Top PDF Waste Cooking Oil-to-Biodiesel Conversion for Institutional Vehicular Applications

Waste Cooking Oil-to-Biodiesel Conversion for Institutional Vehicular Applications

Waste Cooking Oil-to-Biodiesel Conversion for Institutional Vehicular Applications

the biodiesel in off-road equipment is a logical next step for this fuel and study. Off-road equipment such as tractors and lawn mowers are heavily utilized on a campus of RIT’s size and present a promising opportunity to use non-petroleum fuel. Although biodiesel is not the complete answer and solution, waste cooking oil biodiesel minimizes externalities and maximizes positive utility, not only exhibited from quantitative measurements within this thesis but qualitative benefits to local economies, communities, producers and consumers. This project and collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency is another step in the right direction, diversifying energy supply and making lasting incremental improvements toward our sustainable future as an Institution. In May 2014, RIT, Monroe County, and the EPA plan to conduct a “University Biodiesel Summit” and informational session on our process development, emphasizing the translatability of this fuel processing system for other similarly constructed institutional systems. The goal is to include and to inform interested parties about the positive exhibited benefits of internal community based biodiesel production that the EPA Climate Showcase Communities Grant afforded our research group to perform and study.
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Waste Cooking Oil-to-Biodiesel Conversion for Institutional Vehicular Applications

Waste Cooking Oil-to-Biodiesel Conversion for Institutional Vehicular Applications

sectors, and develop local, sustainable economies” (31). The key findings were that co- locating the collection, production, transport and distribution to the supply of the oil feedstock exhibited the greatest benefits. To combat excessive fat, oil and grease (FOG) sewer system costs and liability exposure, Daphne Utilities of Daphne, Alabama has shared their successes on how to convert waste oil into biodiesel and to mitigate the negative effects of dumping FOG into the municipal sewer system (32). The primary goal of a municipal utility company is to maintain the system in good working order. Effectively addressing the issue of FOG is important and Daphne serves as a working model of this process. With positive and lasting educational efforts in addition to free containers and drop off sites, Daphne Utilities has witnessed used oil donations go from virtually zero at the beginning of the program to a range of several hundred gallons per month. Daphne has witnessed a 40% drop in FOG related spills and sewer blockages in less than four years, maximizing line crew efficiency and a better running sewer treatment plant. Biodiesel production occurs on site and is blended to B20 for utility vehicles. A portion of the glycerin is being converted to soaps for distribution and educational purposes. A program such as this not only exhibits positive environmental benefits, but also enables the citizens to be vested participants in the economic and environmental success of the program and the long lasting preservation of the municipal sewer system.
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Waste Cooking Oil-to-Biodiesel Conversion for Space Heating Applications

Waste Cooking Oil-to-Biodiesel Conversion for Space Heating Applications

This community-based biofuel program reduced lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of biodiesel production, while solving a waste disposal problem and associated costs. However, there were still some weak points of this program. First, despite the centralized oil drop-off location at the EcoPark, not as many residents participated as expected. This caused oil collection from the EcoPark to be a sporadic and somewhat unreliable fuel supply. Additionally, the oil that was dropped off varied in vegetable oil type and quality. These inconsistencies made the conversion process difficult. Despite the RIT researchers’ ultimate success, such an inconsistent fuel feedstock is a cause for concern for the conversion process. A much more consistent fuel feedstock is preferable for this process. Furthermore, the transportation required for oil collection and distribution, while relatively small, reduces the overall benefit. Minimizing or eliminating transportation required for oil collection and final fuel distribution benefits the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy return on investment for the entire biofuel program.
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Applications of Waste Cooking Oil Other Than Biodiesel: A Review

Applications of Waste Cooking Oil Other Than Biodiesel: A Review

remarkable diversity in values depending upon its source and way of utilisation. Ways of utilising cooking oil always differ in cooking time, cooking temperature and food items cooked. Practice of cooking oil utilisation also varies on large scale for household cooking and restaurant cooking such as fast food, casual or fine dining, etc. Detailed analysis of WCO collected from 16 local restaurants for fatty acid profile, acid value and dynamic viscosity was done by Knothe et al. [15]. Their observation showed that WCO undergoes process of hydrogenation and oxidative degradation during cooking or frying which is responsible for changing its properties. As WCO follows non-Newtonian behaviour (pseudoplastic- dilatant) its kinematic viscosity needs to be checked with rotational-type viscometer for consistent behaviour and found to be increased as that of the unprocessed oil. Author observed increase in the saturation level, i.e. increase in mainly saturated and C18:1 (monounsaturated) fatty acid chains and decrease in C18:2 content by 6.57% on average. While acid value and dynamic viscosity analysis showed average increase of 4.02 and 7.46 cP respectively. Values regarding physio-chemical properties of WCO on analysis show large deviation, but according to the author they cannot be linked to its fatty acid content. Besides, analysis of other factors such as moisture content, carbon content is also necessary before application of WCO as a raw material in any process. Khalisanniet [16], worked on the detailed analysis of WCO collected from a hotel at Teknologi MARA University campus where they observed that WCO
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Biodiesel Production Based on Waste Cooking Oil (WCO)

Biodiesel Production Based on Waste Cooking Oil (WCO)

Email: {Nshazwany, nurrul0501} @gmail.com; sulaiman@uthm.edu.my Abstract—Recycled waste cooking oil is harmful to health, but it is not environmental friendly to dispose used cooking oil just like that. The best solution is to used it for industrial purposes, namely to reproduce into biodiesel. Waste cooking oil is collected from chip cracker Factory in Johor. This project is to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil using pilot plant and the biodiesel tested in the laboratory. The pilot plants are continuous system to produce biodiesel. The biodiesel was blended with diesel oil to get B5 and B10 grade biodiesel. It produces biodiesel based on the American biodiesel standard ASTM6751. The application of this biodiesel has enabled the company to use its waste cooking oil without having to dispose it and this has save cost to the company. The other advantage is that it has significantly help to preserve environment and as well as conversion of waste to useful energy. The biodiesel plant has also motivated the staff towards thinking about environment and also alternative energy thus sustaining its operation.
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Waste Cooking oil: A Resourceful Waste for Lipase Catalysed Biodiesel Production

Waste Cooking oil: A Resourceful Waste for Lipase Catalysed Biodiesel Production

This category of oil are derivatives of plant oil (vegetable oils) and Animal fats. As such they are oil-based substance consisting of vegetable matter that has been used in preparing food and is no longer suitable for human consumption. Waste/used frying oils, beef tallow, lard, yellow grease [14], Waste Edible Oil [37] and other hard stock fats [1] as generally called are good substrate for biodiesel production. These oils are cheap, may have some drawback due to vulnerability to oxidation, high free fatty acid composition, the contents of high polymerization products and high viscosity. As a result, pretreatment of such oils become necessary in order to reduce the mentioned components, in preparation to transesterification if basic catalyst where to be used, a times even enzymes [1]. Researchers established the application of waste cooking oil as an alternative energy in the form of biodiesel. Maceiras et al. [16] investigated the used of waste frying oil and reported methyl ester 89.1 % using Candida antarctica (CALB). Al- Zuhair [31], reported methyl ester > 40 % with Pseudomonas cepacia Immobilized on ceremic beads Recent study by Liu et al. [38], reported the applicability of waste cooking oil in batch reactor by Candida sp. 99-125 (2.5 mmol/g after 30 h). Acidic oils can also be applied in the quest for the alternative fuel. Watanabe et al. [39] established the potential waste vegetable oil (acidic oil from vegetable refining) in biodiesel production, fatty acid methyl ester conversion was >98.5 wt% after a 24-h reaction, catalysed by Candida antarctica (Novozymes) , immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin. And also reported reusability of the biocatalyst >100 days without significant loss in activity. Yagiz et al. [40] using waste cooking oil obtained 92.8% methyl ester for from Lipozyme-TL IM Immobilized on hydrotalcite and zeolites. Even the free lipase from the same reaction gave 95%.
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Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil into Biodiesel Using Aspen HYSYS

Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil into Biodiesel Using Aspen HYSYS

Keywords: Reactive distillation column, waste cooking oil ;biodiesel, Aspen HYSYS I. INTRODUCTION Worldwide interest in biodiesel production has increased dramatically recently due to relentless environmental concerns, step hike in fuels price and increasing demand for fossil fuel consumption. Biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils and animal fats with aliphatic alcohols in presence of an appropriate catalyst to form esters of long chain fatty acid (biodiesel) and glycerol (Liu et al., 2012). The use of waste cooking oil instead of virgin oil to produce biodiesel is an effective way to reduce the raw material cost because it is estimated to be about half the price of virgin oil. In addition, using waste cooking oil could also help to solve the problem of waste oil disposal (Supple et al., 1999). It has been known that the transesterification of vegetable oils to fatty acid ester as a biodiesel is an equilibrium-limited reaction. A large excess of alcohol over a stoichiometric ratio is usually employed in conventional reactors to achieve a high degree of the conversion of vegetable oils, thereby requiring the expensive separation of unreacted reactants from the biodiesel product (He et al., 2006). As a consequence, potentially alternative processes to overcome such a difficulty should be explored. When considering the characteristics of the transesterification reaction, the use of reactive distillation, a
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Transesterification of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using ultrasonic technique

