Top PDF Victimization and Perpetration Experiences of Adults with Autism

Victimization and Perpetration Experiences of Adults with Autism

Victimization and Perpetration Experiences of Adults with Autism

METHODS Recruitment Participants with ASC were recruited through study notices distributed by community-based programs and organizations that support those with ASC, online ASC communities, several colleges/universities academic support services, and from study participants to others at their discretion. The comparison group was recruited through postings within the University setting and on community message boards. Advertisements indicated that this was a research project on interpersonal violence in adults that aimed to understand the experiences of interpersonal violence, and that any adult could participate, even if they did not experience violence themselves. Identical recruitment and consent materials were used for both groups. Eligible participants with ASC were required to (a) have a diagnosis of an ASC (e.g., Autism, Asperger Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder, PDD-NOS) according to self-report, which was verified by administering the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule- −2nd Edition ( 37 ), (b) be 18 years of age or older, and (c) have an estimated IQ above 80 on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence ( 38 ). Participants without ASC had to meet criterion b and c. Equal numbers of men and women with ASC responded to the study advertisements.
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Overlap of Community Violence Perpetration and Violent Victimization among Adults with Mental Illnesses.

Overlap of Community Violence Perpetration and Violent Victimization among Adults with Mental Illnesses.

In addition to perpetration, adults with mental illnesses also experience victimization at rates higher than found in the general population (Corrigan & Watson, 2005; Desmarais et al., 2014; Teplin et al., 2005). Both history of violence and history of victimization have been identified as robust correlates of long-term violence (Silver, 2002; Swanson et al., 2002; Witt et al., 2013), though the latter is attended to less frequently in violence risk assessment. When considered, the focus is typically on distal experiences (e.g., history of childhood abuse) (Sadeh et al., 2014). Though childhood and adult victimization are related in adults with mental illnesses (Meade, Kershaw, Hansen, & Sikkema, 2009), the experiences are qualitatively distinct and, thus, may evince different associations with short-term violence. Indeed, a recent study of 167 justice-involved adults with mental illnesses showed that recent perpetration and victimization predicted violence over a 12-month period, above and beyond static and distal factors, including childhood physical abuse (Sadeh et al., 2014). However, generalizability of findings from this study is limited by the small sample and the authors’ decision to collapse 6- and 12-month assessments of violence. To our knowledge, no studies have examined recent victimization as a predictor of short-term violence among adults with mental illnesses more broadly.
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Suicidal Adolescents’ Experiences With Bullying Perpetration and Victimization during High School as Risk Factors for Later Depression and Suicidality

Suicidal Adolescents’ Experiences With Bullying Perpetration and Victimization during High School as Risk Factors for Later Depression and Suicidality

reported con fl icting fi ndings. A study in Norway [3] reported that those being seriously bullied at age 11 years suffered from “ bouts of depression ” as young adults. A study in Australia [4] reported that victimization in the eighth year of secondary school was associated with newly incident symptoms of depression the following year. However, a follow-up study of Finnish children involved in bullying at the age of 8 or 12 years indicated that when psychiatric symp- toms were taken into account, involvement in bullying did not independently increase the likelihood of depressive symptoms at age 15 years [5]. Similarly, a 2-year follow-up of peer victimization among high school students in Australia, found that victimization at baseline was not predictive of “ psychiatric health ” after baseline health status was taken into account [6].
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Assessing Risks and Potential Protective Factors of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

