and PTB, LBW and SGA was estimated with crude and AORs using logistic regression analysis. Sexualviolence was analysed as a categorical variable: 1=mild sexual vio- lence, 2=moderate sexualviolence and 3=severe sexualviolence with no sexualviolence as the reference group. All analyses were adjusted for maternal age, parity, edu- cation, smoking, BMI and mental distress in the ﬁrst step. Birth weight was additionally adjusted for gesta- tional age. We further adjusted for other types of vio- lence in the second step. We initially tested the correlation between other types of violence and sexualviolence because of co-occurrence, and all Pearson’s cor- relation coefﬁcients were below the generally accepted cut-off of <0.4 for use as a covariate in the regression analyses. 27 Post protocol, we stratiﬁed the sample into spontaneous start of birth and provider-initiated start of birth (induced start of birth or elective caesarean section) for gestational age because a provider-initiated start could inﬂuence the time point of birth. Information on how the birth started was taken from MBRN. We additionally performed a sensitivity analysis in which we examined the association between sexualviolence and SGA and LBW among women who had a spontaneous birth at term (≥37 weeks) because we wanted to examine the effect of violence in a group of women who were considered to be low risk according to gestational age and start of birth. When we exam- ined the timing of the sexualviolence, we compared women who were exposed to recent sexualviolence (within the last 12 months) and those exposed to previ- ous sexualviolence to non-abused women. We also examined the timing among women reporting recent and previous severe sexualviolence (rape) for all out- comes. The prevalence of missing data was generally low with 2.5% for BMI, 3.7% for education and 0.7% for smoking during pregnancy. Owing to this, no imputing methods for missing data were used, 28 except for the missing data for the SCL-5 (3.2%), which were replaced by the series mean. The results of the logistic regression analyses remained approximately the same when performed with the complete exclusion of missing data compared with using the imputed missing data for SCL-5.
Violence of husband against wife during pregnancy-post childbirth is a serious problem faced by women because of the shape and quality is increasingly complex and its prevalence is increasing every year. Besides of violence during pregnancy and after pregnancy can seriously impact the health of mother and child . In his study Heise found that approximately 6 percent to 15 percent of women have experiencedsexual and physical violence by an intimate partner during pregnancy and 38 percent of these women had been abused in their life. Meanwhile Cury and his colleagues  said that in worldwide every one in four women during pregnancyexperienced physical and sexualviolence by a partner with the estimates vary widely. For example in the United States was estimated to violence against pregnant women ranged from 3 percent to 11 percent and among young people was more than 33 percent . Gazmararian and his colleagues  said that the results of eleven studies of the prevalence of violence during pregnancy in some countries (Boston, Texas, Virginia, Baltimore, USA, Toronto and Australia) almost 156,000 to 332,000 of wife had experiencedviolence during pregnancy. This discourse indicated that violence during pregnancy existed and occurred in parts of the world. Similarly, in Indonesia, the prevalence of violence against pregnant women for the condition in Indonesia can be seen in Table 1.1 .
Our study, like most others investigating the impact of sexualviolence, relies on retrospective self-reporting with the risk of recall bias . Self-reporting begins with the individual perceiving and storing the experience as a memory of sexualviolence. Next the study ques- tions have to trigger the participant recall of the event. Studies have shown that the methodology used, i.e. the number of questions asked, the phrasing and the context in which the questions appear, influence the rates of self-reported sexualviolence [41,42]. Lastly women have to be willing to disclose their experience [40,41]. Women in our study were sent the questionnaires by post, and if the perpetrator of the unwanted sexual rela- tions was their present partner, fear of retribution result- ing from the partner reading their responses may well have stopped disclosure. This could also be one of the reasons why the prevalence of recent sexualviolence was so low compared to previously experiencedsexualviolence. However, our prevalence of recent sexual vio- lence of 0.8% (0.3% only recent and 0.5% both previously and recent) is very similar to that of 1% reported in the first national population based study of violence among Norwegian women .