Transesterification of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using ultrasonic technique

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia E-mail: darwin@uthm.edu.my, egiagustian@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The aim of this research is to explore a new transesterification process from waste cooking oil to biodiesel using ultrasonic technique. The conversion of waste cooking oil with sodium hydroxide as catalyst used ultrasonic type of clamp on tubular reactor at 20 kHz. The reaction time, molar ratio, and biodiesel quality of this process were compared with conventional transesterification. Method analyzed a total glycerol and free glycerol was determined with Gas Chromatography referred to EN 14105 and functional group of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) used Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-IR) instruments. At the results, with presence of cavitation on the ultrasonic, chemical activity was increased so that the rate of ester formation is significantly enhanced. The ultrasonic technique could reduce the transesterification reaction time to 5 minute compared to 2 hours for mechanical stirring processing. Conversion of triglyceride (TG) to FAME using ultrasonic obtained 95.6929%wt with the methanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 and 1%wt sodium hydroxide catalyst.
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The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using microwave irradiation

The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using microwave irradiation

4.0 CONCLUSION Limited supply of petroleum resources, global warming issues and increasing yearly prices of petroleum in the present time, motivated scientists to find new alternative and cheap energy resources. Utilization of edible oil like vegetable oils as fuel actualized the competition between human needs in food and non -food applications. Also, the utilization of non-edible seed oils as renewable sources of fuel are costly due to the planting and production cost of the crude oils. In addition, slow and relatively inefficient heating in conventional heating methods bring the production cost of biodiesel higher, thus an alternative method, “microwave irradiation” was applied for the production of this alternative fuel source. Batch transesterification of WCO was carried out in a modified 1000W domestic microwave oven. A higher catalyst concentration (2%) was used to neutralize the FFA and the excess was for the transesterification.
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The Potential of Waste Cooking Oil and Oily Food Waste as Alternative Biodiesel Feedstock in Padang Municipality

The Potential of Waste Cooking Oil and Oily Food Waste as Alternative Biodiesel Feedstock in Padang Municipality

Keywords: Biodiesel, FAME, Padang Municipality, Waste Cooking Oil 1. Introduction Indonesia is the world’s fourth largest nation with 251 million people [1] that needs large amount of energy source to support the country. However, since 2004 Indonesia has become a net oil importer country that must fulfil some of the demands by importing it. This situation has given additional burden for the government expenditure, particularly when there is an increase in world oil price. In order to overcome the energy issue, since 2008 the government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources [2] issued some policies to reduce the dependency on imported fuels. One of the policies is the utilization of biodiesel as an alternative fuel to petro-diesel. Recently, a newer regulation [3] has been issued to accelerate the increase of biodiesel amount used domestically, i.e., the implementation of 20% biodiesel blending with petro-diesel (B20) for transportation sector will be implemented in earlier in 2016, instead of executed in 2025 as planned by the former regulation. However, at the moment, biodiesel producers in Indonesia only use crude palm oil (CPO) as the main biodiesel feedstock [4], triggering land conversion into oil palm plantations. Moreover, in order to prepare the land conversion, some people often created forest/peatland fires. Both practices not only increased the amount of carbon emission and endangering biodiversity, but also increased the risk of food crisis in Indonesia [5].
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Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using ultrasonic tubular reactor

Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using ultrasonic tubular reactor

14 2.5.3 Co-solvent Enhancing solubility, addition of a co-solvent is to create a single phase greatly accelerated the reaction so that it reached substantial completion in a few minutes (Royon et al., 2007). The technique is applicable for use with other alcohols and for acid-catalyzed pretreatment of high free fatty acid feed stocks. Comparison of various co-solvent dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) (Guan, Sakurai & Kusakabe, 2009) to synthesize biodiesel from sunflower oil by using a KOH catalyst at 25°C in a closed batch reactor was reported (Wen et al., 2009). Addition of a co-solvent enhanced the transesterification rate at the MeOH/oil molar ratio of 6 at 25°C, and sunflower oil was almost completely converted into biodiesel after 20 min reaction while only approximately 78% conversion was reached in the absence of a cosolvent. The oil conversion was influenced by the cosolvent/ MeOH molar ratio, MeOH/oil molar ratio, and catalyst concentration. However, the homogeneous flow was broken with the formation of immiscible glycerol, and transformed to a dispersed flow of fine glycerol droplets. The problem of immiscibility of MeOH and vegetable oil leading to a mass-transfer resistance in the transesterification of vegetable oil (Kusdiana &
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Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil using Induction Heating Technology

Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil using Induction Heating Technology

Kerupuk and kemplang industries produce at least 65 liters of waste cooking oil per production. One of the applications of new and renewable energy can be done through the conversion of waste oilinto environmental friendly alternative fuel named biodiesel. The biodiesel production process can be conducted by various methods, such as utilizing induction heating technology. This technology has non-contact properties that do not interfere with the reactions that occur because of its application, which produces heat from the workpiece. This study uses waste cooking oil as raw material with variations in the molar ratios 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, and 1:7. The analysis showed that the maximum biodiesel production was used of a 1:7 molar ratio with 86.95% yield, 0.86 gr/cm 3 of density, 5.73 cSt of viscosity, 190 o C of flash point, and 0.44 mg-KOH/gr of acid number. The using this ratio produces maximum yield and following SNI.
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Acid-Catalyzed Esterification of Waste Cooking Oil with High FFA for Biodiesel Production

Acid-Catalyzed Esterification of Waste Cooking Oil with High FFA for Biodiesel Production

Peroxide value measures the content of hydro-peroxides in the oil and its low value indicates high resistance to oxidation. The value obtained for the WCO and biodiesel in this work were well within the limit stipulated for vegetable oils and biodiesel. This shows that the oil is not rancid and considered stable (Ajayi et al., 2002; Adepoju et al., 2013). The HHV determined for the WCO was 40.20 MJ/kg, this is within the range earlier reported for most vegetable oils (37.47 – 40.62 MJ/kg) by Demirbas, (1998). The rapid increases in the HHV noticed in conversion of WCO to biodiesel proved that the oil is not only good for biodiesel production, but can be suitably used as fuel in I.C. engine.
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Supercritical methanolysis of waste cooking oil for biodiesel synthesis: Experimental and simulation assessments

Supercritical methanolysis of waste cooking oil for biodiesel synthesis: Experimental and simulation assessments

4. Conclusions The conversion of triglycerides and FFAs through supercritical transesterification/esterification has been analysed in this study. The effects of the controllable variables and their interactive effects on the process responses have been investigated. Two quadratic polynomial models have been developed to represent the responses function in the process variables. Numerical optimisation has been implemented to predict the optimal process parameters. The optimum conditions have been reported at 25:1 M:O molar ratio, 265 o C temperature, 110 bar pressure and 18.5 min reaction time where 99.1% and 97.5% of overall conversions of triglycerides and FFAs have been achieved, respectively.
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Kinetic Study on Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil

Kinetic Study on Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil

minute for the 7:1 molar ratio did not match exactly with that of the model simulation. This may be due to the temperature fluctuation that took place during the reaction. It was also observed that with an increase in the molar ratio from 4:1 to 7;1, the extent of conversion increased from 46% to 89%. This result can be attributed to the higher cavitational intensity due to the presence of the higher quantity of methanol in the system. Staravache, et al. [19] have reported similar effects of using excess methanol leading to an enhanced number of cavitation events and hence enhanced conversion of vegetable oil by transesterification.
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Kinetic Study on Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil

Kinetic Study on Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil

minute for the 7:1 molar ratio did not match exactly with that of the model simulation. This may be due to the temperature fluctuation that took place during the reaction. It was also observed that with an increase in the molar ratio from 4:1 to 7;1, the extent of conversion increased from 46% to 89%. This result can be attributed to the higher cavitational intensity due to the presence of the higher quantity of methanol in the system. Staravache, et al. [19] have reported similar effects of using excess methanol leading to an enhanced number of cavitation events and hence enhanced conversion of vegetable oil by transesterification.
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Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using a stirred batch reactor

Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using a stirred batch reactor

For separating impurities and suspended particles, waste oil was passed through a fine strainer network. Water content in oil will cause production of soap and reduce the efficiency of the reaction and make subsequent steps of biodiesel production difficult such as phase separation. Also have a significant impact on the percent of reactant conversion and the quality of products, in some cases, the water will not lead to reaction progress. Undesirable effect of water is more noticeable at higher temperatures. Water can causes triglycerides hydrolysis into diglycerides and produce free fatty acids, and alkaline catalyst can cause the free fatty acids conversion to the soap.
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KINECT AND THERMOGRAVIMETRIC EVALUATION OF THE WASTE COOKING OIL BIODIESEL WITH BASIL OIL LIKE ANTIOXIDANT ADDITIVE