Assessing Risks and Potential Protective Factors of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

theories at a time. Thus, the current results provide a more comprehensive understanding of dating violence perpetration and victimization. The findings reveal that an integration of all relevant theories is necessary when studying dating violence. Second, this study included protective factors and demonstrated that religiosity and strong maternal relationship quality have the potential for protecting young adults from perpetrating dating violence and becoming a victim of dating violence. These protective factors emphasize the importance of social ties in the lives of young adults. In addition, these protective factors lead to important practical and policy implications. Third, childhood experiences continue to impact the lives of young people and the quality of their relationships. Adverse childhood experiences set the stage for potential relationship problems in the future, further highlighting the importance of good parenting in the future adjustment of children. Finally, the findings demonstrate that risky behaviors raise the likelihood of experiencing dating violence, reiterating the importance for programs devoted to the reduction of risky behaviors in young adulthood.
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Gender differences in the association between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration: the role of anger rumination and traditional bullying experiences

Gender differences in the association between cyberbullying victimization and perpetration: the role of anger rumination and traditional bullying experiences

Methods Participants and Procedure A total of 1500 adolescents and adults (57.9% male, M age = 28.9 years, SD = 8.7) participated in the study. Data collection was conducted via an online questionnaire during the spring of 2017. The call for participation was advertised on two popular Hungarian websites focusing on news and gaming (444.hu and GameStar.hu). Participants were informed about the purpose of the investigation (i.e., exploring bullying experiences) and that participation is voluntary. For underage participants (those below age 18 years), parental approval was required. As an incentive, six 20,000 HUF-worth gift vouchers (approximately $77 US) were raffled among those participants who completed the questionnaire. Ethical approval was gained from the
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Extending the ACEs Framework: Examining the Relations Between Childhood Abuse and Later Victimization and Perpetration with College Men

Extending the ACEs Framework: Examining the Relations Between Childhood Abuse and Later Victimization and Perpetration with College Men

Early life experiences have an ongoing impact on health throughout the lifespan. Violence in childhood is particularly concerning because it can have enduring effects into later life, ultimately diminishing children’s potential to thrive as adolescents and later as adults (Anda et al., 2006). Prevalence estimates suggest that at least 1 in 4 children will experience some form of maltreatment in their lifetime (Finklehor, Turner, Ormond, & Hamby, 2013). More than 28% of adults in the United States have experienced physical abuse, nearly 21% have experienced sexual abuse, and more than 10% have experienced emotional abuse in childhood (U.S. Department of Human Services, 2016). Researchers discovered that the occurrence and co- occurrence of violence and other forms of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) lay the pathways to revictimization in later life (Anda et al., 2006; Whitfield, Anda, Dube, & Felitti, 2003). Although researchers have investigated the interconnections of childhood victimization (Dong et al., 2004), few researchers have examined the spectrum of and interconnections among violence exposure in adulthood by way of victimization and perpetration, especially with men (e.g., Gomez, 2011). As a result, our understanding of the scope of men’s violence exposure, i.e., any type of violence, including victimization and perpetration, in adulthood is relatively limited, which may affect our ability to design and deliver effective interventions. This study seeks to better understand the interconnections of violence by examining the relations between childhood victimization and adulthood victimization and perpetration, including polyvictimization and polyperpetration, in a sample of adult men in college.
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The Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Experiences Survey – Short Form Victimization (SES-SFV) and Characteristics of Sexual Victimization Experiences in College Men

The Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Experiences Survey – Short Form Victimization (SES-SFV) and Characteristics of Sexual Victimization Experiences in College Men

attempted rape were defined as attempting or having oral sex, anal sex or sexual intercourse via altered consciousness (tactic c), threats of physical harm (tactic d), or physical force (tactic e) in the absence of consent. These categories are the basis of the categorical scoring system for the SES-SFV; in the categorical scoring system the most severe experience of sexual victimization is coded. For example, if a person indicates a response of 1 to item 1a (unwanted sexual contact via verbal pressure) and to item 4c (completed anal rape via incapacitation), their continuous score would be 2, their category score would be attempted rape/rape, and their dichotomous score would be1: victimization present.Convergent validity. In order to test convergent validity, the Sexual Coercion subscale of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) was used to assess intimate partner victimization in the past year (Straus et al., 1996). Previous research found that CTS2-SC scores were positively related to psychiatric symptoms in men and a history of physical assault victimization (Hines & Douglas, 2016). The CTS2 contains 14 paired items assessing victimization and perpetration for the same behavior. For the present analyses, CTS2 variables were coded dichotomously to be consistent with the dichotomous and categorical scoring scheme used with the SES-SFV. In the present sample, 146 participants (36.0%) reported experiencing sexual victimization from an intimate partner in the past year.
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Intimate partner violence and the overlap of perpetration and victimization: Considering the influence of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse in childhood

Intimate partner violence and the overlap of perpetration and victimization: Considering the influence of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse in childhood

(only) for males and females even when emotional abuse was considered, and it did not predict IPV perpetration (only) for either gender when including emotional abuse. Instead, physical abuse was predictive of male involvement as an IPV victim-perpetrator. Similarly, sexual abuse, which was only predictive of IPV perpetration among males in the “victim or perpetrator” models (Table 2), was only predictive of being an IPV victim- perpetrator when IPV involvement was examined as mutually exclusive categories. Emotional abuse, which appeared to be predictive of victimization and perpetration for both genders (Table 2) did not predict IPV perpetration (only) for males, but did for females, and it was predictive of being a victim-perpetrator for both genders. Taken together, our results suggest that no type of child maltreatment is significantly related to perpetrating IPV (only) among males once IPV victim-perpetrators are considered, while all are predictive of being involved in IPV as victim-perpetrator for males. Emotional abuse, on the other hand, appears directly related to IPV perpetration among females (being significant for perpetration-only and victim-perpetrators). Finally, consistent with intergenerational transmission of violence/cycle of violence, physical child abuse is directly linked to IPV victimization (only) and this relationship holds across males and females even when the IPV victim-offender overlap is considered.
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Clinical Study Experiences of Dental Care and Dental Anxiety in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Clinical Study Experiences of Dental Care and Dental Anxiety in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

related to ASD and thereby disclosing any subjects with symptoms of ASD from the control group, all participants completed the autism spectrum quotient, AQ [ 18 ]. The AQ is a self-rating scale that describes a variety of traits typically observed in individuals with ASD. It consists of 50 items, assessing personal preferences and habits. Subjects rate to what extent they agree or disagree with the statements on a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from definitely agree (0) to definitely disagree (3). Items are subsequently coded dichotomously into 0 and 1 to reflect the absence or presence of each symptom. Total AQ scores reflect the sum of all items; the lowest possible score (i.e., 0) indicates no autistic traits and the highest possible score (50) indicates severe autistic traits. A score above 32 has been proposed as a cutoff score for probable ASD [ 18 ], but people with a confirmed ASD diagnosis sometimes have lower scores [ 19 ].
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Experiences of Sex Education and Sexual Awareness in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Experiences of Sex Education and Sexual Awareness in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

A core element of Autistic Spectrum Disorder is poor understanding of social interaction, which can include the failure to read verbal and non-verbal social cues and difficulties in maintaining relationships (APA, 2013). Adversities in this area can make individuals with ASD susceptible to a range of difficulties surrounding sex and relationships (Byers, Nichols & Voyer 2013). Although young adults with autism show an interest in sex and relationships (Gilmour, Schalomon & Smith, 2012), compared to typically developing individuals they are provided with less sex education and possess less sexual knowledge (Stokes & Kaur, 2005). Societal barriers have played a role in preventing individuals with ASD receiving adequate sex and relationship guidance and support (Koller, 2000), and this may lead to low self-esteem, depression, loneliness, isolation from the wider community, aggression and confusion (Koller, 2000; Hatton & Tector, 2010). The need to address this subject is becoming more pronounced as greater opportunities within the wider community are arising for individuals with ASD (Sullivan & Caterino, 2008). The present research investigates the experiences of sex education, and level of sexual awareness, among young adults with autism compared to typically developing young adults, using both quantitative and qualitative data.
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'What's the point?' An investigation into the experiences of staff working with adults with autism spectrum disorders