Previous studies have shown that women exposed to sexualviolence are at an increased risk of fear of childbirth [ 19 , 20 ], which may partly explain some of our findings, i.e. with respect to longer duration of delivery [ 27 ], assisted delivery (marginally significantly) [ 19 ], and emer- gency cesarean section [ 28 ]. Psychological interventions for fear of childbirth have proven effective [ 29 ], and continuous one-to-one support during labor is associated with a reduced risk of instrumental deliveries and shorter labor [ 30 ]. We are not aware of other studies report- ing an association between sexual assault and maternal distress during labor and delivery, nor a prolonged first stage of labor. The first stage is characterized by dilation of the cervix and includes (frequent) examinations of progress. In a qualitative study from Norway [ 16 ], rape survivors described progress examinations as an invasion and that their rape was re-activated during childbirth. They also reported feelings of helplessness and struggle, and some felt that their body refused to give birth. In addition, women exposed to sexualviolence may have an impaired confidence in health care professionals [ 31 ], which may also partially explain these findings. It is therefore important that health care providers acknowledge that conducting rou- tine clinical work without preparing the woman can have negative effects and re-activate rape experiences [ 16 ]. Stress hormones peak during labor [ 32 ] but studies are needed to examine whether possible biologic dysregulation of the stress-response systems [ 8 ] among sexually assaulted women affect the production of labor hormones, and, therefore, obstruct the progress of labor. Obesity has been associated both with sexualviolence [ 10 ] and a prolonged first stage of labor [ 33 ], but our risk estimates remained similar after adjustment for BMI and smoking in the sub-sample. We found that women exposed as teenagers were at increased risk of induction of labor. This finding aligns with the results of a previous study where the authors suggested that induction of labor may act as a way to retain control [ 14 ].
Criminology defines aggression as an activity resulting in physical harm or mental injury to surrounding people and is accompanied by strong, negative emotions – hate, hostility, and loathing. Mass aggression manifests itself in genocide, terror, ethnic and ideological forms of clashes (12, 2004). Violent crime is a major problem worldwide, it manifests itself between individuals, social groups and classes, nations and countries. American researchers’ (Friedman, K., Bischoff, H., Davis, R.C. & Person) state that in recent years crime has become as a metaphor for fear and insecurity. Violence is a complex that rooted in a multitude of discipline, including criminology, psychology, sociology, biology, medicine and other discipline. The research proves that, in Latvia, one of the major threats to the public health and to life is increasing manifestations of violence. Significant amount of violent crimes are committed on the streets, squares, parks or other public places, including schools. Criminal victimization can cause both short-term and long-term stress reaction.
victims, it is important to remember that while pregnancy prevention most often will not be necessary, there are patients for whom this must still be considered. Pregnancy has been well documented in women older than 40 (Spellacy, Miller, & Winegar, 1986). Menopause is defined as occurring when a woman’s menstrual period has ceased to occur for a period of 12 consecutive months, typically between 40 and 58 years of age. If pregnancy is still a possible outcome and the patient is seen within the first five days of the assault, reproductive health services and options, including emergency contraception, should be discussed with the patient and emergency contraception should be offered if the patient is interested. If a pregnancy does occur as a result of sexualviolence, if it ends in miscarriage or termination, health care providers will want to be prepared to submit tissue samples as evidence if the patient consents to evidence collection.
violence. In addition, this research should examine multiple outcomes of violence, including child- related outcomes and the economic costs associated with violence. Additionally, research should not just focus on the violence survivors, but studies should also be conducted that focus on violence perpetrators. Information from a wide range of cultural areas is needed since some risk factors may be somewhat unique to particular cultures (for example, having multiple wives was noted to be risk factor for perpetration of violence during pregnancy in Pakistan; see Karmaliani et al., 2008). Moreover, given the ties between unintended pregnancy and violence against women (and their children), one may ask whether women in countries without easy access to contraception and safe abortion are at extreme risk of violence during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Finally, rigorous research designs (such as randomized controlled trials) are needed to document the effectiveness of preventive and therapeutic interventions for violence during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Such large-scale, multi-year investigations are costly. But investing to enhance our knowledge of this interventions that could be widely implemented to decrease the burden of suffering for women and their families, and to avoid the costly consequences of violence against pregnant and postpartum women.
If a pregnant woman discloses dv to you there are several simple strategies you can employ to reduce the risk of further harm. as a person in a position of authority, it is important that you acknowledge that psychological, physical or sexual abuse is unacceptable and a crime. showing great respect and concern for pregnant women in abusive relationships is a simple intervention that can increase self-esteem and validate their disclosure. Repeatedly reiterate that it is not her fault and that no one deserves to be treated this way. statements such as ‘everybody deserves to feel safe at home’ and ‘abuse is common in all kinds of relationships and it tends to continue’ can support women to pursue positive change.
Returning to sexual intercourse after childbirth is a significant problem for many young parents. The most frequently recommended period of sexual absenteeism is the postpartum period. It is a period of regeneration of the body and return to full physical activity. There are many reasons for not engaging in sexual activity after childbirth. However, this article focuses on somatic causes, such as those that require the help of a urogynecological physiotherapist.
with less power. These resources can be material (e.g., water, food, capital) or non-materi- al (e.g., status). While social conflict theory is often applied to social classes, in this work I examine gender conflict, and specifically how fictitious depictions of sexualviolence strip power from women, placing them in unequal status with their male counterparts. The character of Barbara Gordon exists to be a female counterpart to iconic superhero Batman. She made her debut appearance in January of 1967 in Detective Comics #359 and the live action show Batman later that same year (McAvennie & Dolan). Barbara, the daughter of Gotham City police commissioner James Gordon, spends her free time secretly patrolling the streets as Batgirl. After the events of The Killing Joke, she is left paralyzed from the waist down. She is later re-established as the computer expert and information broker known as Oracle and often provides intelligence and computer hack- ing services to assist other superheroes, including Batman.