KINECT AND THERMOGRAVIMETRIC EVALUATION OF THE WASTE COOKING OIL BIODIESEL WITH BASIL OIL LIKE ANTIOXIDANT ADDITIVE

There are three generations of the biodiesel: the first generation corresponding to the biodiesel obtained by the transesterification of edible oils; the second generation corresponding to biodiesel obtained by the transesterification of non-edible oils. The third and latest generation, correspond to the biodiesel obtained by the processing of the microalgae [4]. Thus, the utilization of the waste cooking oil (WCO) like feedstock for the production of the biodiesel is a solution environmentally correct for the disposition of this residue, besides to offer a way for your reutilization. Countries like Japan, China and United State already adopt specific measures for the collecting of WCO, with structured logistics [5], it showing the possibility of the use of this resource for the production of the biodiesel in a large scale. The production potential for the biodiesel in the Mexico and the carbon dioxide emission associated to your use like a fuel are also reported in the literature, and suggestions of a WCO collecting politic to avoid the illegal commerce were given [6]. Despite the necessity of the pretreatment for the processing and a high concentration of the free fatty acid, the WCO can be considered a promising feedstock for the obtaining biodiesel [7]. For this, methods like the use of the immobilized enzyme [8], transesterification by the direct sonication [9] and conversion using ferric sulfate and supercritical methanol process [10] are reported, besides the transesterification conventional methods.
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Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

CONCLUSION Biodiesel is an effective alternative fuel for conventional diesel and can be directly used as fuel in a diesel engine without any modifications to the engine. It has many positives like high biodegradability, reduction in green house gas emissions , non-sulfur emissions , non-particulate matter pollutants, low toxicity, excellent lubricity and is obtained from renewable source like vegetable oils, animal fat etc. Transesterification is the most common method for biodiesel production. Waste cooking oil is a cost effective and promising feedstock . WCO with higher FFA content results is decrease in the overall yield. In this case, esterification is to be done before Transesterification .Homogeneous catalysts like NaOH and KOH are known for having less reaction time and moderate reaction conditions but oils with high FFA may result in soap formation which reduces the overall yield and the recovery if catalyst is difficult. Heterogeneous catalysts have better separation and better quality of product but they have extreme reaction conditions. For carrying Transesterification, batch reactors are preferred over continuous because of easy assemblage , maintenance, inexpensive and easy to design . Obtaining higher yield of product depends upon the quality of oil used. The parameters affecting the reaction were identified to be methanol to oil molar ratio, the catalyst used and its amount and the reaction temperature . The produced biodiesel mixed with proportions of petroleum diesel (B20 : 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel) showed significant reduction in CO,HC and smoke emissions .
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Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil

Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil

Keywords: energy, biodiesel, waste cooking oil, transesterification, free fatty acid (FFA) Abstrak (Indonesian) Peningkatan konsumsi energi dan menipisnya cadangan minyak bumi telah mendorong kenaikan harga minyak secara global. Cadangan minyak bumi yang semakin berkurang merupakan permasalahan yang melekat pada jenis energi fosil ini. Salah satu sumber energi alternatif yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan di Indonesia adalah biodiesel. Minyak jelantah atau minyak goreng bekas merupakan bahan baku yang potensial untuk biodiesel. Pada penelitian ini biodiesel dibuat dari minyak goreng bekas dan metanol dengan metode transesterifikasi menggunakan katalis KOH. Pembuatan biodiesel bekas dimulai dengan dengan mencampur bahan baku minyak goreng bekas yang dikumpulkan menjadi satu. Campuran kemudian diendapkan selama dua kali 24 jam. Proses transesterifikasi dilakukan dengan mencampurkan KOH (1 % dari bobot minyak) dan metanol (ratio metanol : minyak 6:1) pada temperatur 65 C. Setelah suhu tercapai, metanol dan KOH ditambahkan secara perlahan sambil dilakukan pemompaan (pengadukan), dengan variasi waktu 30, 45, 60,75 dan 90 menit. Pemurnian dilakukan dengan pencucian menggunakan air panas (suhu 70 C) sebanyak dua kali pencucian. Karakteristik biodiesel berdasarkan kondisi terbaik untuk density 0,886 g/mL, viscosity 5,89 cSt, FFA 0,11 % , acid value 0,256 mgKOH/g dan flash point 170,52 0 C. Produk biodiesel yang dihasilkan berdasarkan parameter tersebut memenuhi standar SNI 7182-2015.
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