Many studies have been conducted on the externalities of using arable land for biofuel production and most notably, it has been reported that diverting arable land for fuel production has the potential to drive commodity prices higher in the agricultural, farming, and food industries. (10) The growing concern among policy makers is that industry should not be diverting food resources to solve energy problems associated with over-consumption. In this connection, biodiesel consumers should understand that dedicated feedstocks are expensive and finite, limited by the agricultural resources and land needed to grow them at large enough scales. National and global resources are not sufficient to replace a significant portion of our petroleum-based diesel with biodiesel made from food crops. The World Bank attributes 70% of 2002 to 2008 global food price increases to biofuels and the rest to other factors such as high energy and fertilizer prices, which transitively drove the agricultural production prices up for the consumer. (11) Used or wastecookingoil (WCO) can be repurposed and converted via a chemical reaction called transestification, without the additional environmental and social externalities associated with displacing arable land, making WCO-based biodiesel a feasible pathway for sustainable fuel production.
This community-based biofuel program reduced lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of biodiesel production, while solving a waste disposal problem and associated costs. However, there were still some weak points of this program. First, despite the centralized oil drop-off location at the EcoPark, not as many residents participated as expected. This caused oil collection from the EcoPark to be a sporadic and somewhat unreliable fuel supply. Additionally, the oil that was dropped off varied in vegetable oil type and quality. These inconsistencies made the conversion process difficult. Despite the RIT researchers’ ultimate success, such an inconsistent fuel feedstock is a cause for concern for the conversion process. A much more consistent fuel feedstock is preferable for this process. Furthermore, the transportation required for oil collection and distribution, while relatively small, reduces the overall benefit. Minimizing or eliminating transportation required for oil collection and final fuel distribution benefits the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy return on investment for the entire biofuel program.
Abstract: Homogeneous alkali catalyst produces soap as a by-product and generates a large amount of wastewater. This study investigates the potential of three types of biomass namely oil palm frond, coconut shell and groundnut shell to be developed as a solid acid catalyst for transesterification of wastecookingoil into biodiesel. The synthesis of solid acid catalyst is conducted by incomplete carbonization of biomass followed by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid to incorporate the sulfonic group in the carbon body. The porosity of prepared catalyst was characterized by adsorption/desorption technique and surface acidity was evaluated by means of back titration method. Coconut shell showed the highest acid density of 0.51 mmol/g followed by groundnut shell and oil palm frond with 0.16 mmol/g and 0.12 mmol/g respectively. The biodiesel production was carried out at reaction conditions of methanol-to-oil ratio 20:1, reaction temperature 60 ºC, reaction time 6 h and catalyst loading 6 wt%. The highest biodieselconversion was achieved using a coconut shell as a catalyst with 86.5%, followed by groundnut shell and oil palm frond. The use of solid acid catalyst derived from biomass could explores new market value for waste material while minimizing the solid waste production and further reduces cost and energy consumption in biodiesel production.
Method analyzed total glycerol and free glycerol referred to EN 14105. Sample was used after final washing and drying which the composition of TG, DG, MG and glycerol was analyzed using a Perkin Elmer Gas Chromatography (GC) Model Clarus 500, equipped with a DB-5 HT capillary column (0.53 mm x 5 m) J&W Scientific. The following condition of GC are : the column temperature was started at 50°C held for 1 min, programmed 1 with flow rate at 15°C/min up to 180°C, programmed 2 with flow rate at 7°C/min up to 230°C, programmed 3 used flow rate at 10°C/min up to 370 °C, final temperature held for 5 min, detector temperature at 380°C, carrier gas pressure (hydrogen) at 80 kPa, volume injected of 1 ml .The conversion of FFA in the WCO into FAME was calculated from the mean of acid value (Av) of the oil layer by the following equation .
Blending process was required to ensure that the mixture of diesel and biodiesel is well mixed uniformly. Schematic diagram of blending process is shown in Figure 2. During blending process, the laboratory scale blending machine was operated at 60°C and the mixture was stirred at 70°C for 1 hour. The rotating blade speed was adjusted to maintain the same speed at 270 RPM.
2. 4. Homogenous Base-catalyzed Transesterification The acid-catalyzed oil was placed in the reaction vessel and heated to achieve the temperature of 338 K. The initial solution was prepared by adding 1g of KOH in 90 ml of methanol. This solution was added into the pretreated oil and stirred at 338 K for 90 min (however the reaction time is between 1 to 4 h commonly, but more than 80% of the reaction is completed in the first 45 min). After completion of the reaction, the mixture was centrifuged. Upon the centrifugation at 15000 rpm, two phases were formed; the upper layer was biodiesel and was separated from lower glycerin layer. The biodiesel layer was washed 3- 5 times with dionized water to remove soap and excess KOH.