This cohort study was conducted in the primary health centers (PHCs) of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (MAZUMS), the only public health centers providing prenatal care to women living in Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. Sample size was calculated based on reported prevalence of IPV in Iran and using G-power software (9) . Stratified sampling method was used to selection PHCs in five parts (north, south, west, east and center) of each 16 cities. In a Poisson random method, 1500 eligible pregnant women who attended to PHCs between Februarys to September 2010 were approached. Singleton pregnant women who were not competent to give informed constant were excluded from the project. At their entry to the study, reliable socio-demographics and PSV questionnaires (Cronbach’s alpha 91%) were administered face-to-face by researchers who were familiar with the project. The women were divided into two groups; who screened positive for PSV and screened negative for PSV and then women were followed-up till outcome of pregnancy. The project was approved by Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences’ ethics committee.
“Complications of pregnancy and childbirth and HIV are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age. Accelerating progress on saving women’s lives from these preventable causes will help achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 and an AIDS-free generation. Greater integration of maternal health and HIV/AIDS treatment has significantly increased the number of women and newborns receiving life-saving antiretroviral therapy. With its focus on health system strengthening, which builds on existing PEPFAR service delivery platforms in Uganda and Zambia, Saving Mothers, Giving Life has helped to increase the number of pregnant women tested for HIV and receiving antiretroviral therapy to maintain their own health and prevent onward transmission of HIV to their babies. Further expanding acess to HIV testing and treatment is essential to achieve our goal of cutting AIDS-related maternal deaths in half by 2015.
Similar rationale motivated the selection of measures to represent severe newborn morbidity: newborn length of stay (corrected for prematurity) and oxygen depend- ency for greater than 24 h. The Working Group felt that significant morbidity would be better measured in an international setting using oxygen dependency rather than neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, as no universally accepted definitions for NICU levels exist and NICU use varies based on local circumstances and resources. This is even the case in a small country such as The Netherlands (www.perined.nl) where the pres- ence or absence of intermediate care units leads to dif- ferent criteria for admission to the NICU between tertiary hospitals. The outcomes of preterm birth and birth injury were also included in the measure set. Pre- term birth, the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality, is separated into spontaneous and iatrogenic (e.g. in case of severe maternal disease), as higher than expected rates of either may signify areas for improve- ment . For birth injury, an inclusive definition was selected to include clavicular and brachial plexus injuries in addition to other more severe injuries, as these are not uncommon, may have significant long-term consequences for infants, and are distressing to families [27–29].
social response to these needs, and found that victims were dissatisfied with meeting their legal needs, who found legal services erosive and with further psychological hurt due to judgmental treatment of service providers . This confirms the present study findings about dissatisfaction with services due to social and legal problems in cities studied. In a qualitative study by Campbell et al.  aiming to assess quality of nursing services from the perspective of adolescent victims of sexualviolence, it was found that patients have a very positive experience of services they received, and considered nurses kind, caring and personable, which disagrees with the present study results. The difference between studies may be due to the fact that in Campbell study, victims had been referred to a center with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Program (SANE), and trained nurses in providing medical services for victims led to their satisfaction with services.
Attention should be drawn to this multifactorial problem for which multi-sectoral interventions should be conducted in order to identify and prevent such abuse. Health and education systems play an important role in identifying domestic violence among children and adolescents and in protecting and empowering women who report IPV. Therefore, it is necessary to reinforce the importance of the discussion on gender equality in the curriculum and pedagogical planning of schools, even when considering that in 2014 the Brazilian Congress abolished the gender issue of the National Education Plan (PNE) a in force until 2014. Health professionals also need to be trained and receive institutional support in order to track down and address the cases of violence against women. Interventions must also address childhood abuse and respond appropriately to children who have witnessed IPV 2 . The results are a contribution to knowledge on IPVP, thus raising the awareness of health professionals regarding this subject, as well as the creation of prevention strategies to reduce the impacts on health. Therefore, it becomes imperative to intervene in this inter-generational cycle of abuse. We hope that current actions to reduce IPV and child abuse can decrease future occurrences of violence against women.