'What's the point?' An investigation into the experiences of staff working with adults with autism spectrum disorders

This  research  is  highly  dependent  on  social  care  staff’s  personal  accounts  of  their   experiences   of   working   with   adults   with   ASDs   and   therefore   interpretative   phenomenological  analysis  ([IPA]  Smith  &  Osborn,  2008)  was  chosen.  The  aim  of   IPA   is   to   gain   an   in-­‐depth,   ‘insider’s’   understanding   of   participants’   personal   experiences,   while   going   beyond   what   they   actively   verbalise   to   a   researcher   (Jussab   &   Murphy,   2015;   Smith,   2015).   IPA   adopts   the   process   of   double   hermeneutics   which   requires   the   researcher   to   re-­‐interpret   a   person’s   experiences  thus  revealing  the  details  which  individuals  themselves  might  not  be   aware   of   (Pietkiewicz   &   Smith,   2014).   To   achieve   a   detailed   insight   into   the   experiences  of  participants,  a  small  sample  is  required  (Smith  &  Osborn,  2008).    
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Transition experiences of young adults on the autism spectrum in Australia: a mixed-methods analysis

Transition experiences of young adults on the autism spectrum in Australia: a mixed-methods analysis

found that the highest rate of service use was in health care with 93% of young adults accessing psychiatric services, followed by community support with 45.6% accessing daily activity centres, sheltered employment, and group home settings. In addition, parents reported providing an average of 48 hours of informal support a month, impacting the number of hours they were able to work, resulting in reduced income. Jarbrink et al. reported that the cost factor represented by employment agencies was 5%, and a loss of productivity by those young adults who had no daytime activity was 45%. The unusual low cost reported for employment services would indicate a lack of supported employment programs which the researchers suggest may have a negative impact on the economy. Indeed, findings from their study indicate the high costs incurred in supporting young adults on the autism spectrum across health systems, community care, and the provision of informal support by families. Thus, the researchers highlight that increased day care activities, informal living support, and co-occurring psychiatric conditions may be reduced if individuals on the autism spectrum are in employment, earning a wage, and engaged within the community.
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Experiences of Receiving a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Survey of Adults in the United Kingdom

Experiences of Receiving a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Survey of Adults in the United Kingdom

extent memory of diagnosis in adulthood is influenced by an accompanying parent or partner. However, all participants needed to be high functioning in order to take part in the study. Numerous organisations that the target population was likely to engage with were identified and contacted via email. The email outlined the aims of the study, gave the address of the website hosting the survey, and suggested ways they could help promote the project to relevant individuals. A follow-up email was sent two weeks later to thank them for their participation or to encourage them to promote the project if they had not already done so. The types of organisations contacted included support groups, social clubs, day services, supported living services, organisations offering employment training and advocacy, and specialised higher education centres. An advertisement was also placed in the National Autistic Society (UK) publication ‘Communication’, which reaches all members of the organisation. This wide range of organisations was approached in order to try and gather a diverse and representative sample of respondents. Information regarding the project was also posted on online support groups and forums in order to promote the project to the significant number of adults with high-functioning ASD who do not engage with any official support services.
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Adults with a diagnosis of autism: personal experiences of engaging with regional criminal justice services

Adults with a diagnosis of autism: personal experiences of engaging with regional criminal justice services

Freckleton and List (2009) used case studies to examine perceptions of criminal culpability in criminal trials involving defendants with a diagnosis of autism; they adopted an analysis that largely utilises a medical perspective of autism. This means that the behaviours highlighted as making defendants potentially vulnerable to engagement with CJS are based on a medical paradigm that sees problems of social understanding and communication as being primarily behavioural and as such, behaviour is seen as symptomatic of autism. Freckleton and List (2009) are right to highlight that difference in social understanding and communication can make some people on the autism spectrum vulnerable to perpetrating behaviours that might constitute a criminal act. However, these authors fail to acknowledge how these behaviours could in turn be viewed through the application of a social philosophy of autism that ascribes to a view of autism as a difference in processing style rather than a deficit (Grandin & Panek, 2014). In other words, individuals on the autism spectrum are not solely vulnerable because they have a deficit in their ability to communicate correctly. Instead a vulnerability is created from a tendency of some authors to view experiences through a neurotypical rather than an ‘autism lens’ (Bagatell, 2010). Milton (2012) notes that difference in perceptual frameworks between people on the autism spectrum and neurotypical people comes from both groups struggling to accurately perceive and appreciate the
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Adolescent Violence Perpetration: Associations With Multiple Types of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Adolescent Violence Perpetration: Associations With Multiple Types of Adverse Childhood Experiences

violence-related outcomes not rising to the level of official report. In addi- tion, anonymity of the self-report ques- tionnaire may have improved the ve- racity of responses. The young age of the respondents makes problems of recall bias less likely. Within the limita- tions of a question format for a school- based questionnaire designed to be administered during a class period, the number of child adversities ex- amined was limited. In addition, com- plexities of the ecological context for child maltreatment may mean that the adversities examined in this study represent a proxy for other ex- posures that contribute to distur- bances in development manifesting as violence perpetration, including poverty, parenting deficit, and lack of formal and informal support sys- tems. Because the data are cross- sectional, the findings are correla- tional, and no determinations can be made about causal relationships among the variables examined in this study.
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Peer Victimization in Youth with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

Peer Victimization in Youth with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

reassurance that these answers would be kept confidential. However, parents and youth reported victimization were significantly associated with social avoidance and child’s report of peer victimization was significantly associated with a fear of negative evaluation, which has been reported in typically developing youth (Grills & Ollendick, 2002; Hutzell & Payne, 2012; Pabian & Vandebosch, 2015; Storch & Masia, 2002) and youth with high-functioning ASD (Storch et al., 2012). Youth with high-functioning ASD who are peer victimized frequently may internalize these occurrences and come to believe and expect that others are often judging them negatively. These feelings may be further reinforced by consistent acts of victimization and subsequently, the youth develops a greater fear of negative evaluation, which may generalize to other social situations. Alternatively, youth with high-functioning ASD who have greater fears of negative evaluation may invite more frequent acts of victimization. Fekkes and colleagues (2005) suggest that youth who are more apt to display anxiety symptoms may be victimized more frequently, as they are seen as weak and unlikely to retaliate. Furthermore, youth may struggle to learn the social skills needed to deter acts of victimizations due to feelings of anxiety. Given these findings, it is essential that therapists working with youth with high-functioning ASD who present with a history of peer victimization and/or a fear of negative evaluation are aware of this bidirectional relationship and individualize treatment accordingly. For example, if a youth with high-functioning ASD presents with a fear of negative evaluation, it may be beneficial for the therapist to explore the youth’s social experiences and shape treatment protocol to include targeting anxiety symptoms and developing social skills and/or coping skills to deal with bullies using empirically supported methods.
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Forgiveness among college students with past bullying victimization experiences

Forgiveness among college students with past bullying victimization experiences

reported limited impact of past bullying victimization on their overall college experience, it is worth noting that all participants reported varying degrees of short-term effects at least of these experiences. First of all, participants reported a number of negative emotions when they were undergoing these experiences, such as anger, doubt, sadness, frustration, guilt, shame and fear. Some also reported the impact of these experiences on their self-esteem, confidence, social experience and family relationships prior coming to college. Most participants also compared their emotions at the time of the interviews with their emotions at the time of the victimization. Although participants generally did not offer detailed descriptions of their emotional states about past experiences, most agreed with the notion that the experiences caused more psychological pain back then. They also used words such as “not brutal” or “not life-threatening” to describe the severity of the negative experience, indicating still a relatively significant level of emotional struggles.
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Autism in the courtroom: experiences of legal professionals and the autism community

Autism in the courtroom: experiences of legal professionals and the autism community

It is acknowledged that a limitation of this study is its lack of differentiation between experiences of the autism community as witnesses and defendants. Half of the autistic individuals whose experiences were reported in the paper had encountered the CJS as both a witness and a defendant, and 74% were involved with the CJS on more than one occasion. Thus, it was not possible to disentangle whether reports were based on their experiences as witnesses or defendants. Similarly, it does not take into account the favourability, or otherwise, of the outcome of the trial, from their perspective, and consequential bias. These are critical areas for future research. There was also a lack of differentiation between experiences in Magistrates’, Youth and Crown Courts. Differences in the constitution and protocols between these types of criminal court mean that the findings of this study, insofar as they relate to court protocols, should be interpreted with some caution. For example, the training for those who sit in Magistrates’ courts is different to the training for judges in the Crown Courts.
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The experiences of siblings of children with autism

The experiences of siblings of children with autism

Echolalia occurs when a child repeats what you say instead of answering a question, for example if the question "My name is Anne. What's yours?" is asked, a child with Autism might reply "Anne, what's yours?" Often they repeat the words as well as the intonation of the person who asked the question (Barlow & Durand, 2009; Carr, 2006; Mash & Wolfe, 2005; Nevid et al., 2003). However, echolalia is a normal phase in the development of speech and therefore should not be seen as a symptom of Autism in all circumstances (Barlow & Durand, 2009). At times, echolalia might be the result of not understanding the question asked. The child might know that the listener expects an answer to the question but he/she does not know the answer, therefore he/she repeats the question and hopes that it satisfies the questioner (Wall, 2004). The pitch, intonation, rate and rhythm or stress of speech may also be abnormal, e.g. the person's tone of voice may be monotonous or inappropriate for the context, or it may contain question-like rises at the end of statements (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Idiosyncratic language is language that has meaning only to those familiar with the individual's communication style (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Carr, 2006). A delay in language comprehension may result in the individual being unable to understand simple questions or directions (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). As children with ASD have difficulty interpreting or making sense of spoken language and get confused when a conversation is directed to them, they may resort to stimulatory behaviours (hand-flapping, covering eyes or ears) or simply avoid the situation in order to avoid confusion and discomfort (Wall, 2004). Children with ASD tend to take very literal meanings to spoken language (Mash & Wolfe, 2005). This means that they do not understand sarcasm, metaphors and jokes and therefore get confused in conversations with neurotypical people, e.g. expressions like "It's raining cats and dogs" or "It's a piece of cake" confuse them because they interpret it literally. Hence, children with ASD find it difficult to distinguish between joking, teasing and bullying, which might make them the victims of bullies (Welton, 2004; Van Roekel, Scholte & Didden, 2010).
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Victimization and Health Experiences for TGNC Individuals in Women\u27s Prisons

Victimization and Health Experiences for TGNC Individuals in Women\u27s Prisons

Girshick’s study examines the experiences of heterosexual trans men and gender nonconforming (non-heterosexual) women while incarcerated, and includes the ramifications for gender non-conformity in women’s prisons. The study largely focuses on the restrictions on incarcerated persons’ gender expression (through lack of resources) and issues that arose between TGNC persons and prison staff. TGNC persons often utilize clothing and other appearance related items as forms of gender expression – we can consider this as a gender integration practice, as discussed in Schilt and Westbrook (2009). Regulation of these items, then, serves as a form of social control over gender expression. Girshick proposes that predominantly, problems for TGNC persons in women’s prisons arise less from abuses from other prisoners, and more from violence on behalf of prison staff. This aligns with Lamble’s (2011) claim positing sexual violence as a mechanism of control in prisons, where the hierarchies at work in such sex segregated spaces produce environments conducive to sexual violence (p. 242).
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