Abstract. Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant grease for use in diesel engines. The objective of this research is investigation the effects of the variant injection pressure on ignition delay and emission for different biodiesel using rapid compression machine. Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) is used to simulate a single compression stroke of an internal combustion engine as a real engine. Four types of biodiesel which are wastecookingoil, crude palm oil, algae and jatropha were tested at injection pressure of 80 MPa, 90 MPa and 130 MPa under constant ambient temperature at 950 K. Increased in injection pressure resulted shorter ignition delay proven by WCO5 which decreased from 1.3 ms at 80 MPa to 0.7 ms at 130 MPa. Meanwhile, emission for CO 2 increased due to better fuel atomization for fuel-air mixture formation lead to completed
IODIESEL was found to be a renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environmental friendly fuel that can replace the well-known petro-diesel in a perfect way and be used directly as diesel mixture in engines with little changes . The main feedstock for biodiesel production are vegetable oils such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil, etc. However, the cost of this feedstock is quite high, accounting for roughly 60–80% of the total biodiesel cost. Using cheaper feedstocks, such as wastecookingoil, animal fats, and crude vegetable oils, has been suggested to lower the cost . This study will make use of waste vegetable oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. However, such low-cost materials contain high amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) that are not compatible with the alkali catalyst most used in transesterification, causing problems like incomplete
Pyrolysis, strictly defined, is the conversion of one substance into another by means of heat or by heat with the aid of a catalyst . It involves heating in the absence of air or oxygen and cleavage of chemical bonds to yield small molecules Pyrolytic chemistry is difficult to characterize because of the variety of reaction paths and the variety of reaction products that may be obtained from the reactions that occur. The pyrolyzed material can be vegetable oils, animal fats, natural fatty acids and methyl esters of fatty acids. The pyrolysis of fats has been investigated for more than 100 years, especially in those areas of the world that lack deposits of petroleum . The first pyrolysis of vegetable oil was conducted in an attempt to synthesize petroleum from vegetable oil. Since World War I, many investigators have studied the pyrolysis of vegetable oils to obtain products suitable for fuel. In 1947, a large scale of thermal cracking of tung oil calcium soaps was reported [22- 24].
renewable biological resources such as vegetable oils or animal fats via a transesterification reaction . Biodiesel has low toxicity, biodegradability, high-lubricity, high Cetane number, higher flash point, high oxygen content which result in good combustion efficiency and does not contain sulphur and aromatic compounds . The transesterification process involves the alcoholysis reaction between the oil feedstock and alcohol with the presence of catalyst, to obtain methyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerin (soap, side product) .
The consideration toward WasteCooking Oils (WCOs) is changing from hazardous waste to valuable raw material for industrial application. During the last five years some innovative processes based on the employment of recycled WCO have appeared in the literature. In the present review article, the most recent applications of recycled WasteCookingOil are reported and discussed. These include the production of bio-plasticizers, the application of chemicals derived from WCOs as energy vectors, and the use of WCOs as solvent for pollutant agents.
greater alkyl ester conversion in a shorter time. Moreover, increase in the amount of alcohol to oil increases biodiesel yield and biodiesel purity. This is in line with the result reported based on neat vegetable oils. On the contrary, the inedible oils like pongamia and neem require more alcohol to give maximum ester yield, perhaps due to higher viscosity of inedible oil than edible oils. Nevertheless, when compared to edible oil, ester content yield was low in inedible oil but glycerol yield was more in inedible oil when compared to edible oil. The key variables affecting transesterification are reaction time, alcohol to oil molar ratios, reaction temperature and pressure, catalyst, water contents and free fatty acids levels in fats and oils. The authors noted that the universally accepted alcohols to glycerides molar ratios are 6:1–30:1 .
In this study, waste vegetable oil is the feedstock of producing the biodiesel using pyrolysis process. One hundred liter of waste vegetable oil was collected from different restaurants in the local area. This amount of waste oils was collected from the fast food restaurants that use it in frying, since these places are a good and clean source of the used oils. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) were prepared to use as catalysts in the present study.
The suitability and the influence on the processes of injection, combustion and emission for- mation, should be discussed for the wastecookingoil, since these factors could cause incomplete com- bustion followed by emission formation. The prob- lems could occur due to a high penetration length and possible collision with the combustion-chamber walls. For this reason possible ways of changing the combustion-chamber geometries when waste cook- ing oil is used as a fuel should be discussed. Accord- ing to these discussions we can already confirm the statement that unmodified wastecookingoil is not suitable for use as a fuel in compression-ignition en- gines.