As previously noted, the majority of the offenders in my sample did not have a previous sexualviolence conviction prior to the index offence and the sample was generally rated as low to moderate risk for sexual recidivism. Given these two factors, it is possible that the amount of file information that was available was limited relative to the amount of information that may have been available for a higher risk sample. A higher risk sample would likely include a significant number of participants who had a previous sexual conviction and therefore, the file would likely include more information on the participant. Again, with additional information, the accuracy of the risk factor ratings would likely increase, which in turn would likely impact the predictive validity of the sexualviolence risk assessment instruments. Although the predictive validity of the RSVP may have been improved with greater file information, the file information for this study’s participants was generally sufficient to code both the RSVP and the other sexualviolence risk assessment instruments. Another issue with a relatively lower risk sample is that there was a restriction in the range of ratings for individual risk factors and the numerical scores based on them, as well as in the range of Summary Risk ratings. This range restriction may have resulted in a lower-bound estimate of the interrater reliability, concurrent validity, and predictive validity of decisions made using the RSVP (as well as those made using the other risk assessment instruments).
Select staff within the Psychological Services and Health Ser- vices Offices are not required to report any information about an incident to the Title IX Coordinator without an individual’s permission. These individuals are considered to be “confidential resources.” This means that in most cases, these confidential resources will not inform anyone of such communications with- out a complainant’s consent, and the College will not endeavor to take any action in response to such communications. These professionals may have the responsibility to disclose other- wise-privileged information appropriately when they perceive an immediate and/or serious threat to any person or property. In addition, medical and mental health professionals are required by law to report any allegation of sexual assault of a person under age 18. Individuals who wish to talk about sexual harass- ment, sexual misconduct, domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking-related issues confidentially, with the understanding that the College will not take any action based on such confi- dential communications, are encouraged to contact one of these confidential resources. In accordance with the Jeanne Clery Dis- closure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act, these confidential resources will not report Clery crimes they learn about through confidential communications for pur- poses of the College’s compilation of campus crime statistics. If an individual who makes a report insists that his or her name or other identifiable information not be revealed and the College is able to respect that request, the College will be unable to conduct an investigation into the particular incident or pursue disciplinary action against the alleged perpetrator. Even so, these confidential resources will still assist the individ- ual in receiving other necessary protection and support, such as victim advocacy, academic support or accommodations, disability, health or mental health services, and changes to living, working, transportation, or course schedules accommo- dations, where requested and reasonably available. An individ- ual who at first requests confidentiality may later decide to file a complaint with the College or report the incident to local law enforcement, and thus have the incident fully investigated. These confidential resources will provide the individual with assistance if the individual wishes to pursue those options.
Several women in our study called on the government to legalize abortion for women with SVRPs. Currently, the legal statute for abortion services in the DRC is complex and abortion is highly restricted [10–12, 39]. The 1982 DRC Penal Code stipulates that abortions are illegal and subject to 5 to 15 years of imprisonment . The DRC has ratified the Maputu Protocol, which stipu- lates that conferring states can legally provide abortion to preserve physical and mental health of the woman, in cases of fetal impairment, and in cases of rape or incest . However, the women in our study who discussed legal issues called upon the government to allow abortions for SVRPs, suggesting they were unaware that pregnancy termination could be considered legally permissible in cases of rape. Evidence has shown that in countries such as the DRC, restrictive abortion laws con- tribute to higher rates of unsafe abortion, and therefore higher rates of maternal morbidity and mortality from abortion related complications [42, 43]. It is possible that fear of legal consequences could contribute to the selection of non-evidence based methods by the women interviewed. Since the qualitative instrument did not specifically ask about legal consequences, it is also possible this association may not have emerged in our data. Further clarification on the legal context of pregnancy termination and sexualviolence in the DRC for both women and health care providers is needed, and could potentially allow for increased access to safe abortion services for women who seek termination of SVRPs [44–46].
use of hand-written signs, bolded, italicized, and underlined letters, to communicate the force of feeling; vernacular practices such as “hiding” behind their signs have become common practice which convey fear and shame about reporting sexualviolence. As we have shown, these include feelings of being victim-blamed, resentful, angry, sad, and mistrustful of the wider rape culture in which they live. These practices we argue, while holding great potential for opening new ways of generating a shared sense of feminist belonging which may foster wider social and ideological change are simultaneously “problematic and limited” (Fileborn, 2017: 1485; Salter, 2013). This is because the “abil- ity to harness the power of social media … is highly contingent upon the skills and social media skill of the victim/survivor.” In other words, these sites do not tell the stories of those survivors who lack the practical skills and/or knowledge of digital media culture to participate in social media campaigns such as Who Needs Feminism? As such, platform vernaculars ultimately render some stories invisible (e.g. older survivors, those with dis- abilities, or the poor) while amplifying others through circulatory practices like re-blogging.