One of the possible causes of UHI is a drastic reduction of the greener areas to built-up surfaces. The conversion of the natural land cover to built surfaces will be trapped incoming solar radiation during the day and then re-emitted it at night and increased the heat within the built-up areas (Solecki et al., 2004). The UHI effect increases energy consumption for cooling and causes lower thermal comfort in the indoor as well as in outdoor urban environments (Vidrih & Medved, 2013). Therefore, it is vital to apply the mitigation strategy in order to aid the UHI effects at the macro and micro levels. The UHI mitigation strategies such as the use of lighter-colour on the building or reflective surfaces on new developments. However, it is reported that a more practical method of mitigating the UHI is strategic planting of vegetation in urban areas (Ng et al., 2012). Previous study on measuring the potential of tree planting in high density residential areas has been carried out in Manchester, UK (Hall, Handley, & Ennos, 2012). The results showed the tree planting could reduce maximum surface temperature by between 0.5°C and 2.3°C. Previous study defined the capability of matured trees and other vegetation to reduce high temperature in saturated urban area via satellite perspective has been carried out in tropical climate country of Malaysia (Buyadi, Mohd, & Misni, 2013). Several studies in UHI have been carried in tropical country such as Malaysia and Singapore (Elsayed, 2009; Feng, Zhao, Chen, & Wu, 2014; Shahmohamadi, Ramly, & Maulud, 2010). A review of UHI mitigation reports shows that a few strategies are enabled to be implemented in an urban area to counteract the UHI effects such as using cool materials, green roofs, green walls, and planting trees and vegetation (Gartland, 2008). Reviewed literature by Memon et al., (2008) revealed that planting more vegetation has widely been reported as a promising mitigating measure of UHI.
As shown in Figure 1.0, global warming has occurred since the 1880s, but the warmest years have occurred in the past 30 years (Vijaya Venkata Raman et al. 2012). It is important to use climatic information as a design basis because there is still a lack of any application of climatic knowledge in land use and urban planning (Oke 1988; Eliasson 2000). As stated by Yeang (2006), it is important to research the climatic characteristics of the site. Since the 1980s, the role of green spaces and vegetation in cities has been understood, but the beneficial climatic effect of taking into account issues such as the urban climate and green spaces during urban planning has been overlooked (Mathey et al. 2011). Bruse and Fleer (1998) posited the importance of computer simulation to study the climate in urban design. Saito et al.’s (2010) research showed the necessity of a research focus on the relationship between design methods and the natural physical environment of outdoor spaces on a micro- scale in tropical countries. However, it is important to rethink the existing terraced house planning that uses landscape resources to optimize the quality of the living environment.
In the west to east direction with a distance of 50 km, the average air temperature was 34.7 ͼ &)LJXUHVKRZVWKH8+,·VSURÀOHIURPWKH ZHVW WR HDVW GLUHFWLRQ %DVHG RQ WKH SURÀOH diagram of UHI, air temperature is determined very much by the types of land cover. The type of land cover in the form of a built-up area creates a high air temperature. On the other hand, the type of land cover in the form of tree vegetation creates an urbanmicroclimate with lower air temperature. Weng and Yang (2004) explain that the City of Guangzhou’s problem was the UHI which was due to progressive increases in the city’s built up area. Depending on weather conditions, the difference in air temperature between that at the centre of the city and rural areas ranged from 0.2 to 4.7°C. Rushayati (2011) explains that based on research in the regency of Bandung, it is known that with the progressive increase in the built- up area and the progressive reduction in green open space, the surface temperature increases progressively.
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4.2. Absence of Climate-Conscious Factors in Urban Design and Planning
Urban areas often become unnecessarily uncomfortable since urbanmicroclimate and outdoor thermal comfort generally ascribe little importance in urban planning and design processes – . Many studies in warm countries report that climate issues are not sufficiently considered in contemporary urban design and planning. Aynsley and Gulson  interpret the lack of climate consciousness in urban planning and design; “urban climate is often a largely unplanned outcome of the interaction of a number of urban planning activities […], an outcome for which no authority and no profession take responsibility”. The previous studies have shown that knowledge about climate issues among climatologists, planners and urban designers is often missing sustainable design of urban development , , . De Schiller and Evans  and Soufiane et al.  emphasize that incorrect decisions at the urban planning level are normally impossible to correct at a later stage. Ainsley and Gulson  argue that outdoor thermal comfort should be a routine aspect of urban development and that climatic aspects should be included in urban development codes and guidelines at different planning levels. In developing countries, rapid urbanization often implies the uncontrolled growth of cities through the formation of substantial informal settlements. In such settlements, climate-conscious aspects are often disregarded .
Coastal environments, not directly transformed by urbanisation but within an urban matrix, can be transformed by changes in climate, invasive species and plantings. We assess changes in vegetation structure since European settlement and changes in native species abundance since 2003 on the cuspate dune complex at Lower Sandy Bay, Tasmania. The pre-European vegetation of the cuspate forehead seems likely to have been grassland dominated by Spinifex sericeus and Austrofestuca littoralis on the foredunes and Eucalyptus viminalis open-forest with a shrubby to grassy understorey on the older dunes. Some trees of E. viminalis still occur on the dune system, together with many elements of the original understorey. The foredune native vegetation had been replaced by Ammophila arenaria closed-grassland by 2003. Much of this grassland was invaded by the native shrub, Acacia longifolia, by 2017. Between 2003 and 2017 almost all native shrub species increased in abundance. Succulent, grass and herb species suffered decline. Increased competition with exotic species, changes in disturbance regimes and decreases in fire frequency in the coastal area are most likely to have influenced the changes in native species distributions. Key Words: coastal vegetation, dune system, Long Beach Tasmania, native coastal plant species, urbanisation
The degree of spatial variability in microclimate also differs greatly among forest ecosystems. For ex- ample, Reifsnyder et al. (1971) found that it was difficult to sample, much less confidently quantify, the spatial and temporal variability of direct shortwave radiation in both oak and pine forests in central Connecticut. Old-growth Douglas-fir forests in southern Washington (Chen and Franklin 1997) and mature mixed- oak forests in the Ozarks of south- eastern Missouri (Chen et al. 1997, Xu et al. 1997), also exhibited spa- tial variation in climatic variables, including air and soil temperatures, shortwave radiation, wind speed, and soil water content. The diurnal pat- terns in these variables differed as functions of daily local weather con- ditions (e.g., hot versus cool or wet versus dry days). In general, soil tem- perature was more variable spatially than air temperature or soil mois- ture. In the old-growth Douglas-fir forests, air temperature (maximum– minimum) varied by 2.7 °C along a 200 m transect in southern Washing- ton on a typical summer day, whereas soil temperature varied by 5.9 °C (Chen Figure 1. Microcli-
The importance and prevalence of resident teaching has been estab- lished, and because of this, there is a need for effective, proven tech- niques to develop residents’ teach- ing skills. As these studies reveal, however, further work needs to be done to identify the most effective methods. Notably, none of these studies included neurology resi- dents, and neurologists need to catch up with other specialties re- garding assessing our resident teaching abilities and techniques. These studies demonstrate that teaching workshops can improve resident teaching skills as mea- sured by objective teaching exami- nations. The studies also suggest that the effect of student feedback may not be as great as that of teaching skills sessions. Only one of the three studies using student feedback as an intervention was able to demonstrate a significant improvement in the experimental group, whereas four of the five studies using skills sessions were able to demonstrate a significant improvements in the experimental group.
The results of a recent meta-analysis suggest that burn- out among physicians, including residents, is driven by organizational factors rather than individual factors . These results are in agreement with insights that burn- out is not an indication of personal failing but rather of a failing working and social environment . This en- vironment includes aspects of the workload, schedule, communication, workflow and teamwork [15, 33]. Sev- eral training-related factors, like high educational de- mands and lack of autonomy, pose an additional risk to residents when compared to physicians that are not in training . Moreover, some even state that burnout is the obvious outcome of the disconnect between medical training programs and the realities of the need to work with colleagues, hospital personnel and patients who have different visions of how the healthcare organization should operate . We have to note however, that burnout is assumed to be the result of a chronic imbal- ance between job demands and job resources . Hence, we cannot conclude that resident burnout is sim- ply caused by a poor learning environment. Neverthe- less, we do believe that the learning environment plays an important role in the motivational process of resi- dents, because a healthy learning environment fosters growth, learning and development [17, 20, 22]. Initiatives to improve the learning environment and contribute to burnout prevention should preferably address the learn- ing environment as a whole and focus in particular on improving supervisory support and improve the quality of coaching and assessment. This could be achieved by the implementation of faculty staff development, which provides faculty members with requisite pedagogic tools needed to enhance supervisory performance (e.g. giving feedback, application of coaching and assessment), es- tablish an optimal learning environment and enable them to detect and respond to emotional distress .
2.3 Discussion and conclusion Global results
This case study confirms that vegetation could reduce the air and surface temperature, even if herbaceous crops and not trees were used for the simulation. Multiple receptor points are used to get an overview of the eﬀect within the area. We may suppose that the same situation occurs in other seasons, but our study was limited to a period in which there were on-cycle crops and not so high temperatures. The results differed significantly by hours, and the wind direction has a significant influence, especially if we plan to create an ecological corridor through the city. It is possible to affirm that the presence of gardens is important to improve urbanmicroclimate and outdoor thermal comfort in urban spaces. This main comfort is due to shading, especially in the case of trees, and evapotranspiration. This last factor is related to the size of the vegetated area (Boukhabla & Alkama 2012). Lower air temperatures are essential both to improve thermal comfort conditions of pedestrians and to limit energy use for cooling (Obiakor et al. 2012) during warmer months.
The explosion of population is an ongoing issue in fast growing countries. According to projection by United Nations (2011), from 2011 to 2050, the global population will increase by 2.3 billion passing from 7 billion to 9.3 billion. It is also stated in the report that while the global population grows, the rapid urbanisation trend will follow. The urbanisation trend is the transformation of urban development expansion through population measure, which is concentrated within the urban areas. It has become a global phenomenon, which the population living in urban area is projected to gain 6.25 billion from 3.63 billion in 2011 to 2050, while the population living in rural area will decrease from 3.34 billion to 3.05 billion for the same period. Economic growth and urbanisation that overcome both developing and developed countries have attracted the migration of people from rural to urban area. This indicates that proportion of the population is definitely moving to concentrate on the urban area, which some of them are megacities. United Nation reported that the number of megacities is projected significantly increases to 37 in 2025, while 1 out of 7 to 8 living in urban areas will live in megacities which occupies 8 % of the global population.
designers/planners did consider the environment. The suppression of vegetation in the form of tree felling is one of the problems caused by the city’s urbanisation. Consequently, to protect landscape vegetation and regulate management processes, 48 laws were in existence in São Paulo in 2012. Through a complex offset process, all tree felling and removal must be environmentally compensated either financially or through the process of planting new trees. Analysis of the systems to authorise tree felling and define the compensation process demonstrated that the costs and benefits of the São Paulo urban forest are not considered in their totality. Despite an attempt to assign ecological values for each tree removed, it was not possible to identify the theoretical foundation of the official compensation process. Analysis of the Vila Andrade neighbourhood, the São Paulo district with the most authorised tree removals between 1997 and 2011, indicated that the high number of environmental compensation agreements did not positively influence the tree cover. The restrictions on tree removal and the rise of
Weather data at nearby airports are usually used in building energy simulation to estimate energy use in buildings or evaluate building design or retrofit options. However, due to urbanization and geography characteristics, local weather conditions can differ significantly from those at airports. This study presents the visualization of 10-year hourly weather data measured at 27 sites in San Francisco, aiming to provide insights into the urbanmicroclimate and urban heat island effect in San Francisco and how they evolve during the recent decade. The 10-year weather data are used in building energy simulations to investigate its influence on energy use and electrical peak demand, which informs the city’s policy making on building energy efficiency and resilience. The visualization feature is implemented in CityBES, an open web- based data and computing platform for urban building energy research.
Urbana vegetacija, naročito drveće, nudi mnoge pogodnosti koje mogu poboljšati kvalitetu okoliša i zdravlje građana u i oko gradskih područja (Nowak, 2008). Urbane šume omogućavaju i pružaju mnoge prednosti kao što su štednja energije, poboljšanje upravljanja vodama, smanjenje onečišćenja zraka i povezivanje urbanih stanovnika s prirodom (McPherson, 2006). Kako bi se što više mogle koristiti te pogodnosti potrebno je provoditi inventuru urbane vegetacije u svrhu kvalitetnijeg planiranja i upravljanja njome. Osnovne informacije koje sadrži takva inventura uključuju: broj pojedinačnih stabala, njihove vrste, prostorni raspored i zdravstveno stanje. Tradicionalno se takvi podaci prikupljaju terenskom izmjerom koja je skupa, fizički zahtjevna i oduzima mnogo vremena. Dodatno, terenske se izmjere mogu provoditi samo na područjima koja su dostupna za izmjeru, malo ili ništa podataka se može prikupiti s privatnih posjeda i ostalih nepristupačnih područja. Daljinska istraživanja su stoga postala primamljiva alternativa terenskim izmjerama u inventuri vegetacije zbog ukupnog manjeg troška izmjere, veće obuhvaćene površine i redovitog ciklusa prikupljanja podataka (Zhang i Qiu, 2012). Iako se u uporabi mogu naći različite vrste senzora kojima se prikupljaju informacije o šumskoj vegetaciji, LiDAR tehnologija se u zadnje vrijeme sve više koristi za pridobivanje podataka o šumskoj površini budući da može pružiti veoma točne informacije o obliku promatranog objekta uz pomoć georeferenciranih 3D točaka (Kwak i sur., 2007). Mogućnosti LiDAR tehnologije prepoznate su u svijetu te se ona počinje intenzivnije istraživati početkom 21. stoljeća. Od tada se može pratiti sve veći broj objavljenih znanstvenih radova na temu njene primjene u brojnim sferama koji i dalje raste što je dokaz njene relevantnosti i svestranosti.
In the majority of cases, AD develops as a result of multiple factors, with increasing age bringing the greatest risk; nevertheless, up to 3%–5% of cases are linked to genetic causes. Mutations in genes encoding for amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) account for about 5% of cases, and are character- ized by an early onset (before 65 years of age). Comorbidities and lifestyle are also contributing factors. In this regard, several studies have been designed to determine the role of diet in contributing to the risk of AD. The Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project provides the first evidence of a beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on the risk of AD. However, the exact magnitude of such risk factors is still unknown. Histopathologically, the typical hallmarks of the disease include deposition of amyloid beta (A β ) peptide in so-called senile plaques and accumulation of tau protein in cells, leading to neurofibrillary tangles and pyramidal cell loss.
10-pixel area on the 18 m imagery or a 45 x 45 pixel area on the 4 m imagery. While larger validation polygon sizes tend to produce higher measures of fractional accuracy, 180 x 180 m polygons contained a desirable fractional mix of all or most of the 6 classes of interest, while smaller polygons contained inadequate combinations of fractional cover (Powell et al., 2007). We used the pixel grid of the 18 m imagery to randomly generate polygon locations, setting a minimum inter-polygon distance of 400 m to evenly distribute them across the study area. Within each validation polygon, we used E-Cognition to classify the 1 m NAIP imagery into turfgrass, tree, paved, roof, NPV, and soil cover. NAIP classification accuracy was visually assessed and manually corrected based on a comparison to August 2014 Google Earth imagery. This was particularly important for adjusting turfgrass surfaces that had senesced to NPV by the time of the flights. We also discarded two polygons. One contained 40% open water, which we did not include as an urban cover class due to the lack of any significant urban waterways in the study area. The other was a row crop agricultural field for which we could not determine (from validation imagery) its cover at the time of the AVIRIS flights. We replaced these with two additional randomly generated polygons. Once all polygons were classified, we evaluated the range of class cover fractions and determined that soil was inadequately represented, with no polygons exceeding 18% soil cover. This limited soil coverage is an accurate reflection of the absence of soil in our scene, however we decided to augment our validation dataset to better assess our ability to detect soil. We added five polygons representing larger soil percentages, bringing our total number of validation polygons to 64.
C. UrbanResident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI)
URBMI is a voluntary insurance program supported mostly by the government social fund and individuals, which is operated at the city level. Due to differences in the economy and the affordability across provinces and cities, local governments are allowed considerable flexibility in the financing and implementation policies of the program. The current annual premiums range from $20 to $100, which is lower than UEBMI but higher than NRCMS. 1 The ultimate goal of this reform is to achieve universal coverage, reduce inequality in medical service distribution, and increase health utilization for one of the most vulnerable groups: the unemployed urban residents. After its pilot run in 2007, “URBMI rapidly expanded from 79 cities to 229 cities in 2008 and to almost every city by the end of 2009. This program covered 221 million people, amounting to around 16.5% of the Chinese population” (Liu, Zhao 2012).
As one can see on the maps, north-facing slopes in winter have incoming radiation values of approximately zero, while south-facing slopes can receive lots of radiation. In summer the differences even out somewhat, although large differences still persist. Assuming that precipitation is the same regardless of slope, the radiation differences are so extreme that the water balance varies greatly by location. Water availability is a major determinant of vegetation distribution in California, and thus the map predicts which areas should be vegetated by dry-adapted species and which areas should be vegetated by moisture-loving plants such as members of the redwood community. In addition to producing maps and predicting vegetation distribution, this kind of modeling also acts as a kind of filter, predicting what microclimates will exist under a given climatic regime. Thus, given the current climate, we can predict the microclimate at each location in the reserve, even calculating the area and position of each
Increase the vertical density of the built
environment in the old town, and horizontally in the new residential area.
The results indicate the importance of taking microclimate strategies and building envelope technologies into account for energy efficiency and thermal comfort. The results can be adopted for further research to optimize the building envelope in hot and arid climates in order to mitigate buildings energy demand and improve the outdoor and indoor thermal
With the exception of the overhead tank (Figure 4), the predicted EIPs in all indoor and outdoor structures were comparable in February ( P. vivax 8–9 days; P. falciparum 9–10 days). However, all had predicted EIPs 1–2 days shorter than those predicted using the weather station data (Figure 5). As conditions warmed, predicted EIPs deviated slightly between microenvironments. The more stable con- ditions (< 1 day difference in predicted EIP, comparing February with April) were indoors in concrete-roofed and thatch-roofed houses, and outdoors in vegetation and wells. The houses with asbestos and tile roofs (indoor) and other outdoor habitats showed larger increases in predicted EIP over time. The shortest EIPs were predicted to be in warm stable habitats such as concrete and thatch-roofed houses and wells (Figure 4). Across the different environments, predicted EIPs ranged from 2 days shorter to 3 days longer than the EIPs based on the weather station temperatures.
According to previous work by Char- lin et al, 8 50-60 items are sufficient to achieve internal reliability with an alpha coefficient of 0.80. Assuming scenarios or items would be eliminated, gyneco- logic surgeons from each participating site generated 96 case scenarios that oc- cur during common gynecologic surgi- cal procedures including 2-4 items per scenario. All scenarios were written to involve intraoperative decision-making and were designed to be ambiguous with no 1 correct answer. Common proce- dures were defined as those surgical pro- cedures a resident should be able to perform determined by the CREOG Ed- ucation Objectives. 7 The initial goal was to generate around 100 scenarios in an- ticipation of applying the following cri- teria to eliminate scenarios and items: ⬎5% missing answers, minimum con-