Biodiesel is from waste vegetable oil contained fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) which is produced from transesterification process of triglyceride with short-chain alcohols (methanol & ethanol) in the presence of a suitable catalyst which can either be an acid or base form [17, 18]. The catalysts employed during the synthesis of biodiesel could either be homogeneous or heterogeneous. However, the latter possessed certain advantages as it is mostly less toxicity, non-corrosive and environmentally friendly. Another advantage is that it is easily separated from liquid products as such it gives higher activity, and longer catalyst life . According to previous findings, production of biodiesel from vegetable oils using homogenous catalyst is associated with the soapy formation and it has relatively low yield [6, 7, 8]. Recently, a heterogeneous catalyst such as alkaline earth metal oxides, alkali metal compounds on nanomaterial supports has been utilized for transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel [19, 20]. Literature studies have shown that CaO has been utilized as a solid base catalyst and it displayed greater attributes in terms of higher activity, mild reaction conditions as well as the catalyst cost . According to one research, nano-crystalline calcium oxides were reportedly used at room temperature, and it took about 6 – 24 hours to obtain high conversion with the most active catalyst. Also, deactivation after eight cycles with soybean oil was reported .
Sunflower oil, widely used in foods for cooking and frying purposes, is also gaining attention as a feedstock for biodiesel production (Umer et al., 2008). Shah et al., (2005) stated that Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an individual from the Compositea family is an imperative oilseed crop around the world, yielding around 45–50% oil. In Pakistan, sunflower, considered as a non-ordinary oilseed harvest is for the most part developed in two seasons, spring and summer. In wide range climatic states of Pakistan, sunflower product fits well in the nearby intercropping frameworks and could be effectively developed in spring and fall in this manner yielding two harvests in 1 year.
One of the main drawbacks of biodiesel is its high cost of production. At present time, the cost of producing biodiesel is about one and a half times the costs of petroleum diesel fuel. As the raw ma- terials and process used for biodiesel production impose high costs, the large-scale production of biodiesel has not been realized yet. Easy access to raw materials can significantly affect biodiesel production process. The availability of raw mate- rials can approximately affect the overall cost of the process by 75-90%. Accordingly, the total cost of the production can be remarkably reduced through finding and using less expensive raw ma- terials. For this reason, it is more cost-effective to take advantage of wastecookingoil, waste frying oils, and animal fats instead of refined vegetable oils. The usual method for transesterification re- action is to use homogeneous catalysts. The ap- plication of these catalysts has many drawbacks such as employing significant treatment before water washing and separating the product from homogeneous catalyst, which raise the operating
Biodiesel is a nonpetroleum-based fuel defined as fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters derived from vegetable oils or animal fats and it is used in diesel engines and heating systems. According to Diya’uddeen et al, the biodiesel can be defined as a monoalkyl ester of long chain fatty acids derived from a renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oil or animal fat . Thus, this fuel could be regarded as mineral diesel substitute with the advantage of reducing greenhouse emissions because it is a renewable resource. Sodium or potassium hydroxide and sodium or potassium methoxide are used widely as catalysts in the transesterification reaction, as they
biofuel plants had been cut down . Lack of feedstock availability can be a limiting factor as the main feedstock for biodiesel is used cookingoil and china a net importer of oilseed and vegetable oil. This kind of intervention was seen by some government, as part of the Energy Policy in US, Fund authorization was disbursed to DERA ranged from $100 million to $300 million yearly, to be circulated by the Environmental Protection Agency for Clean Diesel Campaign. The first four years since 2008, appropriated funding has fluctuated between $50 million to $60 million per year. It further reduced to 1 half to that of the year 2008 in 2012 ($30 million). This followed by $20 million for 2013 . A dramatic reduction was seen in the year 2014, the Administration’s proposed 2014 budget further reduces DERA’s funding with a 70% cut, bringing it to $6 million. This decline in fund may be attributed to the economic fluctuations as a result of direst in various part of the world . Kemp  reported the division of biodiesel production costs which is attributed to the major cost in the production accounting up to 70 % to that of the Oil feedstock, which can also be followed by the price of petroleum diesel and the cost of transportation to distant areas. As it is a known fact that increase in demand of fuel with limited supply would cause increase in cost of the fuel. For these reason, if the waste vegetable oil is utilized as biodiesel raw material, biodiesel economics would be significantly improved. In addition, reduction in the waste treatment costs since there are no stringent legislations prohibiting the disposal of wastecookingoil into drainage systems . Food store and restaurant as well do not need to spend money conveying the wasteoil to dump site. Several decades had passed with restaurant operators had to pay for a service to collect their unwanted waste vegetable oil in compliance with state and local environmental regulations. Producers of biodiesel for their own use had the chance to take for free. However, with the eye opener of biodiesel as lucrative business many collection services began offering token to take a restaurant’s oil in order to make their personal biodiesel. Such collectors in some cases began paying restaurants to collect their wasteoil. Collector services can pay $0.20 per gallon or above depending on the oil quality, collection frequency, market force and the quantity collected. Although this new income stream does not provide substantial supply of income, nonetheless can help make up for other business expenses.
Important fuel properties such as Flash point, Fire point,Kinematic Viscosity, Density, Calorific value and Time for consuming 10cc of fuel were measured.Biodiesel had higher Density,Kinematic Viscosity, Flash point, Fire point, Time for consuming 10cc of fuel and lower Calorific value. The comparison between physical and chemical properties of various blends of Biodiesel and Diesel determined are as follows: