used to validate the model. Based on computed tomography (CT) measurements, airway wall thickness was assumed to be 10% of the internal airway diameter [18].
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Development of a Virtualized Application Networking Infrastructure Node

Development of a Virtualized Application Networking Infrastructure Node

Once the VANI nodes have been connected to a network such as CANARIE, packets from the Internet will need to traverse two gateways to reach the internal resources: one to enter the CANARIE network, and one to enter the VANI node. The reasons for connecting with CANARIE are twofold. First, CANARIE will provide a dedicated fabric on which experimental traffic may be carried. This will allow researchers tight control over the conditions of their experiments, allowing them to do things such as injecting failures into the network. The second reason for connecting with CANARIE is that it provides raw Ethernet connectivity. The VANI nodes must run on Ethernet technology, however it does not assume any physical layer connectivity, nor does it assume any protocols above layer 2. This allows the network to support experiments with new protocols above layer 2 (for example, IP need not be used, although it may be).
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